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The ensuing memoir was composed at the request of the 

Committee of the Baptist Missionary Society. The subject of 

it was their first and principal agent, by whose instrumentality 

they sought to confer the blessings of the gospel upon the 

heathen world. To perpetuate some memorial of his character 

and labours, appeared a just tribute of their esteem for him ; 

• ■ ' *■■'.■ 
whilst it offered a suitable occasion for renewing the recollection 

of those events and incidents which marked the origin and 

early progress of the institution whose affiiirs they administer. 

The office of biographer was devolved upon me, it is presumed, 

from my relationship to Dr. Carey, "^and from my supposed 

intimate conversancy with the history of their Eastern Mission. 

I have endeavoured^ throughout the work, to exhibit the 
christian and the missionary, rather than the philosopher and 
the scholar. The materials to which I had access were more 
applicable to this purpose ; and it appeared, also, that a work 
so prepared, would be more accordant with the purposes of 
such a Society. 

Dr. Carey has been made, as much as possible, his own 
biographer. I might have taken the original documents, and 
have woven them into a tissue of my own ; but, instead of tran- 


scribing naked details, and references, personal and incidental, 
have invested them with a style more brief, general, and covert. 
But I conceive that the design of such a work is to describe cha- 
racter, and to commemorate labours. To do the former, it is re- 
quisite not only to point out its leading constituent elements, but 
also to mark well the external providential discipline under 
which they have been consolidated, wrought up, and moulded to 
their ultimate consistence and perfection. And to appreciate the 
labours of an individual, we must not only know their nature 
and their magnitude, but the peculiar trials under which they 
are commenced and prosecuted. 

All that I can desire is, that the volume may commend 
itself to the candid and christian reader, as a whole, without 
presuming that each part, in detail, will command his approval. 
And if, when such exceptions are taken, and such deductions 
made, as those to which I am conscious it may be thought 
liable, it be found of any religious utility, my labour will be 
well compensated. 

E. C. 

Camberwell, May 14M, 1836. 




His own Account of his Early Life— Memorial from his Sister— Brief 
Notice from his Brother — Recollection from Mr. Scott 1 


Editorial Remarks — Various circumstances connected with the Formation 
of the Baptist Missionary Society — Fragment of Memoir, &c., from the 
hand of Mr. Fuller 44 



Review of Difficulties attending the commencement of the Baptist Mission 
— Rgection of the Missionaries from the Earl of Oxford, and the con- 
sternation it occasioned — The revival of their hopes, and their re-em- 
barkation under circumstances more propitious 79 


Brief account of the voyage, by Mr. Thomas — Remarks by the Editor — 
Selections from Mr. Carey's Journal — Retrospect by Mr. Carey, in a 
Letter to the Society — Letter to his Sisters 98 



The unusually trying circumstances of Mr. Carey while in the neighbour- 
jbood of Calcutta — Letter to Mr. SutcUffe — His removal into the Sunder- 
bunds — The timely hospitalities he receives — Subsequent dejection and 
perplexitiet — He is relieved and comforted by an invitation to Malda . 126 


Mr. Thomas's account of his visit to Malda— Invitation of himself and Mr. 
Carey to remove thither — Mr. Carey's Journal continued — Account of 
Demoniacs — Journey to Malda, Arrival, &c 155 



Improvement in Mr. Carey's secular circumstances — Commences his en- 
gagements — Proposes to relinquish his support from the Society — Letter 
to Mr. Sutcliff 181 


Journal — Christian Society — Languages, &c 196 


Letter to his Sisters — Letter to the Society — Letter to Mr. Pearce— Brief 
notice respecting him — Letter to his Sisters — Letter to the Society — 
Remarks on Secular Employments — Mission to Africa referred to — 
Letter from Mr. Thomas 230 


Letters to Mr. Fuller — Female agency — Letter to Mr. Sutcliffe— Letter 
from Mr. Fountain to Mr. Fuller — Letter from the same to the Society — 
Letter from the same to Mr. Smith, of Eagle-street, London — Letters 
from Mr. Carey to his Sisters— Letter to Mr. FuUer *264 




Letter to Mr. Fuller — Journey into Bootan — Letter to Mr. Fuller — Aspect 
of the Mission, conversation with a firahmun — Discouragements — 
Description of Fruits, &c. — Letter to Mr. Sutcliff— Letter to Uie Baptist 
Missionary Society— Another to the Society — Letter to Mr. Fuller — 
The arrival of new Missionaries 296 



Remarks on the state of the Mission preparatory to its removal to Seram- 
pore — Letters from Mr. Cunninghame — Newly arrived Missionaries — 
Letter from Mr. Fountain — Letters from Mr. Brunsdon 548 


Letter to Mr. Fuller — Letters to his Sisters— Letter to Dr. Ryland— Mr. 
Carey and Brethren to the Society — Letter from Mr. Carey and Mr. 
Fuller S7!^ 



Letters from the Missionaries to the Society — Remarks on the Progress of 
the English Language — Letter from Mr. Carey to Mr. Fuller — Letters 
to Mr. Sutcliff— Affliction of Mr. Thomas — Letter to Dr. Ryland . . 397 


Various circumstances, in Letters to his Sisters— To Mr. Fuller and Mr. 
Sutcliff — Baptismal Controversy — Advancement of the work among tlie 
Heathen — Allusion to Sunscrit oration — Remarks on Native labourers — 
Opposition from Government 45^ 


Dr. Carey's affliction — His reflections upon the advancement of the Mis- 
sion — A crucified person rescued by his Son, Mr. Felix Carey — The 
work in Calcutta— Cannibalism in Sumatra — ^The importance of his 
labours to succeeding Missionaries — Destruction of the Printing-office 
by fire — Sympathy of other Christians — His pressing engagement*^ 
Death of Mr. Fuller — The manner in which Translations are prepared 
— His anxiety and advice as to the friture conducting of the Mission . biYi 


Formation of the Agricultural Society in India— Death of Mrs. Carey — 
Pleasing notice of religious and other improvement in India and 
throughout the world — Recollection of his religious and ministerial as- 
sociations in England — Is appointed Translator of Government Regula- 
tions — Death of Mr. Ward — Election to the London Linnaean, Geolo- 
gical, and Horticultural Societies — Account of his accident and severe 
lUnees — Death of his son Felix — Death of Dr. Ryland : .)4'2 


Dr. Carey's declining health and decease — His last WiU — Resolution of 
the Committee of the Baptist Missionary Society — Notice of life and 
last illness, by Mr. Jonathan Carey — Critique upon the literaiy charac- 
ter and productions of Dr. Carey, oy Professor Wilson — General review, 
with reflections •><J3 







It seems due alike to the social as to the religious 
interests of our nature, gratefully to commemorate, 
and diligently to ponder, the lives of men, who, with 
more than ordinary intensity and success, have con- 
secrated themselves to the welfare of their species. A 
just exposition of those principles which have mainly 
governed them, and a faithful' record of their develop- 
ments, by quickening the zeal of other minds, may 
multiply their influences far beyond the sphere in 
which they were first exerted, and prolong their effects 
to succeeding ages. When christian virtues are 
offered to our view in living exemplifications, and in 
striking prominence, amidst impediments such as beset 
ourselves, we are at once reproved for our supineness, 
and incited to imitation.' God himself has conde- 
scended to instruct us through this medium ; as much, 



perhaps, as by prescriptive rule. The principal and 
immutable law of our salvation was illustrated, in the 
very infancy of the world, by the creation of a bright 
exemplar of it in the case of Abraham. Thus, too, 


our blessed Saviour, whilst, by his vicarious suffer- 
ings, he laid the foundation of our recovery, and paid 
the price of our ransom, by his holiness and his love 
he brightly irradiated those essential morals in which 
the beauty and perfection of evangelical obedience 
consist. Christians are exhorted to be imitators of 
God, as dear children ; and, as they conform to their 
fair original, they are fitted to exert a meliorating and 
transforming influence upon each other and upon the 

Faithful religious biography is a department of 
christian literature of acknowledged importance ; and 
of this, no variety meets with more general acceptance 
among pious readers, or is of greater practical utility, 
than that which has been furnished of late years by 
the annals of christian missions. The life of Henry 
Martyn, in which the tenderness, simplicity, and 
glowing fervour of christian love are so eminently 
conspicuous; and that of John Chamberlain, whose de* 
votedness to God has seldom been surpassed in modem 
times; who displayed a seraphic fervour, combined, as 
it was, with a peasant-like plainness, unabated through 
all the painful details of missionary labour for twenty 
years in succession; well deserve the diligent perusal 
of persons of every religious persuasion, and to become 
the daily manuals of all those who design to assay 
their principles in a similar enterprise. 


The subject of the ensuing memoir has been long 
before the public; and his literary and religious 
labours have been referred to with frequent and lofty 
eulogy. Yet, a full and consistent view of his 
character and his engagements, such as cannot be 
collected from the occasional panegyrics of indivi- 
duals, or from the documents of official bodies, may 
prove agreeable to many, to whom no other medium 
of information has hitherto been open, and not 
unacceptable to any class of persons who take an 
interest in the advancement of saving truth in the 
world. Much of the matter incorporated in this 
volume is from Dr. Carey's own hand ; whilst other 
portions are supplied from sources which, it is pre- 
sumed, cannot fail of being highly gratifying to the 
reader. The compiler trusts, also, that this circum- 
stance may be allowed to exonerate him from the 
ehai^ of temerity in undertaking to prepare this 
work for the public. 

Dr. Carey had his own views upon the subject of 
biographical composition, and expressed to me, 
during my early residence in India, his wishes 
with respect to any record of himself. These are 
likely to be best complied with by allowing him as 
much as possible to retrace the steps of his own his* 
toiy, and to delineate his own character. The first 
document presented to the reader, addressed to Mr. 
Fuller, at his request, is one in wliich he narrates the 
circumstances and events of his early life, up to the 
period of his entrance on the ministry, and his suc- 
ceeding to a pastoral charge. While it cannot but 

B 2 


interest, as describing the early condition and the 
mental predicament of a person destined to become of 
such ultimate service to the church of God and to 
mankind, and as faithfully recording the incipient 
movements of that Providence, which, from means and 
instruments of little original promise, completes the 
grandest issues ; it yet possesses a much higher value 
as it incidentally pourtrays the moral features of his 
character. So that, from this brief sketch with which 
he has favoured the world, more may be known of 
Dr. Carey than a volume could furnish coming from 
the hand of another. The unvarnished plainness of 
this narration, and the deep compunction with which 
he adverts to the imperfections he supposed to attach 
to him through life, will commend themselves to the 
judgment of all those who prefer truth to fable; a 
picture, the just similitude of the subject for which it 
stands, to any finished compound of reality and 
fiction, which, when detected, never fails to shock and 
deeply to impair the moral feeling. There is no 
blinking of the former obscurity of his condition 
from a morbid apprehension of disparaging his after 
celebrity ; nor is there any such minute detailing of 
unimportant circumstances as might gratify the 
curious, without answering any valuable purpose ; and 
which, under the guise of humility, would subtilly 
derive to him additional lustre, from the contrast it 
would exhibit to the eminence he subsequently at- 
tained. He had too much real dignity to permit 
himself to feel that sensitiveness which would 
expose him to the former infirmity; whilst a genuine 


christian simplicity, and an almost intuitive sense of 
moral propriety, rendered him abhorrent of the latter. 
During the first part of my residence in India my 
intercourse with him was unrestrained and intimate. 
I was the only surviving son of his only brother. At 
this time there was no circumstance of personal or 
relative interest that did not pass under tender and 
lively review. The events of his early days he related 
with as much freshness as though they had occurred 
but yesterday: and then, when he referred to the 
graver incidents and pursuits of advancing life, he did 
so with the candour and seriousness becoming the man 
and the christian. He has said to me, * Eustace, 
as to the circumstances of my former life, I recur to 
tliem with humility and thankfulness. They were the 
allotment of Providence, and no doubt subserved a 
good purpose. I would not make them matter of 
parade, as though they were to be gloried in. If I am 
not esteemed the less for them, that is all I can desire. 
I have known the time when I wanted the necessaries 
of life^ but I do not recollect ever to have murmured. 
I now have every thing in abundance, and I enjoy 
what God has given me. I think I can say, * I 
know both how to be abased, and I know how to 
abound; I am instructed, both to be full and to be 
hungry, both to abound and to sufier need.' ' 

Upon one occasion, he expressed to me his utter 
want of sympathy with some Christian friends in 
England, wliose intense curiosity in little things led 
them to search out and exhibit sundry relics of his 
early days, as the 'board' which was. said to adver- 


tize his business, and the crockery out of which he 
drank when at Hackleton. All exaggerated state- 
ments, moreover, of his acquirements or his labours, 
were unwelcome and offensive. When one of his 
brethren referred to the terms of commendation in 
which Mr. Wilberforce mentioned him in the House 
of Commons during the debate upon the renewal of 
the Company's charter in 1813, he replied, *I wish 
people would let me die before they praise me/ 

'August 14M, 1804. 
'My dear brother, 

* You have desired me to write you an account of 
the principal occurrences in my life. I will try to do 
it; but it is accompanied with as strict an injunction 
as I can give, that it may not be published as mine so 
long as I live. Of course if any part of it be inserted 
in any magazine, it ought to be so altered that places 
and persons may not be recognized. Having laid 
this injunction upon you as a christian brother, by 
me very dearly beloved, I give you the following par- 

*0f my family I know nothing more than that my 
grandfather, who I have heard was bom at Yelvertoft, 
was master of the school which my father now super- 
intends. He died while my father was very young, 
and left two sons; Peter, who was a gardener, and 
Edmund, my father, who was put apprentice to a 
weaver, which business he followed till I was about 
six years of age, when he was nominated master of 
the small free-school in which his father died. 


*I was bom in the village of Paulerspury, in 
Northamptonshire, August 17, 1761. My education 
was that which is generally esteemed good in country 
villages, and my father being schoolmaster, I had some 
advantages which other children of my age had not.^ 
In the first fourteen years of my life I had many ad- 
vantages of a religious nature, but was wholly unac- 
quainted with the scheme of salvation by Christ. 
During this time I had many stirrings of mind occa- 
sioned by my being often obliged to read books of a 
religious character; and having been accustomed 
from my infancy to read the Scriptures, I had a con- 
siderable acquaintance therewith, especially with the 
historical parts. I also have no doubt but the con- 
stant reading of the Psalms, Lessons, &c., in the 
parish church, which I was obliged to attend regu- 
larly, tended to furnish my mind with a general 
scripture knowledge. 

* Of real experimental religion I scarcely heard any 
thing till I was fourteen years of age; nor was the 
formal attendance upon outward ceremonies, to which 
I was compelled, the matter of my choice. I chose to 
read books of science, history, voyages, &c., more 
than any others. Novels and plays always disgusted 
me, and I avoided them as much as I did books of 
religion, and perhaps from the same motive. I was 
better pleased with romances; and this circumstance 
made me read Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress with 
eagerness, though to no purpose. 

* His father, Mr. Edmund Carey, in a letter to Mr. Thomas BlundeU, dated 
Paulerspury, August 9, 1815, says, that 'he was always attentiv^e to learning 
when a boy, and was a rery good arithmetician.* 


*My companions were at this time such as could 
only serve to debase the mind, and lead me into the 
depths of that gross conduct which prevails among 
the lower classes in the most neglected villages : so 
that I had sunk into the most awful profligacy of 
conduct. I was addicted to swearing, lying, and un- 
chaste conversation; which was heightened by the 
company of ringers, psalm-singers, foot-ball players, 
the society of a blacksmith's shop, &c., &c.: and 
though my father laid the strictest injunctions on me 
to avoid such company, I always found some way to 
elude his care. 

* A very painful disease paved the way for my being 
brought under the gospel sound. From about seven 
years of age, I was afflicted with a very painful 
cutaneous disease, which, though it scarce ever ap- 
peared in the form of eruption, yet made the sun's 
rays insupportable to me. This unfitted me for 
earning my living by labour in the field, or elsewhere 
out of doors. My parents were poor, and unable to 
do much for me; but being much affected with my 
situation, they with great difficulty put me apprentice 
to a shoemaker at Hackleton.' 

His account to Dr. Ryland is a little more explicit, 
and discredits the report, somewhat current in North- 
amptonshire, that he was a very incompetent workman. 

*At about fourteen years of age I was bound ap- 
prentice to Clarke Nichols, of Hackleton, a shoe- 
maker. He died when I had been with him about 


two years. I engaged to pay his widow a certain 
sum for the remainder of the time for which I was 
bound, and from that time worked as a journeyman 
with Mr. T. Old, of Hackleton, till his death. The 
childish story of my shortening a shoe to make it 
longer is entitled to no credit, though it would be 
very silly in me to pretend to recollect all the shoes I 
made. I was accounted a very good workman, and 
recollect Mr. Old keeping a pair of shoes which I had 
made in his shop, as a model of good workmanship. 
But the best workmen sometimes, from various causes, 
put bad work out of their hands, and I have no doubt 
but I did so too. 

* My master was a strict churchman, and, what I 
thought, a very moral man. It is true he sometimes 
drank rather too freely, and generally employed me 
in carrying out goods on the I-.ord's-day morning till 
near church time ; but he was an inveterate enemy to 
lying, a vice to which I was awfully addicted: he also 
possessed the qualification of commenting upon a fault 
till I could scarcely endure his reflections, and some- 
times actually transgressed the bounds of propriety. 
A fellow-servant was the son of a dissenter; and 
though not at that time under religious impressions, 
yet frequently engaged with me in disputes upon 
religious subjects, in which my master frequently 
joined. I was a churchman; had read Jeremy 
Taylor's Sermons, Spinker's Sick Man Visited, and 
other books ; and had always looked upon dissenters 
with contempt. I had, moreover, a share of pride 
sufficient for a thousand times my knowledge: I 


therefore always scorned to have the worst in an 
argument, and the last word was assuredly mine. I 
also made up in positive assertion what was wanting 
in argument, and generally came off with triumph. 
But I was often convinced afterwards that, though I 
had the last word, my antagonist had the better of the 
argument, and on that account felt a growing uneasi- 
ness, and stings of conscience gradually increasing. 
The frequent comments of my master upon certain 
parts of my conduct, and other such causes, increased 
my uneasiness. I wanted something, but had no idea 
that nothing but an entire change of heart could do 
me good. 

* There was a place of worship and a small body of 
dissenters in the village ; but I never attended it, and 
thought myself to have enmity enough in my heart to 
destroy it. As my uneasiness incrcEised, my fellow- 
servant, who was about this time brought under 
serious concern for his soul, became more importu- 
nate with me. I was famished by him now and then 
with a religious book, and my opinions insensibly 
underwent a change, so that I relished evangelical 
sentiments more and more, and my inward uneasiness 

* Under these circumstances I resolved to attend 
regularly three churches in the day, and go to a 
prayer-meeting at the dissenting place of worship in 
the evening, not doubting but this would produce ease 
of mind, and make me acceptable to Grod. I also 
resolved to leave off lying, swearing, and other sins 
to which I was addicted, and sometimes when alone I 


tried to pray ; but was at present unacquainted with 
the wickedness of my heart, and the necessity of a 

*A circumstance, which I always reflect on with a 
mixture of horror and gratitude, occurred about this 
time, which, though greatly to my dishonour, I must 
relate. It being customary in that part of the 
country for apprentices to collect christmas-boxes 
from the tradesmen with whom their masters have 
dealings, I was permitted to collect these little sums. 
When I applied to an ironmonger, he gave me the 
choice of a shilling or a sixpence : I of course chose 
the shilling, and, putting it into my pocket, went 
away. When I had got a few shillings, my next care 
was to purchase some little articles for myself; I 
have forgotten what. But then, to my sorrow, I 
found that my shilling was a brass one. I paid 
for the things which I bought by using a shilling 
of my master's. I now found that I had exceeded 
my stock by a few pence. I expected severe re- 
proaches from my master, and therefore came to the 
resolution to declare strenuously that the bad money 
was his. I well remember the struggles of mind 
which I had on this occasion, and that I made this 
deliberate sin a matter of prayer to God as I passed 
over the fields home. I there promised, that if God 
would but get me clearly over this, or, in other words, 
help me through with the theft, I would certainly for 
the future leave off all evil practices; but this theft 
and consequent lying appeared to me so necessary, 
that they could not be dispensed with. • 


* A gracious God did not get me safe through. My 
master sent the other apprentice to investigate the 
matter. The ironmonger acknowledged the giving 
me the shilling, and I was therefore exposed to 
shame, reproach, and inward remorse, which in- 
creased and preyed upon my mind for a considerable 
time. I at this time sought the Lord perhaps much 
more earnestly than ever, but with shame and fear. 
I was quite ashamed to go out ; and never till I was 
assured that my conduct was not spread over the 
town did I attend a place of worship. 

' I trust that under these circumstances I was led to 
see much more of myself than I had ever done before, 
and to seek for mercy with greater earnestness. I 
attended prayer-meetings only, however, till February 
10, 1779, which being appointed a day of fasting and 
prayer, I attended worship on the day. Mr. Chater, 
of Olney, preached, but from what text I have for- 
gotten. He insisted much on the necessity of 
follo\iang Christ entirely; and enforced his exhorta- 
tion with that passage, Heb. xiii.: *Let us therefore go 
out unto him without the camp, bearing his reproach.' 
I think I had a desire to follow Christ; but an idea 
occurred to my mind upon hearing those words which 
broke me off from the church of England. The 
idea was certainly very crude, but useful in bringing 
me from attending a lifeless, carnal ministry, to one 
more evangelical. I concluded that the church of 
England, as established by law, was the camp in 
which all were protected from the scandal of the 
cross, and that I ought to bear the reproach of Christ 


among the dissenters; and accordingly I always 
afterwards attended divine worship among them. 

*In a village near that in which I lived were a 
number of people who had drank deeply into the 
opinions of Law, and other mystics. I had heard of 
these people, but knew none of them. After some 
time, and after, by reading some few books, I had 
formed to myself what I thought a consistent creed, 
one of these persons, the clerk of that parish, sent me 
word that he wished to have some conversation with 
me upon religious subjects. I had been informed 
that he was a great disputant, and violent in his 
temper; but I at that time thought every thing in the 
gospel system, as I had received it, so clear, that I 
had no hesitation about meeting him ; I had also a 
stock of vanity which, though then unperceived, 
prompted me to dispute with any one who would dis- 
pute with me. I therefore promised to meet him. 
At the appointed time a heavy rain prevented our 
meeting; but this only made me the more anxious to 
embrace another opportunity, which soon occurred. 
In about six hours' warm dispute upon various sub- 
jects, in which he frequently addressed me with tears 
in his eyes, in a manner to which I had been unac- 
customed, and controverted all my received opinions, 
which I still think were in the main the doctrines of 
the gospel, I was affected in a manner which to me 
was new. He proved to my conviction that my 
conduct was not such as became the gospel, and I felt 
ruined and helpless. I could neither believe his 
system of doctrines nor defend my own. The conver- 


sation filled me with anxiety; and when I was alone 
this anxiety increased. I was by these means, I trust, 
brought to depend on a crucified Saviour for pardon 
and salvation ; and to seek a system of doctrines in 
the word of God. This man and I frequently met, 
and he generally left with me some of Law's writings, 
or something in that strain. I have always thought 
that this man was really possessed of divine grace, 
and still think so. 

* Some old christians in the village where I lived 
had frequently taken me by the hand, and communi- 
cated their own experience and feelings to me, which 
had much encouraged me. But after I had con- 
versed with this man once or twice, and they knew 
that I read books which he lent me, all began to 
suspect that I leaned to erroneous opinions, and for a 
long time said but little to me. 

*The minister whose preaching I attended (Mr. 
Liick) was but ill qualified to relieve my spirit, or to 
clear up my doubts : I therefore sometimes attended 
at Northampton; sometimes on Mr. Deacon, at 
Road ; and sometimes on Mr. Scott, at Ravenstone ; 
but was always in an inquisitive and unsatisfied state. 
During this time the people at Hackleton formed 
themselves into a church, and I was one of the mem- 
bers who joined it at that time; but I never was 
witness to the ordinances being administered there, 
except the sprinkling of an infant by Mr. Horsey, of 
Northampton, might be so called. About the time of 
that church being formed there was a considerable 
awakening, and prayer-meetings were more than ordi- 


narily attended. A sort of conference was also begun^ 
and I was sometimes invited to speak my thoughts on 
a passage of scripture, which the people, being igno- 
rant, sometimes applauded, to my great injury. 

* When I had been apprenticed about two years my 
master died. This involved me in some pecuniary 
difficulties, as I purchased the remainder of my time, 
and was also obliged to work for lower wages than 
usual, on account of my imperfect knowledge of the 
business. This occasioned me to labour very hard, 
and kept me very poor. Some circumstances relating 
to my temporal concerns are so impressed on my 
mind, and the spiritual experience they gave rise to 
so imprinted on my sdul, that I can never long lose 
sight of them: they produce in me a mixture of 
trembling and thankfulness. I thought these seasons 
very painful then; but it was better with me than it 
is now. 

'One circumstance I may mention, because it was 
the introduction to others which I must not pass over. 
Not having the circular letter to refer to, I cannot say 
in what year it was, but you will recollect. At the 
Association at Olney, when Mr. Gruy preached from 
*Gtow in grace,' &c., and you in the evening, the 
very first time that I heard you, from *Be not 
children in imderstanding ;' I, not possessed of a 
penny, that I recollect, went to Olney. I fasted all 
day because I could not purchase a dinner; but 
towards evening, Mr. Chater, in company with some 
friends from Earl's Barton saw me, and asked me to 
go with them, where I remember I got a glass of 


wine. These people liad been supplied once a fort- 
night by Messrs. Perry, Chater, and Raban, in rota- 
tion. Mr. C. advised them to ask me to preach to 
them; in consequence of which, about a fortnight 
afterwards, three persons came to ask me to preach at 
Barton. I cannot tell why I complied, but believe it 
was because I had not a sufficient degree of confi- 
dence to refuse: this has occasioned me to comply 
with many things which I would have been gladly 
excused from. I went to Barton; and the friends 
asked me to go again. Having thus begun, I con* 
tinned to go to that place for three years and a half. 
I generally went on the Lord's-day morning, and 
returned at night, as the distance was but about six 
miles* Soon after this was known, the few people at 
Paulerspury, my native village, asked me to preach 
to them once a month. This was ten miles; but as I 
had the pleasure of seeing my parents, I went. On 
this occasion I frequently went to Towcester in the 
day, to attend Mr. Ready, and afterwards Mr. 
Skinner, who often gave me much encouragement, 
and sometimes asked me to preach for him. 

*I had remained in the state of uncertainty and 
anxiety about gospel doctrines already mentioned, 
till this time ; and having so slight an acquaintance 
with ministers, I was obliged to draw all from the 
bible alone. Mr. Skinner one day made me a 
present of Mr. Hall's * Help to Zion's Travellers ; in 
which I found all that arranged and illustrated which 

* The father of the celebrated Robert Hall. 


I had been so long picking up by scraps. I do not 
remember ever to have read any book with such rap- 
tures as I did that. If it was poison, as some then 
said, it was so sweet to me that I drank it greedily to 
the bottom of the cup; and I rejoice to say, that those 
doctrines are the choice of my heart to this day. 

*A sermon preached by Mr. Horsey, of North- 
ampton, at the rhantism of an infant, and some con- 
versation with Mr. Hunne, then on probation at Road, 
had drawn my mind to the subject of baptism; but I 
do not recollect having read any thing on the subject 
till I applied to Mr. Ryland, sen., to baptize me: he 
lent me a pamphlet, and turned me over to his son, 
who after some time baptized me at Northampton. 

'The people at Barton had a great wish to embody 
themselves as a church, and wished me to settle with 
them ; and Mr. Sutcliff was invited to give them his 
advice, and preach a sermon on the occasion. I staid 
to hear him; and he then discoursed with me very 
affectionately upon the propriety of joining some 
respectable church, and being appointed to the 
ministry in a more regular way. I saw the propriety 
of what he said ; but having no acquaintance with any 
church in particular, I at last concluded to offer 
myself to that at Olney. This I did, and was re- 
ceived ; and, what I still wonder at, was appointed to 
the ministry. I perfectly recollect that the sermon 
which I preached before the church, and on hearing 
of which they sent me out, was as weak and crude as 
any thing could be, which is or has been called a 


* Soon after this a number of circumstances, which 
it would be tiresome to read, and which may be better 
known on the spot, removed me to Moulton. From 
that time I became more known to the ministers, so 
that any further enlargement is unnecessary. The 
causes of my removal from that place to Leicester, 
and from that place to India, are known to you. I 
may only observe, that reading Cook's voyages was 
the first thing that engaged my mind to think of 

' A few reflections on the above shall conclude this 

* 1. It is still to me a matter of thankfulness that I 
had so general a knowledge of the bible when I was a 
child. By that means my mind was furnished with 
a body of subjects, which, after I had more ac- 
quaintance with evangelical truth, were ready upon 
every occasion, and were often influential upon my 
heart when I had but little leisure to read. To this 
the constant reading of parts of scripture in the 
church contributed not a little, and, perhaps, the 
reading of the bible when at school still more. 

*2. If I am a converted person, of which I have 
great reason to doubt, I must say that it is entirely 
by the grace of God, and in full opposition to the 
natural bias of my mind. I practised falsehood, and, 
even after I was under concern, attempted to make 
the great God a party in a scene of dishonesty and 
lying. Yet I have reason to believe that the 
greatest change which ever took place in me 
was about that time — a time in which I had 


evidently gone to a greater length in sin than ever 

^3. I am convinced that some sins have always at- 
tended me, as if they made a part of my constitution : 
among these I reckon pride, or rather vanity — an evil 
which I have detected frequently, but have never 
been free from to this day. Indolence in divine 
things is constitutional : few people can think what 
necessity I am constantly under of summoning all my 
resolution to engage in any thing which God has 
commanded. This makes me peculiarly unfit for the 
ministry; and much more so for the ofiice of a mis* 
sionary. I now doubt seriously, whether persons of 
such a constitution should be engaged in the chris- 
tian ministry. This, and what I am going to men- 
tion, fill me with continued guilt. A want of cha- 
racter and firmness has always predominated in me. 
I have not resolution enough to reprove sin, to intro- 
duce serious and evangelical conversation in carnal 
company, especially among the great, to whom I have 
sometimes access. I sometimes labour with myself 
long, and at last cannot prevail sufficiently to break 
silence; or, if I introduce a subject, want resolution 
to keep it up, if the company do not show a readiness 

*4. The proofs I have of the evil tendency of my 
heart, and my frequent and often reiterated falls into 
sin, convince me that I need the constant influence of 
the Holy Spirit; and that, if God did not continue 
his loving-kindness to me, I should as certainly de- 
part from Him, and become an open profligate, as I 

c 2 


exist. I see that there is no temptation but would be 
sufficient to destroy me, if God did not interfere; and 
that I as much need pardon, and divine influence to 
support me, and maintain the work in my heart, as I 
formerly did to convert me. If I ever get to heaven, 
it must be owing to divine grace, from first to last. 

* I have now only to desire of you that the above 
may not be published; though I have no objection to 
your publishing any parts thereof, provided you so 
conceal names and other allusions, as that it may 
never be known that it is an account of me. Every 
publication of this kind, if the author be known, 
makes him more public ; and, as it is very uncertain 
whether 1 shall not dishonour the gospel before I die, 
so as to bring a public scandal thereupon, the less is 
said about me the better.' 

It may occur to some who read these pages, that so 
bare and rugged a representation of his juvenile con- 
duct should either have been spared from the record, 
or accompanied with some qualifying statements. 
Had it been so, I am aware it would have rendered it 
less revolting to the taste of many, and have gratified 
the feelings of some whom I affectionately esteem, 
and to whose judgment I could have wished to defer. 
But, in committing this document to the press, I nei- 
ther felt at liberty to withhold any part of it, nor so 
to remodel and disguise it, as that, though it might 
have accorded better with general taste, and the fre- 
quent usage of biographical writing, would yet de- 
stroy its identity. More harm is often done in morals 


by that squeamish sensibility, felt or feared, which 
leads to the exhibition of vice under thin and flimsy 
veils, than is likely to follow from showing it forth in 
its coarse and naked deformity. Both painters and 
biographers should pourtray and describe faithfully, 
or resign their office. But they are sometimes pain- 
fully anxious to make their subject and their hero 
perfect. We wish a career to be brilliant throughout, 
first and last, a character altogether consistent and 
homogeneous; and are impatient of anomalies and 
incongruities, which yet are incessantly occurring in 
the intellectual and moral world. Hence, the deli- 
cacy with which any adverse disposition, or militant 
principle, will be touched ; and the pains sometimes 
taken to invest a positive delinquency with something 
of a romantic air, beguiling the unwary heart of the 
careless reader into a partial tolerance of evil, because 
it happens to be in association with one destined to 
ultimate distinction. Hence, too, the singular avidity 
with which every thing is seized up and reported 
upon, which may seem to be a scintillation from a 
promising intelligence; though perhaps the question 
asked, or the sentence uttered, may possess but little 
not to be met with in the sayings of ten thousand 
others. It is readily conceded that, if the literal faith- 
fulness which Mr. Carey has observed in describing 
his early character and youthful conduct, were to be 
an indispensable law to all who undertake a similar 
office for themselves, there would be found but one 
here and there, who would consent to * write memoirs 
of himself.' 


The following account of him* is from an endeared 
sister, who yet survives him. I am not aware that 
much will be found in the composition requiring 
apology. But were it otherwise, the benevolent 
reader would readily find it when informed of her 
singularly afflicted condition. She has been confined 
to her chamber, without the exception of a day, for 
these forty years : nearly the whole of that period she 
has been speechless, and the hand with which she 
writes is the only limb she can use. 

* You wished me to give you some account of my 
brother William's childhood and youth. I shall 
gladly comply with your request, though I do not 
know that I can recollect any thing that will be in- 
teresting to you or the public ; and perhaps my bro- 
ther might be hurt to see any account respecting 
himself made public while he lives. However, I will 
try to comply with your request, and leave it to your 
prudence to make what use of it you please. 

*My brother was bom August 17, 1761, at Pau- 
lerspury, a village in Northamptonshire. His parents, 
Edmund and Elizabeth Carey, had five children, 
William, Ann, Mary, Thomas, and Elizabeth. Eliza- 
beth died in infancy. Our grandfather, Mr. Peter 
Carey, kept a free-school in the same place. I believe 
the free-school was built for him, with some money 
that was found and appropriated to that use: the 
house was afterwards built for him. He had like- 

• Addressed to Mr. Dyer. 


wise five children, William, Peter, Edmund, Thomas, 
and Ann : the two last died in childhood. William, 
the eldest, was a young man of very promising abili- 
ties, settled in a school at Towcester, a -small market- 
town about three miles from Pury. His prospects 
appeared flattering; but when about twenty-one or 
twenty-two, he was cut off by death, after a few days* 
illness. Thus were the fond hopes of his indulgent 
parents blasted. This stroke had such an effect on 
his &ther, that he never got over it; and, in about a 
fortnight after, he was removed by death also. By 
these strokes his wife, a woman of remarkable tender- 
ness, and of a very delicate constitution, was deprived 
of her son and her husband, and soon after her home, 
as she had no child then capable of supplying the 
father's place. Her second son, Peter, at that time 
quite a youth, was gone out of the land with a neigh- 
bouring gentleman ; and, at that time, I believe his 
mother was uncertain whether he was in the land of 
the living. My father was only seven years old at 
the time of his father's death. He was afterwards 
put apprentice by his mother in the same village; and 
I have often heard him speak of the pleasure he took 
in spending his leisure hours in attention to his 
mother. She was a person of a very delicate habit of 
body; but her calm and even disposition, and, I hope, 
her patient resignation to the divine will, enabled 
her to bear up under all her troubles with christian 
fortitude. After her son's marriage she lived with 
him till some time after the birth of his two first 
children, whom she called William and Ann, after 


her own. Thus, like Naomi, she nursed them in her 
own bosom, and seemed to think the Lord had dealt 
bountifully with her in her captivity. I have often 
heard my mother mention her with great tenderness. 
Had she been spared a little longer, she might have 
been restored to her former home again. The per- 
son that occupied the school after the death of her 
husband, was suddenly removed by death. My 
father was then judged a proper person to succeed 
him ; which he did, when his son William was in his 
sixth year. At that early period he discovered a 
great aptness for learning. I have often heard my 
mother speak of one circumstance she had remarked 
with pleasure in him, even before he was six years 
old. She has heard him in the night, when the 
family were asleep, casting accompts ; so intent was 
he from childhood in the pursuit of knowledge. 
Whatever he began he finished: difficulties never 
seemed to discourage his mind; and, as he grew up, 
his thirst for knowledge still increased. The room 
that was wholly appropriated to his use was full of 
insects, stuck in every comer, that he might observe 
their progress. Drawing and painting he was very 
fond of, and made considerable progress in those arts, 
all acquired by himself. Birds, and all manner of 
insects, he had numbers of. When he was from home 
the birds were in general committed to my care. 
Being so much younger, I was indulged by him in 
all his enjoyments. Though I often used to kill his 
birds by kindness, yet, when he saw my grief for it, 
he always indulged me with the pleasure of serving 


them again; and often took me over the dirtiest roads 
to get at a plant or an insect. He never walked out, 
I think, when quite a boy, without observation on the 
hedges as he passed ; and when he took up a plant of 
any kind, he always observed it with care. Though 
I was but a child, I well remember his pursuits. He 
always seemed earnest in his recreations, as well as 
in school. Like the industrious bee, he was always 
gathering something useful. It seemed as if nature 
was fitting him for something great; from a child 
forming him for future usefulness ; while, at the same 
time, he was generally one of the most active in all 
the amusements and recreations that boys in general 
pursue. He was always beloved by the boys about 
his own age. Though his manners were rather 
awkward, and there was nothing in his person pre- 
possessing to a superficial observer, yet the more in- 
telligent could discover marks indicating greatness of 
mind and genius, even from childhood. An intelli- 
gent neighbour of ours used often to say, he was sure, 
if he lived to be ever so old, he would always be 
a learner, and in pursuit of something further. This 
remark has hitherto been verified. At the time bro- 
ther lived at Leicester, a gentleman in our neigh- 
bourhood was making particular inquiry of me about 
him. He seemed to think it a lamentable thing that 
he was a dissenter. Never a youth promised fairer, 
he said, to make a great man, had he not turned a 
cushion-thumper. His natural fondness for a garden 
was cherished, I think, by his uncle, Mr. Peter Carey, 
who was then settled in the same village, and at 


times, when able, followed that occupation, and often 
had his nephew with him, not having any child of 
his own. While brother continued at home he sel- 
dom left any part of his father's garden uncultivated, 
he was so fond of flowers. 

* While brother Carey was a boy, he was much 
afflicted with a scorbutic disorder in his face and 
hands. When he had been exposed to the sun in the 
day, he was in distressing agony through the night. 
On that account he never could work in the field, or 
do any thing that exposed him long to the heat of the 
day. Nothing seemed to relieve this complaint for a 
long while. This induced our parents to put him to 
some trade. He accordingly was put apprentice to a 
cordwainer at Piddington, a respectable person, 
when he was in his sixteenth year. We were brought 
up to the Establishment; and brother Carey was 
rather prejudiced against dissenters, though never 
permitted to discover his dislike to them ; for though 
my father's situation in the school was connected 
with the clerk's place, as many others were at that 
i^ime, yet father was always a lover of those he 
thought good people, and a great reader. He was 
particular, in his example as well as precepts, to in- 
culcate the strictest habits of integrity and upright- 
ness, in words and actions, before his children; and 
the person my brother was placed with was of the 
same disposition. He had an older apprentice, who 
was brought up a dissenter, and I believe was, about 
that time, under serious impressions. It was in dis- 
putes with this young man that brother first dis- 


covered he was wrong; yet he would not give up his 
argument, or own he was vanquished, for some time: 
he was such a strenuous advocate for his church, it 
was mortifying to yield till he could no longer resist. 
He had before been rather inclined to be gay, which 
gave his parents, as well as his master, some little 
uneasiness ; but the conduct, together with the power- 
ful ai^uments, of his young friend, connected with 
some other trifling circumstances, made an impres- 
sion on his mind, which was soon after much 
strengthened by the death of his master after a short 
illness. The master, before his death, I believe, felt 
his need of a Saviour, and exhorted those about him 
to flee to Jesus as the sinner's friend ; though before 
he was a person of strict morality, he was whole and 
felt no need of a physician, I believe, till his last 

^ At the time of his master's death, brother was not 
master of his business, and was then put to a Mr. Old, 
of Hackleton, who agreed to pay his former master's 
widow so much for his time. This was not a neces- 
sary step, as the apprentice is free on the death of his 
master; but his father felt so much for the widow's 
loss, that he inclined to the side of mercy rather than 
add to her distress. After he had been some little 
time with Mr. Old, he also was removed by death, I 
believe before the time of my brother's apprenticeship 
was expired. At that time he had formed a con- 
nexion with a young person, sister to Mrs. Old, whom 
he married soon after or before he was twenty. 

•After Mr. Old's death he took the stock and 


business. Trade at that time being very good, his 
prospects seemed promising, but soon after failed. A 
large order Mr. Old had engaged to supply was re- 
turned on my brother's hands, just after it was exe- 
cuted, so that he felt considerable embarrassment from 
it, and was obliged to dispose of the goods to great 

* At this time he was increasingly thoughtful, and 
very jealous for the Lord of Hosts. Like Gideon, he 
seemed for throwing down all the altars of Baal in 
one night. When he came home we used to wonder 
at the change. We knew that before he was rather 
inclined to persecute the faith he now seemed to wish 
to propagate. At first, perhaps, his zeal exceeded the 
bounds of prudence; but he felt the importance of 
things we were strangers to, and his natural disposi- 
tion was to pursue earnestly what he undertook ; so 
that it was not much to be wondered at, though we 
wondered at the change. He stood alone in his 
father's house for some years. After a time he asked 
permission to have family prayer when he came home 
to see us; a favour which he very readily had 
granted. Often have I felt my pride rise while he 
was engaged in prayer, at the mention of those words 
in Isaiah, *that all our righteousness was like filthy 
rags.' I did not think he thought his so, but looked 
on me and the family as filthy, not himself and his 
party. Oh, what pride is in the human heart! 
Nothing but my love to my brother would have kept 
me from showing my resentment; but I could not 
bear that others should think diminutively of him ; so 


kept it to myself. My attachment to him was great; 
and as brother's and sister's, I trust it was firm and 
unshaken, and ever will remain so. We always felt 
each other's joys and sorrows our own, so far as we 
knew them. O that an eternity may be spent in 
happy union with each other, where nothing exists to 
deplore ! 

* About this time a few of the friends of religion 
wished our brother to exercise his gifts, by speaking 
to a few friends in a house licensed at Pury ; which he 
did with great acceptance. The next morning a 
neighbour of ours, a very pious woman, came in to 
congratulate my mother on the occasion, and to speak 
of the Lord's goodness in calling hei^ son, and my 
brother, two such near neighbours, to the same noble 
calling. My mother replied, *What, do you think 
he will be a preacher?' *Yes;' she replied, *and a 
great one, I think, if spared.' From that time till he 
was settled at Moulton, he regularly preached once a 
month at Pury with much acceptance. He was at 
that time in his twentieth year, and married. 

* Our parents were always friendly to religion ; yet, 
on some accounts, we should rather have wished him 
to go from home, than come home to preach. I do 
not think I ever heard him, though my younger bro- 
ther and my sister, I think, generally did. Our father 
much wished to hear his son, if he could do it unseen 
by him or any one. It was not long before an oppor- 
tunity offered, and he embraced it. Though he was 
a man that never discovered any partiality for the 
abilities of his children, but rather sometimes went too 


far on the other hand, that often tended a little to dis- 
courage them, yet we were convinced that he approved 
of what he heard, and was highly gratified by it. 

* After our brother's marris^e, I think he first 
settled in a small neat house at Hackleton. Here he 
soon cultivated a neat garden. His first child was 
born there, a fine girl, named Ann. She died of a 
fever in her second year. My brother at the time was 
in great danger from the same disorder. He sent 
over for his mother : but the Lord mercifully spared 
his life, though his child was taken away. My 
mother observed at that time that they seemed much 
distressed in circumstances. We knew of his difli- 
culties respecting his business after Mr. Old's death; 
but he studiously kept every thing he could from us, 
not to grieve us. After the fever was removed, an 
ague followed, and for more than a year and a half, 
I think, never could be removed. Often has he 
travelled from place to place, to dispose of his stock, 
with the greatest difliculty, from the afiiiction. At 
this time his brother, then quite a youth, had so great 
concern for him, that he saved out of his own earn- 
ings, and other little trifles he had for his own pro- 
perty, keeping it together till it was a considerable 
sum ; he then presented it to his brother, who received 
it with emotions of tenderness and gratitude. The 
kindness was felt very tenderly, when he considered 
the age of his brother, and the small privations he had 
felt on his account. This trifle, with a small collec- 
tion made by some friends at Pury, afforded our dear 
brother a seasonable relief at the time. We often had 


him home for change of air, but nothing removed the 
ague for long, till he left Piddington for Moulton. 
He had left Hackleton, and resided at Piddington at 
the time of the child's death : there he also cultivated 
a garden; and near the garden, which he seldom 
failed to occupy early and late, was a marshy piece of 
ground, and a fog arose often from the damp. This 
he thought was one cause why the ague never wholly 
left him till he removed to Moulton, to a drier soil. 
The ague was the cause of his hair coming off, which 
never grew again. It was likewise attended by a very 
affecting cough, that never wholly left him in 
England. It always affected him more or less in the 
winter. The scorbutic disorder he had when a boy, 
he always felt while in England, if he was for a short 
time exposed to the sun. Yet he has remarked, that 
the hottest day in India never affected him ; till in one 
letter, of so late a date as 1810, he said that he had 
felt a little alarmed of late, at finding some return of 
his old disorder, after it had lain dormant for nearly 
thirty years. It was not, however, he said, so as to 
occasion much pain ; and having recourse to a medi- 
cine much used in India in similar diseases, he had no 
doubt but it would prove effectual through a divine 
blessing. He adds, ^ The medicine is nitric acid, per- 
haps better known to you by the common name of 
aqua fortis. I take eighteen or twenty drops twice a 
day diluted in water, and wash my hands in the same : 
the effects are astonishing.' 

*Thus we may observe much of the goodness of 
Jehovah, not only in forming his mind even from 


childhood, for the great work he had to accomplish 
by him, but even in the temperature of his bodily 
constitution and natural disposition. Difficulties to 
him never appeared insurmountable : from childhood 
always earnest in all his pursuits, whether recreation 
or learning, perseverance was a leading feature in his 


* I believe it was not till the winter before he left 
Piddington for Moulton, that he had any ground for 
hope that the Lord had answered prayer respecting 
his relations. During that winter the Lord first be- 
gan to work on the mind of my sister, and some 
others of our acquaintance. At the autumn, Mr. 
Scott, then of Olney, was invited to preach at Pury ; 
his being a church minister, and the novelty of the 
place he preached in, induced me and most in the 
village to hear him. The text was alarming: * Ex- 
cept ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.' The 
effects never quite left me; and, in the winter, our 
family was visited by a fever, which left an alarming 
effect on the spirits. My sister had such a flow of 
spirits as hurt her very much, while I had as great a 
depression. My brother, observing it, said, with some 
emotion, * Sister, read your bible.' I did not feel 
inclined to follow his advice, because I had often read 
the Bible before, but found no beauty in it. How- 
ever, I felt secretly inclined to follow his advice, and 
began with a determination to pursue with diligence. 
I found no relief till I got to the thirty-first chapter of 
Jeremiah, those words, 'There is hope in thy end.' 
.From that time his God enabled him to see that he 


was a prayer-hearing and answering God, though he 
long called him to wait. He often spoke afterwards 
of what he used to feel when he came home and saw 
us so insensible of our danger, yet seldom could sum- 
mon courage enough to speak on the subject of reli- 
gion to his dearest friends* For me, in particular, he 
felt, because he often saw me reduced apparently to 
the borders of the grave, quite insensible of the hand 
which brought down and raised up again. Often did 
we observe the emotions of his mind; but did not 
think his concern at all necessary. O what a privilege 
to have praying relations; and what a mercy to have 
a God that waits to be gracious 1 

'At the time my brother went to Moulton there 
was a prospect of a good school, though that was soon 
blasted by the return of the former school-master.' 

There might be another reason why his school suc- 
ceeded so ill. He probably had much less faculty for 
teaching than for acquiring. And then he could 
never assume the carriage, nor utter the tones, nor 
wield the sceptre of a schoolmaster. He would fre- 
quently smile at his incompetency in these respects ; 
and used to say, facetiously, *When I kept school, 
tile boys kept me.' 

*The people being poor could not support a minister 
comfortably ; but brother had the satisfaction to know 
it was not for want of a willing mind, but for want of 
ability. This made him cheerfully submit to any 
privation, rather than discover it to grieve them. But 
as his family increased, we were witnesses of the diffi- 
culties they often felt. Yet, under all, he steadily 



persevered in the pursuit of knowledge, making con- 
siderable progress in the study of Greek. Here also, 
with the help of his friends, he cultivated a neat gar- 
den, by removing the rubbish of an old barn. It is a 
little remarkable that, as soon as my brother had got a 
garden into a state of cultivation, he w^as generally 
called to leave it. This, to one so fond of it, 
must have been a little self-denial ; yet, to a mind like 
his, no doubt, it was a lesson of some importance, 
and led him more to see that this is not our rest, that 
sin has polluted all our enjoyments. 

*At Moulton he had three sons, Felix, William, 
and Peter. Peter died at Mudnabatt)% in the East 

' From Moulton he removed to Leicester with his 
family. Whether he had a new garden there to culti- 
vate, I never heard. At Leicester he had some diffi- 
culties to encounter from the state in which the 
church was at that time. Mr. SutclifF said once to us, 
that the difficulties he met there would have discou- 
raged the spirits of almost any man besides him; but he 
set his shoulder to the work, and steadily persevered 
till it was accomplished, and soon had the pleasure to 
reap the fruits of his steady perseverance. While he 
continued at Leicester, he was blessed with another 
daughter, named Lucy: this child also died in its 
second year. This was a painful stroke both to 
parents and children ; they all seemed so fond of her. 
He used to mention the death of this child in every 
letter for some time, yet with a degree of resignation 
and submission to the divine will. We were con- 
vinced, however, that he was touched in a tender point. 


*Ju8t" before he left Leicester, brother Carey went 
into Yorkshire to take his last farewell of his only and 
beloved brother and family. Brother Thomas had 
then three sons : Peter, named after our uncle ; Ed- 
mund, called after our dear father; and Eustace, then 
only two years old. Little did we think he was to 
follow his dear uncle on the same delightful errand. 
How good is God! What am I, and what is my 
father's house, that such favours are shown to us ! and 
that so many so dear to us should be devoted to the 
work of so good a master ! 

* In that visit our dear brother had the pleasure of 
witnessing the exertions of the friends of religion in 
Yorkshire, in raising a good collection for the cause 
his heart was so fully bent upon. At that time also 
he met with dear brother Ward, and said, * If we go to 
India, and succeed in our work, of which I have no 
doubt, we shall have need of your help.' This was the 
first thing that set dear Mr. Ward seriously to reflect ; 
and his God strengthened him heartily to engage in 
the good work. Little did our dear brother think he 
was to be the instrument in the hand of God, of the 
conversion of his two eldest sons. How mysterious 
are the ways of Jehovah! yet all right. All his 
plans are before him ; nothing at random or without 

*At the time he left England he was very much 
attached to Phebe Hobson, his sister's eldest child. 
She was then three years old, and fond of her uncle. 
Sister had but two children at the time ; one a little 
boy only a year old. The last time my brother was 

D 2 


here, he said, * In your first letter, I shall expect to 
hear of the death of that child.' But he is yet spared. 

*It was a little remarkable that Phebe always 
wished to follow her uncle, and, we hope, imbibes a 
little of his spirit. We think it an honour conferred 
on us by the King of kings, that he has called one out 
of my sister's family, and my youngest brother's only 
surviving son. Oh, may these earnests encourage our 
future hopes, that all ours may be a seed to serve him 
in their day and generation ! 

*Jabez Carey, my brother's fourth son, was bom at 
Hackleton, at the time his father was going first to 
India. Sister concluded for him to go the first 
voyage without her; but being detained at the Isle of 
Wight longer than they expected, his wife was de- 
livered in the mean time. He wrote us the account 
from thence. Providence so ordered it that they 
came back. He had only Felix with him then. He 
said, when they went in, he pleaded by silence and 
tears; while Mr. Thomas pleaded by arguments, till 
his wife consented to go. No time was then lost in 
getting ready, lest she should change her mind, or the 
vessel sail without them ; so, from ignorance and want 
of time, they had many difficulties on board the ship. 
Jabez was only six weeks old when they left England. 
Jonathan was bom at Mudnabatty; the place where 
Peter died. Then he had four sons left, and he lives 
to see them all engaged for that God to whom, he has 
often said, that from the first of his engaging in the 
work of the mission, he had given himself with all he 
had, and on that account could not draw back, as he 


considered the success of the work he had engaged in 
depended upon it. Though no one could feel more 
tenderly than he did the affliction of his dear relatives, 
yet the cause of his God was dearer to him. And in 
this, I think, most of his relatives rejoiced, rather than 
wished it otherwise, whatever afflictions or privations 
it caused them to feel. 

* It has greatly encouraged me of late, in reading 
over some of the first letters he sent, to see how he was 
enabled to act faith on a faithful God; and in how 
many instances God has answered his prayers for his 
own children, and the children of his brother and sister, 
as well as other relatives ; and as for the work he has 
engaged in, God has far exceeded his desires. He lives 
to see more than his most sanguine hopes asked for. 
What a God is our God ! May our few remaining 
days be more devoted to his praise ! Whether called 
to do or suffer, may but the glory of His name be in- 
creasingly dear to us ! 

* In some of our brother's last letters, he expressed 
g^reat feeling on account of the heavy and long con- 
tinued afflictions of some of his relatives : and, as soon 
as it was in his power, he administered to their neces- 
sities, his dear partner cheerfully appropriating part 
of her income to their relief. He did not stand to 
confer with flesh and blood, and say, I have a family 
of my own ; but still cast them on the care of that God 
who had so far exceeded all his hopes. May he ever 
possess the same disinterested spirit ! 

* I have often thought, one cause of the sympathy 
and long continuance of kindness I have met with, in 


my long affliction, was occasioned by the kindness of 
my parents, to one person in particular, who lay 
nearly dependent on them for support for a long time. 
I know God is able to return even to a cup of cold 
water; and I hope, it is my earnest request, that every 
instance of care and sympathy shown to me, or any 
dearer to me than my own life, may be returned by 
that God who is able to make all grace abound. 

'Yours, &c., 

'Mary Carey. 

In a subsequent letter Mrs. M. C. adds: 

' I forgot to mention that he was always, from his 
first being thoughtful, remarkably impressed about 
heathen lands, and the slave-trade. I never remem- 
ber his engaging in prayer, in his family or in public, 
without praying for those poor creatures. The first 
time I ever recollect my feeling for the heathen world, 
was from a discourse I heard my brother preach at 
Moulton, the first summer after I was thoughtful. It 
was from these words: *For Zion's sake will I not hold 
my peace, and for Jerusalem's sake will I give him no 
rest.' It was a day to be remembered by me ; a day 
set apart for prayer and fasting by the church. What 
hath God wrought since that time ! What encourage- 
ment for earnest and united prayer, that the heavens 
may pour down righteousness, and the glorious dawn 
soon open in the splendour of noon.* 

Thomas, the brother of Dr. Carey, says : 



* I only recollect that he was, from a boy, remark- 
ably studious, deeply and fully bent on learning all 
he could, and always resolutely determined never to 
give up any point or particle of any thing on which 
his mind was set, till he had arrived at a clear know- 
ledge and sense of his subject. He was neither di- 
verted from his object by allurements, or driven from 
the search of it by threats or ridicule. He was firm 
in his purpose, and steady in his endeavours to im- 
prove ; of a very strong and retentive memory, and ex- 
traordinary genius. Thus much of his character, 
when a boy I have a perfect recollection of.' 

At the request of Mr. Ivimey, Mr. Scott, the re- 
spected commentator, supplied the following relation 
of his acquaintance with Mr. Carey. 

^ Aston Sandford {Thame) , 

^January 31, 1815. 
' Rev. and Dear Sir, 

* I feel myself much gratified with the present you 
sent me of my highly esteemed friend, Dr. Carey. I 
have indeed been acquainted with those who in- 
stituted and conducted your Missionary Society from 
the very first ; and I have always been a cordial 
friend to it, though not able to do much in supporting 
it, beyond my daily prayers, which have not been 
often omitted. I now think that it bears the palm 
among Missionary Societies, and I rejoice in the open- 
ing prospects of usefulness beyond what its most san- 
guine friends once expected from it. 


'I am glad that you remitted to me the anecdote 
which you have heard concerning me, respecting Dr. 
Carey, but do not think it was from Mr. Sutcliflf. It 
is indeed wholly unfounded, not one tittle of truth in 
it; I therefore hope to stop its circulation. 

*I will, however, give you more authentic informa- 
tion concerning my first acquaintance with our be- 
loved and revered friend. In the year 1780, Mr. 
Newton left Olney; and in 1781, I succeeded to his 
curacy. Very soon after I walked from Olney to 
Northampton, to see old Mr. Ryland, and to meet Mr. 
Hall, of Arnsby, as I recollect. Before this, it pleased 
God to make me the instrument of conversion to a 
deaf old widow, in good circumstances, between 
seventy and eighty: she had attended my ministry 
some time, tliough she heard little, and I thought un- 
derstood less. But when she was confined to her 
house, and could only hear me when I spoke loud, 
she gave such proof of repentance, and faith, and love, 
that none doubted of a saving change in her, which 
made way for good to some of her relations. Among 
other relations she had a sister, or as I think, a bro- 
ther's widow, named Old, who lived at Hackleton, in 
the road to Northampton, whom she desired me to call 
on. Her son was a shoemaker, and young Carey was 
apprentice to him. I believe both the widow and her 
son were pious persons. When I went into the cottage 
I was soon recognized, and Mr. Old came in, with a 
sensible looking lad in his working dress. I at first 
rather wondered to see bim enter, as he seemed young, 
being, I believe, little of his age. We, however, 


entered into very interesting conversation, especially 
respecting my parishioner, their relative, and the ex- 
cellent state of her mind, and the wonder of divine 
grace in the conversion of one who had been so very 
many years considered as a self-righteous Pharisee. I 
believe I endeavoured to show that the term was often 
improperly applied to conscientious but ignorant in- 
quirers, who are far from self-satisjiedj and who, when 
the Gospel is set before them, find the thing which 
they had long been groping after. However that may 
be, I observed the lad who entered with Mr. Old, 
rivetted in attention with every mark and symptom of 
intelligence and feeling; saying little, but modestly 
asking now and then an appropriate question. I took 
occasion, before I went forward, to inquire after him, 
and found that, young as he was, he was a member of 
the church at Hackleton, and looked upon as a very 
consistent and promising character. I lived at Olney 
till the end of 1785; and in the course of that time, 
I called perhaps two or three times each year at Mr. 
Old's, and was each time more and more struck with 
the youth's conduct, though I said little ; but, before I 
left Olney, Mr. Carey was out of his engagement with 
Mr. Old. I found also that he was sent out as a pro- 
bationary preacher, and preached at Moulton ; and I 
said to all to whom I had access, that he would, if I 
could judge, prove no ordinary man. Yet, though I 
often met both old Mr. Ryland, the present Dr. Ry- 
land, Mr. Hall, Mr. Fuller, and knew almost every 
step taken in forming your Missionary Society, and 
though I sometimes preached very near Moulton, yet 


it SO happened, that I do not recollect having met with 
him any more, till he came to my house in London 
with Mr. Thomas, to desire me to use what little in- 
fluence I had with Charles Grant, Esq., to procure 
them license to go in the Company's ships as mission- 
aries to the British settlements in India, perhaps in 
1792. My little influence was of no avail. What I 
said of Mr. Carey, so far satisfied Mr. Grant, that he 
said, if Mr. Carey was going alone, or with one 
equally to be depended on along with him, he would 
not oppose him ; but his strong disapprobation of Mr. 
T., on what ground I knew not, induced his negative. 
I believe Mr. Old died soon after I left Olney, if not 
just before; and his shop, which was a little building 
apart from the house, was sufiered to go to decay. 
While in this state I several times passed it, and said 
to my sons and others with me, that is Mr. Carey's 
College. As it was at that time a mean and ruinous 
place, and as I stated that Mr. Carey was apprenticed 
to him who owned it, I was, by some means or other, 
charged with saying that he was a parish-apprentice. 
This I neither said, nor meant, nor thought. The 
Old's were rather a respectable family as to temporal 
things, and I knew nothing of Mr. Carey's family till 
afterward I was informed by a letter, from an afliicted 
sister of his, that a sermon, which I preached at 
Creaton, had been the means of her conversion. 

' I from the first thought young Carey an extraordi- 
nary person : I augured the most happy consequences 
from his mission, provided his life were spared : I had 
no doubt but, in despite of disadvantages of education. 


he would be a learned man. But he has lived to go 
beyond, in all respects, my highest anticipations. 
May God still preserve and prosper him and his ! My 
time of life, and many infirmities, lead me to suppose 
my race nearly run ; but the Lord is very gracious, and 
I still keep busily employed. My thanks and best 
respects to the committee, and my thanks to you for 
the publication. 

*I remain, deal^Sir, 

* Your friend, and fellow-labourer, 

* Thomas Scott.' 



The reader is already in possession of the leading 
facts and incidents of Dr. Carey's life, to the period of 
his regular entrance upon the duties of a minister and 
a pastor. But, there being others of more public in- 
terest, and of closer relevancy to that great work, in 
which the main vigour of his mind, and the two-thirds 
of his days were devoted ; and there being other docu- 
mentary materials, of equal interest to those preceding, 
it has been deemed convenient to present them in a 
separate section. Various and oppressive difficulties 
attended him during his continuance at Hackleton ; 
such as would have repressed the ardour, and utterly 
drunk up the spirits of an ordinary mind. He had a 
wife of exceedingly frail constitution, an increasing 
infant family, and the widow of his deceased master to 
provide for from the proceeds of a business, in which, 
whatever might be his proficiency as to the mechanical 
part of it, he was confessedly very incompetent as a 

Nor were his circumstances less inauspicious to the 
formation of his religious life and principles, than they 


were to his secular comfort. Though subject to cer- 
tain moral restraints, and compelled to attend the 
regular service of the Establishment, as is commonly 
the case where a just exposition and a spiritual en- 
forcement of the word of God is absent, it served only 
to invest him with a veil of ceremonial sanctity, 
leaving him a stranger and an alien to evangelical 
religion. When the light of divine truth first broke 
in upon his mind, and the earliest emotions of a 
spiritual life commenced their struggle in his heart, 
he had the fiercest prejudices to surmount, and every 
militant passion to subdue. The few christians 
with whom he first united in fellowship, were not in 
circumstances to contribute to his intellectual im- 
provement ; and were too rigidly bound to a jejune 
heartless system of doctrine, to aid him in the acqui- 
sition of correct and comprehensive views of the 
gospel, or afford him encouragement in diffusing 
them. He was thirsting for every species of know- 
ledge, without the slightest facility for its attainment, 
and with scarcely a kindred mind near him interested 
in his welfare, or in sympathy with his feelings. Yet, 
amidst all this pressure of discouragement, he made 
sensible improvement in the cultivation of his mind, 
and strenuously exerted himself in preaching the 
gospel, in places distant some miles from the village 
in which he resided. But now, incidents occurred, 
and a rapid, but perfectly easy, succession of events 
were put in motion, which smoothed his access to 
ultimate eminence in literature and science, and con- 
ducted him to a sphere of religious activity, which, for 


extent and importance, has seldom been paralleled in 
the annals of human enterprise. At this crisis, the 
acquaintance he formed with Mr. Ryland, junior, of 
Northampton, afterwards Theological President of the 
Bristol Academy, and with Mr. Sutcliff, of Olney, 
Bucks., contributed greatly to his encouragement. 
The latter friend often congratulated himself, that he 
lent him a Latin grammar, the first elementary book, 
he believed, that Mr. Carey ever perused in that or 
any other language. He also invited him, as the 
reader has already learned, to exercise his talents 
before the members of his own church, and thus more 
regularly authenticated his call to the ministerial 

His settlement at Moulton, a village a few miles 
distant from the one in which hitherto he had resided, 
was variously beneficial. He had now a regular 
charge, and the diligent study of the word of God, 
with other reading, and the mental effort necessary in 
publicly ministering to the same people four times 
every week, made him a rigid economist of time, and 
was no doubt favourable to that stem and almost 
sovereign control which he ultimately exercised over 
his own faculties, commanding them in concentrated 
force to any object, and almost at any time he pleased. 
Here, also, he became intimate with other minis- 
ters; as with Mr. Fuller, Mr. Hall, of Amsby, in 
Leices.tershire, Mr. Morris, of Clipston, and Mr. 
Samuel Pearce, of Birmingham. Mr. Hall was then 
venerable for age, admired through the denomination 
to which he belonged for the greatness of his talents ; 


but more so, if possible, for his elevated piety, and the 
condescension of his deportment. The last feature of 
his character especially endeared him to his junior 
brethren. At regular intervals Mr. Morris and Mr. 
Carey met at Mr. Hall's, to benefit by his conversation 
and his critical remarks upon their pulpit exercises, 
the outlines of which they rehearsed to him. If mi- 
nisters of good attainments and long standing in the 
church of Christ would court the society of their 
youthful brethren who happen to live within the sphere 
of their influence, and would lay open to them ^he 
results of their own theological studies, and their ex- 
perience in the practical, and often painful, details of 
pastoral life, it would be of incalculable benefit both 
to ministers and people. Valuable hints might often 
be suggested for the solution of particular passages, for 
the confirmation of important principles in biblical 
criticism and in morals ; and such information afford- 
ed upon the economy of christian churches, as might 
prevent those painful collisions which sometimes mar 
the comfort of societies, and impair the usefulness of 
their pastors. Mr. Carey was never heard to speak of 
his intercourse with Mr. Hall but with the deepest 
emotion, such as often impeded his utterance. But 
among his ministerial acquaintance, there was no one 
with whom he assimilated so entirely as with Mr. Fuller. 
In decision, simplicity, and native mental vigour, they 
perhaps were equal ; though, in other respects, their 
endowments were sufficiently dissimilar to mark them 
out each one for eminence in very distinct depart- 
ments. That intimate union between them which 


proved of such important consequence to the cause in 
which each exerted so mighty an influence, and which 
continued for nearly thirty years, without abatement 
and without alloy, commenced at Northampton at 
a periodical meeting of ministers. The person who 
was expected to occupy the pulpit failing to fulfil his 
engagement, Mr. Carey was requested to supply his 
place. He discoursed from Matt. v. 48 : * Be ye 
perfect, as your Father in heaven is perfect.' Upon 
his descending the pulpit, Mr. Fuller, seizing him by 
the hand, expressed the pleasure he felt in finding 
that their sentiments so closely corresponded ; and 
hoped they should know each other more intimately. 
He has often told me, that no event weaned him so 
effectually from his native country, as the death of this 
beloved coadjutor and valued friend. 

Two subjects at this time engrossed the attention 
and drew forth the energies of Mr. Fuller and Mr. 
Carey. The first was, the duty of all men to believe 
the gospel to whom it is made known. The other, 
the duty of the christian church to publish it through- 
out the world. A spurious system of Calvinism pre- 
vailed so extensively in the churches of the Baptist 
denomination, through the midland counties, as to de- 
lude and obdurate the consciences of the unconverted ; 
whilst it chilled the sympathies, and utterly paralysed 
the efforts, of professing christians. The broad com- 
mon-sense principle, that every human soul, when 
hearing the gospel, is bound to believe and obey it, 
and is eligible to its mercies, was then but dimly seen 
by many preachers, and seldom candidly announced. 


The total denial of this principle by some, and the 
very partial admission and timid avowal of it by 
others, was disastrous in the extreme, as must ever be 
the case where the same course is followed, and which 
may well impress ministers with the importance of at- 
taining clear, consistent, and comprehensive views of 
divine truth, and of making them known without hesi- 
tation or reserve. For, if ministers do not perceive it 
to be the duty of men to believe the gospel, their 
hearers will readily enough conclude that the sin 
of rejecting it is proportionably doubtful. 

While the errors of this system were detected and 
exploded by the able pen of Mr. Fuller, and the way 
was preparing for the more salutary exercise of the 
ministry at home, the other subject, of equal legiti- 
macy and force, employed the unremitted and anxious 
attention of his friend. I have been often told by his 
sisters, and by the deacon of his church at Leicester, 
that for several years he never engg^ed in prayer, to 
the best of their remembrance, without interceding for 
the conversion of the heathen, and for the abolition of 
the slave-trade. 

The straits to which he was reduced whilst at 
Moulton, were almost incredible. It has been already 
remarked, in his sister's memorial in the previous 
section, that he was compelled to teach a school for his 
subsistence ; and that the former schoolmaster, con- 
trary to expectation, returning to the village, and re- 
commencing in the same line, frustrated his attempts. 
The person had some degree of reputation already 
established, and the village was too small to supply 



scholars in sufficient number for them both. Mr. 
Carey's school, therefore, gradually dwindled. To 
compensate for this failure, he had recourse to his 
business, working somewhat with his own hands, and 
giving out work to be done by others, for a gentleman 
residing at Kettering. But my respected friend, Mr. 
Gotch, the son of the above, who well remembers Mr. 
Carey at this time, bears no very flattering testimony 
to his skill, either in making up, or in superintending 
the work of others. There can be no difficulty in 
accounting for his disappointment. He had other 
objects of thought, and other purposes inceptively 
forming, the influence of which could not be supplant- 
ed, and the progress of which was not to be arrested, 
by other and lower pursuits, however imperative the 
necessity for an attention to them. 

The people were so exceedingly poor, that they 
raised scarcely any thing for his support. Yet, I con- 
fess, it is difficult to conceive of any church, however 
small, and however indigent, which, with due economy 
and union, might not contribute something for the 
comfort of their minister, in many instances fcir beyond 
what is doiie at present. An attention to that common 
sense, and a deference to those principles of universal 
equity, which regulate the conduct of men in the ten 
thousand transactions of ordinary life, might prove of 
no small advantage to christian societies. The want 
of systematic arrangement for the securing both labour 
and contribution, are, in many instances, lamentably 
evident. The giving and the doing are often devolved 
upon less than one-third of the attendants. One or 


two deacons, necessarily inefficient by age and its 
inseparable infirmities, are oppressed with the secular 
burden of the whole duty ; whereas every member of 
a church should hold it a sacred duty to consecrate 
somewhat of labour and of substance to the interest of 
the body. This is indubitably the law of the New 
Testament ; that every one, receiving spiritual benefit, 
should yield some appropriate return. And, unless 
the poor as well as the rich recognize and act up to 
this obligation, there can be no approach to perfection 
in any society of christians. The poor are not gene- 
rally disinclined to give to any just and benevolent 
object, whether foreign or domestic ; and no sum, even 
to a fraction, should be refused, or reluctantly received, 
when offered in obedience to a divine injunction, and 
flowing, as we may trust it often does, from a right-* 
eous and holy principle. But no more ought to be 
expected from them than what is in proportion to 
their known condition ; and that should be punctually 
obtained at the stipulated periods. Should their do- 
nations be deemed too small to be collected in detail, 
the poor cannot be expected to give in aggi'egate 
amounts ; they will feel disparaged and wounded by 
the neglect; and their prayers and donations are 
forfeited together: and another inevitable conse- 
quence is, that, a few persons in competent circum- 
stances, having more to subscribe than could in justice 
be apportioned to them, begin to wince under their 
burdens; the minister is ill provided for; he sighs in 
secret over the severity of his condition, and the hard- 
ness of his people's hearts ; and that reciprocity of 

E 2 


interest, and that unity of affection and of effort, which 
are the soul of voluntary compacts, is annihilated.* 
Both the church and congregation at Moulton con- 
siderably augmented under Mr. Carey's ministry ; the 
chapel was re-built and enlarged for their accommo- 
dation ; they felt growingly fervent in attachment to 
him, so that they parted from him upon his removal 
to Leicester with extreme reluctance ; and, yet, I have 
it upon undeniable evidence, that he and his family 
have lived for a month together without tasting animal 
food. It was not to be wondered at, therefore, that 
he should entertain the invitation of another church, 
a connection with which might both enlarge his sphere 
of usefulness, and somewhat meliorate his outward 
condition. His feelings in reference to this subject he 
expresses in the following letter to his father. 

'Moult07i, Feb. 2\st, 1789. 
*Dear Father, 

* I am exceedingly divided in my own mind, and 
greatly need your prayers. It is well known what my 
situation is here, and on that account I this week re- 
ceived an unanimous invitation from the Baptist 
church at Leicester, to go and settle with them, which 
was joined by some of the church people, who sit un- 
der the ministry of Mr. Robinson, of St. Mary's. If I 
only regarded worldly things, I should go without hesita- 
tion ; but when I reflect upon the situation of things 

* ' Hints for the Regulation of Christian Churches, by C. StoTel/ both for the 
principles it avows, and the details it recommends, is well entitled to the serious 
attention of all members of dissenting churches, but especially to that of ministers 
and deacons. 


here, I know not what to do, though I think the state 
of things would justify my removal. Wm. Carey.' 

Whilst instructing his pupils in geography, his at- 
tention was drawn by a transition, easy enough to such 
a mind, from the physical to the religious condition of 
the tribes inhabiting the regions which passed suc- 
cessively under review. The subject, as he pursued it, 
became more intensely interesting, until at length it 
was the all-absorbing theme. He then sought oppor- 
tunities of pressing it upon the attention of his 
brethren. At a meeting of ministers holden at North- 
ampton about this time, Mr. Ryland, senior, called 
upon the young ministers to propose a topic for dis- 
cussion. As no one else obeyed the challenge, after 
waiting some time, Mr. Carey proposed for consider- 
ation, *the duty of christians to attempt the spread of 
the gospel among heathen nations.' The old gentle- 
man received the announcement of the subject with 
great surprise. Mr. Morris, now the only surviving 
friend* who was present upon the occasion, says, that 
Mr. Ryland called him an enthusiast for entertaining 
such an idea. I am aware that Dr. Ryland questioned 
the accuracy of Mr. Morris's recollection as to this 
matter; and when he inquired of Dr. Carey some 
years ago, he was of the same mind. But, with me, 
this does not invalidate the correctness of Mr. M.'s 
testimony. I well recollect my relative's speaking to 
me soon after my arrival in India, respecting this 
meeting, and Mr. R.'s remark. I do not remember 

* Between the time of cemposing the above paragraph, and correcting it in 
patting through tlie press, Mr. Morris also has ceased his sojourn on earth. 


his repeating that precise expression, which indeed is 
of very little moment ; but, I distinctly recollect that 
some strong epithet was said to have been used : and 
when it is considered how novel the subject of foreign 
missions was at that time, and the characteristic ve- 
hemence of Mr. Ryland is taken into account, I con- 
ceive there can be little to except against in Mr. 
Morris's statement. It is well known, that persons 
accustomed to utter themselves in extreme terms, are 
not unfrequently heard with an attention diminished 
in proportion to the known intensity of their manner. 
It ought not, therefore, to be deemed conclusive 
against the truth of what is related to have been said 
by such an one, because, after the lapse of thirty years, 
only one out of three persons who were present de- 
poses to the truth of it. 

Mr. Ryland's indisposition to encounter this subject, 
had no other effect upon the mind of Mr. Carey than to 
quicken his attention to it. It was at this time, during 
his short residence at Moulton, that he composed his 
inquiry into the obligations of christians, &c., one of its 
leading topics being suggested by the conversation 
above referred to. In this pamphlet he discusses the 
perpetuity of our Lord's commission; and recapitu- 
lates the efforts made in each century and in every 
country for its fulfilment. He then exhibits a tabular 
view of the various countries in each quarter of the 
world, their geographical limits, the number of their 
respective inhabitants, and their several religious de- 
nominations, with the relative numbers included under 
each. The last section demonstrates the practicability 


of making further attempts for the conversion of the 
heathen than any hitherto made. Various objections 
are then stated and solved, and the work concludes 
with a judicious and spirited appeal to ministers and 
people. The latter are exhorted to cultivate a bene- 
volent spirit, and to make such pecuniary sacrifices as 
became their profession, and would prove commen- 
surate with the object ; whilst the former are besought 
to consider their official as well as their common 
obligations, to make every effort, and to submit to 
every privation, and even to sacrifice life itself, if such 
be the will of God, a minister being, as he remarks, 
* in a peculiar sense, not his own.' 

His removal to Leicester, which took place in 1789, 
gave him increased opportunities for the acquisition 
of every species of knowledge. Dr. Arnold, a great 
lover of polite literature, gave him free access to his 
library ; a circumstance, which, together with other 
attentions he received from that gentleman, nourishing 
his love of science, and making him acquainted with 
the best works then extant upon its several branches, 
prepared him to pursue his studies more effectively 
when abroad, and shut up to his own resources. 

By his removal to Leicester, his temporal circum- 
stances were somewhat improved ; yet, here also he 
found it necessary to increase his income by again 
teaching a school ; and a letter is extant addressed to 
Mr. Abraham Booth, signed by himself and his dea- 
cons, acknowledging an exhibition from the Baptist 
fund, an institution for the relief of necessitous mi- 
nisters and churches, and requesting the committee to 
renew the grant. 


He here regularly distributed his time, apportion- 
ing to every day, and almost to every hour, its 
appropriate labour. A few lines, extracted from a 
letter addressed to his father, will show the method 
he adopted, and which, being modified as his varied 
circumstances in after life required, was the main 
cause of his being able to conduct every thing to 
which his energies were directed to so successful an 

'Leicester, Nov. I2th, 1790. 
*Deak and Honoured Father, 

* I have no excuse to make for not writing to you 
before now, except an indisposition for writing in 
general may be pleaded in excuse. But I cannot with 
propriety plead my faults as an excuse for my faults. 
However, my many avocations, which take up all my 
time, make me wish for a little relaxation from busi- 
ness when a few spare moments offer. Indeed, I often 
condemn myself for not corresponding oftener with 
my dear relations, and other acquaintance ; but when 
I review my hours, I am sometimes inclined to think 
that it is out of my power. 

* Polly's affectionate letter I received with pleasure 
and shame; pleasure to hear of your welfare, and 
shame that she has any occasion to complain. I hope 
to amend for the future; but if I send you an account 
of the partition of my time, you will see that you must 
not expect frequent letters. 

* On Monday I confine myself to the study of the 
learned languages, and oblige myself to translate 


something. On Tuesday, to the study of science, 
history, composition, &c. On Wednesday I preach 
a lecture, and have been for more than twelve 
months on the book of Revelation. On Thursday I 
visit my friends. Friday and Saturday are spent in 
preparing for the Lord's-day ; and the Lord*s-day, in 
preaching the word of God. Once a fortnight I preach 
three times at home ; and once a fortnight I go to a 
neighbouring village in the evening. Once a month I 
go to another village on the Tuesday evening. My 
school begins at nine o'clock in the morning, and con- 
tinues till four o'clock in winter, and five in summer. 
I have acted for this twelvemonth as secretary to the 
committee of dissenters ; and am now to be regularly 
appointed to that office, with a salary. Add to this, 
occasional journeys, ministers' meetings, &c.; and you 
will rather wonder that I have any time, than that 
I have so little. 

* I am not my own, nor would I choose for myself. 
Let God employ me where he thinks fit, and give me 
patience and discretion to fill up my station to his 
honour and glory. 

* Polly complains much. All I can say to her is this: 
A sinner on this side hell will have reason to despond, 
when the blood of Christ has lost its efficacy ; when 
the nature of God is changed, and he ceases to be good 
and gracious ; or when the gospel is repealed, and all 
its glorious declarations obliterated. Then, and not 
till then, may my dear sister have reason to despair. 
Abhor herself she ought ; and ought to be sensible in 
the most exquisite manner of her rebellion and depra- 


vity : but till her sins are greater than God can forgive, 
or surpass the value of her Saviour's blood, she may 
hope. Nay, if she herself had chosen on what terms 
God should have expressed his willingness to save, 
she could not have chosen language more explicit, or 
declarations more unlimited. There is a ground of 
hope ; and here all is * solid rock.' 

* I trust I have some pleasing enjoyments, though to 
my shame I live very far below my privileges. On 
the one hand I am filled with shame and horror; on 
the other, with the greatest hopes and expectations. 

* I am your dutiful Son, 

*Wm. Carey.' 

'Leicester, May 5M, 1791. 
*My Dear Father, 

* God is, I trust, reviving his work among us. Se- 
veral young people appear under concern of soul ; and 
at a village about three miles off, an amazing altera- 
tion has taken place ; and hence I opened a lecture 
there about nine months since: several have been 
converted, in all probability. Mr. Wesley's congre- 
gation before that, at preaching, was from twelve to 
twenty ; now, about three weeks ago, one hundred and 
nine were counted out of a prayer-meeting. 

* I expect to baptize six persons in about a fortnight. 
The time of my ordination is fixed for the 24th instant. 

* Your dutiful Son, 

*Wm. Carey.' 

Though the church at Leicester was comparatively 


small, and in much derangement when he succeeded 
to the pastorate, he nevertheless restored it to order, 
and much increased the communicants and the at- 
tendants upon his ministry. His consistency of de- 
portment both as a christian and a public character 
became generally known, and speedily advanced him 
in the estimation of the inhabitants, as well as that of 
his immediate religious connections. He enjoyed the 
intimate friendship of Mr. Robinson, an eminently 
successful minister in the establishment, the author of 
* Scripture Characters,' whom he frequently accom- 
panied in his pastoral visits, from whom he always 
spoke of himself as deriving much benefit. 

But nothing in his present labours, or in the cheer- 
ing success with which they were crowned, could di- 
vert his mind from the design of a mission to the 
heathen. By degrees, he succeeded also in exciting 
the attention of his brother ministers to the same ob- 
ject. By frequent discussion, free interchange of 
thoughts, accompanied with united importunate 
prayer, their sentiments assimilated, and their zeal 
and benevolence were soon provoked into some exter- 
nal demonstration. So early as 1784, a few of these 
devout servants of Grod met in association at Notting- 
ham, resolved to set apart an hour on the first Monday 
evening in every month ' for extraordinary prayer for 
the revival of religion, and for the extending of 
Christ's kingdom in the world/ Thus commenced 
the united missionary prayer-meetings, now prevalent 
through every part of Christendom. No one can cal- 
culate the ultimate good to which a single attempt. 


justly principled, and wisely directed, may lead. 
Within half a century, some of the most potent and 
comprehensive agencies that ever influenced the 
moral world, have originated in the devotions and un- 
pretending efforts of a few individuals, or of a single 
mind. Thus the design, simple as it was devout, of 
circulating the volume of inspired truth, entire and 
without human accompaniment, within a very few 
years, has multiplied its copies as the 'sands of the sea- 
shore,' rendered it available to every nation on earth, 
and placed it within reach of almost every soul of 
mankind. The projection of the monitorial common- 
sense method of instruction by Joseph Lancaster, has 
antiquated the stupidities of former ages, and laid 
open the blessings of a sound elementary education to 
the whole globe. The pious, and at first almost un- 
aided, labours of Mr. Raikes, to rescue from profane- 
ness the juvenile poor, to imbue them with scriptural 
knowledge, and train them to the habits of religious 
life, have created in every town in Great Britain and 
America, a fruitful nursery for the church of Christ, 
and sent forth a living supply of efficient labourers 
to disseminate the gospel both at home and abroad. 
The humble attempt of the subject of this memoir, to 
excite the zeal of his immediate brethren, was not 
only effectual for the purpose and to the degree he 
primarily meditated ; it was an impulse destined to 
move, ere long, the whole christian world, and to dif- 
fuse an influence which the extremities of the earth 
should feel, to be perpetuated to the end of time, and 
the final results of which, the light of eternity must 


develope. The sympathies of every community were 
shortly awakened, their energies were provoked, and^ 
from the period now under review to the present^ 
faithful brethren have been sent forth, charged on 
errands of mercy, to every region whither the com- 
mercial enterprise of this mighty empire has adven- 
tured her sails. The simple proposition for devoting 
a single hour in one evening of every month in 
prayer for a specific object, has united the aspirations 
of pious men by myriads through every section of the 
universal church, and, if maintained with vigour and 
unaffected unity of spirit, may yet prove the ordained 
means of bringing down from the * Father of lights,' 
and the * Father of mercies,' those final effusions of 
his renewing spirit, the grand burden of prophetic and 
evangelical promise, unspeakably transcendent of any 
thing yet experienced among men, by which, *the 
wilderness shall be converted into a fruitful field;' 
and that which before was deemed fruitful, shall be 
esteemed a forest. It cannot be too deeply regretted 
that these special occasions of devotion are frequently, 
and in many places, very ill attended. Denomina- 
tional prejudice and local collision are allowed to in- 
terrupt the harmony for the promotion of which they 
were at first instituted; and in some instances to sus- 
pend, and altogether to dissolve it. Nor need it 
be disguised, that the improvement derivable from 
these catholic exercises is often prevented, and the 
comfort of them marred, by the monotony with which 
they are conducted, and the wearisome length to which 
every part of them is carried. The petitions and the 


■phraseology are not sufficiently specific, and closely 
relevant to the professed object of the meeting; but 
are fetched promiscuously from the whole circle of 
devotional topics. The mind, instead of being re- 
freshed, is wearied with the requisite attention ; and, 
before a prayer is concluded, the half of the congrega- 
tion have resumed their seats. The Wesleyan bre- 
thren, in this, as in some other parts of their practical 
economy, are worthy of imitation. They will engage 
five or six persons in praying, and sing portions of as 
many hymns, within the compass of an hour. 

By degrees, Mr. Carey succeeded in bringing his 
ministerial brethren to sympathize with him in his 
missionary views. Several opportunities were also 
offered by their periodical meetings for maturing 
them into some ultimate and feasible plan of operation. 
The first of these was at Clipston, in Northampton- 
shire, in the spring of 1791, when Mr. Fuller and 
Mr. Sutcliff preached sermons appropriate to such a 
design. After which sermons, Mr. Carey urged his 
brethren to form themselves into a Society. But they 
wished for time, and requested him to publish his 
pamphlet which they knew him to have in manuscript. 
A second meeting was holden at Nottingham one year 
afterwards, when further progress was made. It was 
then he preached his memorable sermon from Isai. 
liv. 23. This discourse ripened the convictions of his 
brethren that it was imperative upon them, with as 
little delay as possible, to organize their plan, and 
commence operation. The outline of this plan was 
offered for acceptance at Kettering, in October of the 


same year, when a committee was formed, and the 
first-fruits of its benevolence were offered to advance 
the institution which their piety and zeal originated. 
This contribution amounted to thirteen pounds two 
shillings and sixpence. At a fourth meeting, which 
took place shortly after at Northampton, further de- 
liberations were entered into, and Mr. Pearce, of 
Birmingham, was added to the original committee. 
Thus a simple machinery was formed and set in mo* 
tion, which led the way in that mighty career of 
christian benevolence for which the present genera- 
tion stands distinguished beyond all precedent. At 
the Kettering meeting, just referred to, Mr. Carey 
had signified his willingness to become the first to 
adventure himself in the enterprise, and was accepted. 
He thus alludes to this solemn &ct, in a letter to his 

^Leicester, Jan. 17M, 1793. 

'Dear and Honoured Father, 

*The importance of spending our time for God 
alone, is the principal theme of the gospel. I beseech 
you, brethren, says Paul, by the mercies of God, that 
you present your bodies a living sacrifice ; holy and 
acceptable, which is your reasonable service. To be 
devoted like a sacrifice to holy uses, is the great 
business of a christian, pursuant to these requisitions. 
I* consider myself as devoted to the service of God 
alone, and now I am to realize my professions. I am 
appointed to go to Bengal, in the East Indies, a mis- 


sionary to the Hindoos. I shall have a colleague who 
has been there five or six years already, and who un- 
derstands their language. They are the most mild 
and inoffensive people in all the world, but are en- 
veloped in the greatest superstition, and in the gross* 
est ignorance. My wife and family will stay behind 
at present, and will have sufficient support in my 
absence; or should they choose to follow me, their ex- 
penses will be borne. We are to leave England on the 
third of April next. I hope, dear father, you may be 
enabled to surrender me up to the Lord for the most 
arduous, honourable, and important work that ever any 
of the sons of men were called to engage in. I have 
many sacrifices to make. I must part with a beloved 
family, and a number of most affectionate friends. 
Never did I see such sorrow manifested as reigned 
through our place of worship last Lord's-day. But 
I have set my hand to the plough. 

* I remain, your dutiful Son, 

'W. Carey.' 

The reader may be tempted to smile that such 
a design should be commenced with a contribution of 
thirteen pounds two shillings and sixpence; but he 
must view it as an earnest, by which the depositors 
pledged themselves to more ample exertions when the 
divine hand should point out the way in which they 
could be available for the purpose they contemplated. 
Such discovery was presently made and more liberal 
donations succeeded. The church and congregation 
of Gannon-street, Birmingham, under the influence of 


their eminently zealous minister, Samuel Pearce, 
raised the sum of nearly one hundred pounds. They 
thus became examples to the whole denomination, and 
showed clearly enough that the work need not be 
abandoned, nor long postponed, for want of pecuniary 
help. The first auxiliary society was formed by these 
same friends; and from the commencement of the 
Baptist mission to the present hour, none have proved 
more steady in their adherence to its interests, or 
more uniformly liberal in its support, than the chris- 
tian friends at Birmingham. When the desires and 
these first movements of the committee became known 
through various parts of the kingdom, they were 
somewhat encouraged to advance. A companion to 
Mr. Carey soon offered himself. The circumstance 
of his becoming the correspondent of the committee, 
and their willing servant in this work, determined 
also the sphere of their labour. The church at Leices- 
ter listened to the remonstrances of their minister, and 
his compassionate entreaty for the heathen ; and after 
suitable devotional exercises, surrendered him for the 
work, ^whereunto the Holy Ghost had called him/ 
In prevailing with them to make this surrender, he 
reminded them of the many prayers they had pre- 
sented to God of late years for the conversion of the 
heathen; and that they were called upon to offer an 
appropriate sacrifice to verify the sincerity of their 
devotions; and, moreover, that, if they willingly 
gave him up, he felt assured the blessing of God 
would attend them. They obeyed the call. They 
honoured Grod ; and he has honoured them in return. 


With the exception of only a very few years, in which 
they were in a depressed condition, they have been 
attended with a regularly advancing prosperity. For 
twenty years, they enjoyed the ministry of the most 
eloquent sacred orator in Christendom. Nor have 
the labours of their present pastor been crowned with 
less success than were those of his predecessor. The 
house of worship since Mr. Carey's departure has been 
twice considerably enlarged; a secession has taken 
place forming a second respectable and flourishing 
interest; and the original church and congregation 
are both more numerous and more united than ever 
they were before known to be. 

The first and highest designation of a christian 
minister respects Christ and his universal cause; the 
pastorate of a particular church is a thing secondary 
and subordinate. The obligation involved in the 
first is absolute and perpetual ; that of the latter is 
voluntary, casual, and precarious. It is granted, that 
the relation of pastor and flock is too solemn and too 
tenderly interesting to be assumed and dissolved with 
levity. But, on the other hand, it is easily conceivable 
that pastors and people, from motives not always the 
most spiritual, may be so wrapped up in their attach- 
ment to each other, as to be lamentably insensible to 
the more catholic claims which the cause of Christ 
may present to them. 

The church at Leicester having generously consent- 
ed to yield up their pastor for foreign labour, and this 
infant society being somewhat recruited by an ac- 
cession to its numbers, and an augmentation of its 


resources, a service was holden there, to set apart Mr, 
Carey and Mr. Thomas his colleague, as mission- 
aries to the heathen world. Their passage was taken 
on board an East Indiaman; and they proceeded to 
Ryde, in the Isle of Wight, to await the summons for 
embarkation. The difficulties and disappointments 
which befell them, almost to the extinction of their 
hopes and those of the Society, with the singular 
manner in which they were surmounted, await the 
attention of the reader in the ensuing chapter. But 
we shall previously offer for his perusal a valuable 
fragment from the hand of Mr. Fuller, entitled * an 
attempt at a memoir of brother Carey.' That the 
respected writer conducted it to no later a period than 
to a few months subsequent to his arrival in India, 
will be regarded with unfeigned regret. 

'From his first religious concern, his mind was 
much employed in obtaining just and scriptural sen- 
timents. He thought the notions of many who called 
themselves calvinists, but who in fact were hyper- 
calvinists, were, in various important particulars, un- 
scriptural, and unfriendly to all attempts for the 
conversion of sinners; and as to arminianism, he had 
no leaning that way, considering it as subversive of 
the doctrine of grace. He therefore endeavoured to 
form a system of his own, without any human help ; 
and which for substance proved the same with that of 
the ministers with whom he afterwards associated. I 
have heard him say, that he did not recollect to have 
received his views of divine truth from any writer or 
preacher, but merely from reading his bible ; but that, 



when he found a number of brethren whose sentiments 
and feelings accorded with his own, it yielded him 
great satisfaction. The writings of president Edwards 
were afterwards of much use to him ; and he drank in 
the leading principles of that great writer with appro- 
bation and delight. 

* While he was at Moulton, the congregation being 
few and poor, he followed his business, in order to 
assist in supporting his family. His mind, however, 
was much occupied in acquiring the learned languages, 
and almost every other branch of useful knowledge. 
I remember, on going into the room where he employed 
himself at his business, I saw hanging up against the 
wall a very large map, consisting of several sheets of 
paper pasted together by himself, on which he had 
drawn, with a pen, a place for every nation in the 
known world, and entered into it whatever he met 
with in reading, relative to its population, religion, 
&c. The substance of this was afterwards published 
in his 'inquiry.* 

* These researches, on which his mind was naturally 
bent, hindered him, of course, from doing much at 
his business ; and the people, as was said, being few 
and poor, he was at this time exposed to great hard- 
ships. I have been assured, that he and his family 
have lived for a great while together without tasting 
animal food, and with but a scanty pittance of other 

' I have been told that, about this time, some person 
made him a present of a folio volume in Dutch, and 
that, for the sake of reading it, he obtained a grammar. 


and learned that language. This I know, that soon 
afterwards a Dutch pamphlet was put into his hand, 
and he actually translated it, and made a present of 
the translation to me, which I have still by me. 

* It was while he was at Moulton that he wrote the 
manuscript which was afterwards printed under the 
title of * An Inquiry into the Obligations of Christians 
to use Means for the Conversion of the Heathen.' He 
would also be frequently conversing with his brethren 
in the ministry on the practicability and importance 
of a mission to the heathen, and of his willingness to 
engage in it. At several ministers' meetings, between 
the years 1787 and 1790, this was the topic of his con- 
versation. Some of our most aged and respectable 
ministers thought, I believe, at that time, that it was 
a wild and impracticable scheme that he had got in his 
mind, and therefore gave him no encouragement. Yet 
he would not give it up ; but would converse with us, 
one by one, till he had made some impression upon us.' 

*His labours at Moulton, notwithstanding all his 
difficulties, were blessed to the increase of the church 
and congregation. Their place of worship was rebuilt, 
and he spared no pains in assisting his congregation 
to get through the expense of it. But, after all, it was 
not a situation suited to him, either for acquiring or 
imparting knowledge. 

* The church at Leicester, about this time, was sunk 
into a melancholy state. Antinomianism, both in 
principle and practice, had gained the ascendancy, so 
that the upright part of the church were unable to 
make any effectual resistance. An association of mi- 


nisters and churches being held there in June, 1787, 
a solemn remonstrance was made by them against the 
corrupt state of that church. The consequence was, 
the best part of them took courage, and some of the 
principal offenders were separated. Both the deacons 
were excluded; and Blackwell, the pastor, resigned. 
They were now supplied by the pastors of other 
churches, till they might be provided with a pastor of 
their own. Amongst others, Mr. Carey sometimes 
went as a supply. His labours being acceptable, and 
it being understood that his usefulness, as well as his 
comfort, was much confined at Moulton, it became a 
matter of consideration whether he should be invited 
to remove. At length he was invited. After carefully 
weighing matters on both sides, he wrote down on a 
sheet of paper his own thoughts and feelings, both 
for and against it, and gave it to some of his brethren 
in the ministry for advice. In this paper, I well re- 
member, there was much of the upright, disinterested 
man of God. The result was, however, that in 1788, 
he removed to Leicester. 

' Soon after his arrival, he paid his respects to the 
Rev. Mr. Robinson, with whom, to the last, he main- 
tained a good understanding. It has been said, 
though I do not recollect to have heard Mr. Carey 
mention it, that Mr. R., in that conversation, asked 
him if he approved of dissenting ministers getting 
hearers from those churches where the gospel was 
preached, or, as he pleasantly called it, sheep-stealing? 
To this, Mr. C. answered, * Mr. R., I am a dissenter, 
and you are a churchman; we must each endeavour 


to do good according to our light. At the same time 
you may be assured, that I had rather be the instru- 
ment of converting a scavenger that sweeps the streets, 
than of merely proselyting the richest and best cha- 
racters in your congregation.' 

^ On looking into the state of the church, he soon 
found that antinomianism had taken deep root in it, 
and that many who stood as members were unworthy 
of a place in the house of God. After some attempts 
at purgation, which he found difficult if not impossi- 
ble to accomplish, he, with the advice of the best 
members, proposed their dissolving their church rela- 
tionship, and beginning anew. This proposal was ac- 
ceded to. They did not, however, refuse any one who 
had been a member before ; but merely required the 
signature of a declaration that tliey were willing and 
determined to keep up in future a strict and faithful dis- 
dpUne^ according to the New Testament, let it cfffect 
wham it might. This requisition answered the end. 
A considerable number of loose characters kept back, 
who of course were, after a time, declared by the 
church to be no longer members. Thus the church 
was in a manner renovated. Days of fasting and 
prayer were set apart, in which there was much of a 
spirit of importunity and brotherly love ; and regular 
prayer-meetings were constantly and well attended. 

* The party who refused to renew covenant, how- 
ever, became Mr. Carey's deadly enemies. They 
reproached him as a man who did not preach the 
gospel; and when he was ordained pastor, one of 
them, more bold than the rest, threatened, when the 


members should hold up their hands, to make a 
public protest against the proceedings of the day. 
When he came to the trial, however, his heart seems 
to have failed him, as he made no opposition. Yet 
they gave Mr. Carey much trouble, and on some 
occasions his mind was greatly dejected. At the 
association at Olney, in June, 1790, he appeared 
to be distressed beyond measure with the trials 
of his situation. By degrees, however, the people 
of that description left him and his friends to them- 
selves, and have ever since had preachers after their 
own heart. He also rose in esteem superior to the 
influence of detraction. 

* His zeal and unremitted labours in preaching the 
word, not only in Leicester, but in the villages near 
it, wherever he could have access, endeared him to 
the friends of religion; and his thirst for learning 
rendered him respected in others. He has sometimes 
regretted his want of early education : * I was so rus- 
ticated (he would say) when a lad, that I am as if I 
could never recover myself.' Yet the natural energies 
of his mind, accompanied as they were with a gene- 
rous, manly, and open disposition, together with an 
ingratiating behaviour towards men of every degree, 
soon rendered him respected, not only by those who 
attended his ministry, but by many other persons of 
learning and opulence. Dr. Arnold, who had a lai^e 
and valuable library, desired him to make what use 
of it he pleased. Others esteemed his acquaintance 
on account of his taste for botany, as has been the 
case since he has been in India: but though he has 


indulged occasionally in such pursuits, they do not 
appear to have diverted him from the chief end of his 
life ; but rather to have been made subservient to it. 
They have been his amusement, by which he occasion- 
ally unbent his mind, that he might return to his 
proper employment with renewed vigour. 

* So fully had the troubles and divisions of the 
church subsided, that when, in the year 1792, he en- 
tertained thoughts of engaging as a missionary to 
Hindosthan, the idea of parting became a serious trial 
to both him and them. There were persons, indeed, 
who, being strangers to all great and disinterested 
feelings themselves, insinuated that Mr. Carey was 
unhappy in his connexions, and therefore wished to 
quit the kingdom to get rid of them : but neither was 
he unhappy with his people, nor they with him. 
Perhaps there never was a time in which parting 
would have been so great a trial ; yet, incredible as 
it may appear to some, they were both willing to part! 
He had taught the church to regard the general in- 
crease of Christ's kingdom above their own interest 
as individuals, or as a congregation, and he had not 
taught them in vain. But to return. 

* At the Clipstone Easter meeting of ministers, of 
1791, the two sermons that were preached wore an 
aspect towards a mission among the heathen. The 
first was from Hab. i. 2, 3: * This people say the time 
is not come, the time that the Lord's house should be 
built,' Sfc. The other was from 1 Kings xix. 10 : * / 
have been very jealous for the Lord God of hosts' 

* After worship, Mr. Carey, who was present, and 


most interested in the discourses, moved that some- 
thing should be that day agreed upon, relative to the 
fonnation of a society for propagating the gospel among 
the heathen. The other ministers had, it is true, been 
in a manner compelled to think of the subject, by his 
repeatedly advancing it, and they became desirous of 
it, if it could be accomplished ; but feeling the diffi- 
culty of setting out in an unbeaten path, their minds 
revolted at the idea of attempting it. It seemed to 
them something too great, and too much like grasping 
at an object utterly beyond their reach. However, 
partly to satisfy brother Carey, and partly to gain 
time, they recommended him to revise his manuscript 
on the subject, and to print it. This measure, they 
observed, would serve to sound the minds of the reli- 
gious public. This proposal was complied with, and 
the manuscript was prepared for the press, and in 1792 
printed, under the title of * An Inquiry into the Ob- 
ligations of Christians to use Means for the Conver- 
sion of the Heathen.' At the Oakham association in 
June, 1791, the two sermons also that had been 
delivered at the Clipstone ministers' meeting, were 
requested to be printed. 

* About this time Mr. Carey paid a visit to Bir- 
mingham, where he became acquainted with Mr. 
Pearce. In him he found a warm and fast friend, 
who entered into his views with all his heart. Some 
of Mr. Pearce's friends also encouraged Mr. Carey to 
go forward, with the promise of every kind of support 
that was within the compass of their power. 

^ At the Nottingham association, in June, 1792, 


Mr. Carey preached from Isaiah liv. 2, 3 : * Enlarge 
the place of thy tent, and let them stretch forth the 
curtains of thine habitations : spare not, lengthen thy 
cords, and strengthen thy stakes ; for thou shalt break 
forth on the right hand and on the left ; arid thy seed 
shall inherit the Gentiles, and make the desolate cities to 
he inhabited.* After observing, by way of introduction, 
that the church was here compared to a poor desolate 
widow, who lived alone in a small tent; that she who 
had thus lived in a manner childless, was told to ex- 
pect an increase in her family, such as would require 
a much larger dwelling ; and this because her Maker 
was her husband, whose name was not only the Lord 
of Hosts, the Holy One of Israel, but the God of the 
whole earth ; he proceeded to take up the spirit of the 
passage in two exhortations, which he addressed to 
his brethren. 1. Expect great things from God; 
2. Attempt great things for God. The discourse was 
very animated and impressive. After it was concluded, 
the ministers resolved, that at the next Kettering 
ministers' meeting, on the first of October of the same 
year, the plan of a society should be brought forward, 
and, if found practicable, a society formed. 

* At the Kettering meeting, brother Carey was pre- 
sent; and after the public services of the day were 
over, the ministers withdrew into a private room, and 
there, in a solemn vow, pledged themselves to Grod 
and one another, as a society, to make at least an at- 
tempt for carrying the gospel somewhere into the hea- 
then world. A committee was chosen, and Mr. Carey 
was a member of it. 


* The events which succeeded, in which Mr. Carey- 
bore a principal part, and how he became united with 
Mr. John Thomas, in a mission to Bengal in the fol- 
lowing spring, are already before the public, in the 
first number of the periodical accounts, which there- 
fore it would be superfluous to repeat. I shall only 
take a review of certain particulars of his conduct in 
this important undertaking, which have hitherto been 
but little known. 

' He seemed in this undertaking to have his work 
before him^ and to possess almost a foresight of the 
issues of things. In his inquiry ^ he wrote as if all de- 
nominations of christians were to be stirred up to tlie 
same efforts, and expresses his judgment of what 
should be their conduct. He also, a little before he 
went, saw Mr. Ward, who was then a pious youth, and 
by trade a printer. ' We shall want you, said he, in 
a few years, to print the bible : you must come after 
us.' And these few words, as Mr. W. has confessed, 
so remained on his mind, that he could never forget 

* When he had made up his mind to engage in mis- 
sionary labours, he expected Mrs. Carey and his family 
to accompany him ; but to this she was for a long time 
utterly averse. This was a heavy trial to him, and to 
the society, who could not but foresee that though 
men are allowed to leave their wives and families for 
a time in mercantile and military expeditions ; yet, in 
religion, there would not only be a great outcry against 
it from worldly men, but even many religious people, 
who had thought but little on the subject, would join 


in the general censure. He determined, however, to 
go; and if Mrs. C. could not be persuaded to accom- 
pany him, he would take his eldest son with him, and 
leave the rest of his femily under the care of the so- 
ciety. She might afterwards be persuaded to follow 
him; or, if not, he could but return after having made 
the trial, and ascertained in some measure the practi- 
cability of the undertaking. Under these circum- 
stances he went aboard a ship for Bengal. But when 
they were just ready to sail, it was understood that his 
going out in one of the company's ships, without ex- 
pressly stating his object, and obtaining their consent, 
was illegal and dangerous. He and his colleague 
were therefore both obliged to quit their places. On 
this, they both made another visit to Mrs. Carey (who 
was then at Piddington) renewing their persuasions 
for her to accompany them. At length, her sister 
(now Mrs. Short) agreeing to go with her, she con- 
sented ; and a Danish ship passing by soon after, they 
all took a passage in her. Thus the Lord prevented 
their departure in the first instance, that Mr. Carey's 
family might accompany him, and that all reproaches 
on that score might be prevented. 

*It was aft;erwards objected, that their going to 
settle in the British territories without the permission 
of the directors, though in a foreign ship, was after all 
illegal and dangerous; but to this it is replied, the 
apostles and primitive ministers were commanded to 
go into all the world, and preach the gospel to every 
creature ; nor were they to stop for the permission of 
any power upon earth ; but to go, and take the conse- 


quences. If a man of God, conscious of having 
nothing in his heart unfriendly to any civil go- 
vernment whatever, but determined in all civil 
matters to obey and teach obedience to the powers 
that are, put his life in his hand, saying, ^ I will go, 
and if I am persecuted in one city, I will flee to 

another,' whatever the wisdom of this world 

may decide upon his conduct, he will assuredly 
be acquitted, and more than acquitted, at a higher 




The projectors of the Baptist Mission commenced 
their design amidst imusual discouragements. The 
reader has already seen how very slender were their 
resources. But this was the least of the many adverse 
circumstances with which they had to contend. No 
principal denomination had at that time entered the 
field. And, not having originated any plan of foreign 
labour themselves, it was, perhaps, more than could 
reasonably be expected, that they should look with 
unmingled complacency upon one launched by an in- 
ferior body ; or that they should contribute materially 
to augment its ftinds. A long, querulous, and crabbed 
letter is yet extant, from a gentleman in one of the 
midland counties, expostulating with Mr. Fuller upon 
the impropriety of making such a work a denomina- 
tional undertaking, and the sort of sentimental ab- 
surdity, which he discerned and felt very tenderly, 
of conunencing labours and exhausting resources in 


distant countries, while so much remained to be 
effected at home. Such objections, it may be, are not 
utterly extinct to the present day. But those who 
entertain them, upon the first head, would do well to 
ask themselves, whether they are prepared to main- 
tain perpetual and perfect silence as to those views of 
truth and forms of duty which distinguish that por- 
tion of the church to which they pertain from every 
other? If they hesitate at this, they should cease to 
expect the sacrifice in others. But, suppose they 
willingly consent to bate whatever is peculiar to their 
own body, and should succeed in prevailing upon all 
their fellow-christians to adopt the same determina- 
tion, what advantage would accrue to the worid from 
such an achievement? Must not some portion of 
truth be sacrificed, and some matter of positive obe- 
dience be neglected ? Or will it be contended, that 
no part of the christian church either believes or 
practises correctly ; or, that it is a less evil, in things 
holden to be non-essential, absolutely and totally to 
neglect, than involuntarily and partially to err. It is 
far better for christians to promulge the truth of 
Christ, according to their own conceptions, and to 
inculcate obedience to his authority agreeably to their 
own views, than to speculate upon a Catholicism in- 
compatible with their present circumstances to realize. 
Nor is it likely that the heathen, or those converted 
from amongst them, would be half so stumbled at 
witnessing any diversity in the external modes of 
christian practice, as they would at the detection of 
any designed neglect or concerted scheme of compro- 


mise. As the efforts of all devout persons will be 
regulated much more by those truths and principles 
which are deemed of essential and universal interest, 
than by any distinguishing peculiarities ; so will there 
be unspeakably more in the general results of their 
labour in which to rejoice, than of denominational 
peculiarity against which to except. It is better to be- 
come at once auxiliary to an attempt at effecting some 
immediate and substantial good, made, as we suppose, 
with some attendant imperfection and error, than to 
speculate ever so sincerely upon schemes of union, or 
entertain ourselves and the world with mere hypo- 
theses of agreement and coalition, until life is wasted, 
and our opportunities for usefulness retire. Our 
christian love cannot desire more appropriate or ample 
expression than is suggested to us in the prayer of the 
apostle: * Grace be with all them who love our Lord 
Jesus Christ in sincerity.' Nor ought we to expect 
fellowship with other christians upon terms different 
from those intimated in another passage, where our 
zeal and our love are solicited at once into fervent 
action, and chastised into forbearing tenderness. 
* Whereunto we have already attained, let us walk by 
the same rule, let us mind the same thing: and, if in 
anything ye be otherwise minded, God shall reveal 
even this unto you.' 

It is also equally incorrect, and, it is to be feared, 
£air more disingenuous, to entertain with repugnance, 
or treat with indifference, a project for conveying the 
gospel to distant nations, because, much corresponding 
labour is in requisition at home. It is of far greater 


importance to commence such labours, than accurately 
to resolve the comparative claims of different latitudes 
of the globe to become their primary scene. The 

* great salvation ' is the patrimony of the worid ; and 
every portion of the human race, accessible to chris- 
tian agency, is equally eligible to its mercies. The 
eariy dispensers of the gospel did not tarry in one 
region until all its population received it. Some, it is 
confessed, were driven from their native province by 
the terror and force of persecution ; but others risked 
the perils of a missionary life, amongst remote and 
even barbarous tribes, from the purest charity to the 
souls of men. Nor is it supposable, that the devotion 
indispensable to originate, and keep in* vigorous 
movement, a system of exertion and sacrifice such as 
foreign missions require, should be long prosecuted 
without producing a decisively salutary influence at 
home. That *love of Christ,' which constrains a tender 
and an obedient heart, is too impatient to effect the good 
it meditates, to be holden in arrest, until a cautious, 
calculating, secular wisdom, has formed its decisions; 
and too deferential to supreme authority, to regard 
them when enunciated. A prudential worldly man, 
aye, and many a * sober' christian, may deem the 
votary of such a principle to be * beside himself;' 
whilst he, conscious of no desire but to please God, is 
content to appeal from the judgment of men to His. 

* If we be beside ourselves, it is to God.' It is too often 
assumed that men, fervent and prompt, must be indis- 
creet; and that those of cool temperament and slow 
movement must be wise. But what hinders the com- 


bination of a feeling heart with a bright, sound, and 
discriminating intelligence? And why should we deem 
it conclusive, that the man who cannot feel, must 
therefore think profoundly and judge rightly ? Must 
the noblest nature on earth be the least of all consistent 
with itself, and be destined to so great an absurdity, 
as to present its main attributes in necessary and 
ceaseless hostility? If a fair history of our moral 
nature could be exhibited, it would perhaps be found 
that the most feeling men were the most reflecting. 
The very attention they give to great and benevolent 
objects renders them vigilant observers of providential 
occurrences, and anxious to adopt the most promising 
means for compassing them. 

The sensibilities of a christian heart being once ex- 
cited, they will be easily provoked into new and 
further developments, and wrought to higher inten- 
sity, as legitimate occasions are supplied. More than 
half the popular charities of this kingdom have been 
devised and brought into active operation since 
foreign missions commenced; and the wealth by 
which they are replenished, is derived principally 
from the same source. But, persons who demur at 
contributing to evangelizing the heathen abroad, be- 
cause, as they allege, Hhey have heathen at home,' 
will be found to be those to whom these * heathen at 
home' are least of all indebted. When making some 
slight effort a few years ago in Philadelphia, in be- 
half of 'female schools in India,' a department of 
missionary labour then of recent origin, those who 
met me with rigid mien, declaring they could not 

G 2 


consistently, nor in conscience^ divert their benevolence 
into a foreign channel, while so much remained un- 
accomplished at home, I found very seldom disturbed 
the repose of their own vicinity by their labours or 
their donations ; while, on the other hand, those who 
wished * God-speed' to my distant object, were known 
to respond most freely, and to give like princes to 
every domestic claim whether civil or religious. A 
gentleman who had been conspicuous in aiding a 
missionary collection, was met the following day by 
one of dissimilar habits, who chided him for the ab- 
surd eccentricity of which he deemed him guilty, in 
giving to such an object, and in such profusion. It 
was preposterous, he said, to be sending heaps of 
money abroad, to be spent, no one knew how, while 

there were so many unemployed starving poor in . 

*I will give £ to the poor of , if you will 

give an equal sum,* said the christian friend. * I did 
not mean that,* replied the objector. *But,' continued 
he, * if you must go from home, why so far. Think 

of the miserable poor of Ireland.* *I will give £ 

to the poor of Ireland, if you will do the same.' ' I 
did not mean that, either,' was the reply. No, it is 
neither this nor that, which this class of objectors 
exactly mean ; but, simply to veil their criminal par- 
simony by excepting against the proceedings of liberal 
men, whom, if they could not condemn, they must, 
for very shame, in some degree imitate. 

In the Baptist denomination itself there were strong 
difficulties to encounter. Many, from the doctrinal 
views they had embraced, were deeply prejudiced 


against all missionary labours. Others objected, or 
held back from directly giving encouragement, or 
sharing in the responsibility, from prudential con- 
siderations. The project arose in an obscure part of 
the kingdom, and among brethren, at that time, but 
little celebrated. The scene chosen on which first to 
assay it, was remote, and but little known. To reach 
and occupy it would of course be very expensive; 
whilst the issue was doubtful. To make such an 
attempt and fail, must incur disappointment, and 
perhaps dishonour. They were not disposed to com- 
mit themselves, and to compromise the denomination 
to a mere experiment. Of all the metropolitan 
ministers, only one, it appears, was of a different 
mind ; and when a meeting was holden in the city to 
consider the propriety of forming a Society auxiliary 
to the one originated in Northamptonshire, the propo- 
sition was negatived by an overwhelming majority, 
and a very respectable and pious gentleman, nominated 
to receive subscriptions, was not induced to accept the 
office. I have heard Dr. Carey, notwithstanding, 
speak with gratitude of the personal respect with 
which he was treated, both by Dr. Stennett and the 
venerable Abraham Booth. He also, when in London, 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Newton, who advised 
him with the fidelity and tenderness of a father; and 
encouraged him to persevere in his purpose despite of 
all opposition. *What,' says Mr. Carey, * if the Com- 
pany should send us home upon our arrival in 
Bengal? Then, conclude,' said he, Hhat your Lord 
has nothing there for you to accomplish. But, if he 
have, no power on earth can hinder you. ' 


The reader is already apprised that Mr. Carey was 
proceeding to embark for India without his wife. All 
persuasions to induce Mrs. Carey to accompany him, 
at present, were utteriy vain. To resign her eldest 
son, Felix, was the utmost to which her consent could 
be obtained. His mind was irrevocably fixed upon 
the mission, whatever pain, or perplexity, or odium 
the pursuit of it might involve. Some will find it 
difiicult to award their approbation to his conduct. 
But, to judge accurately, we must do our best to 
realize his circumstances. The conviction, that it was 
his duty to go and preach the gospel to the heathen, 
unless an absolute physical impossibility should pre- 
sent itself, was, in his judgment, as imperative as that 
of discipleship itself. He could as soon cease to be a 
christian, in other words, as he could consent to re- 
linquish his purpose of discipling some portion of the 
idolatrous world to Christ. As to the piety and 
integrity of the procedure, none who knew him enter- 
tained the shadow of a doubt; the wisdom of it was 
a secondary matter, capable of distinct consideration, 
and upon which difierent parties might pronounce 
difierently, as they were able to appreciate the motives 
of the individual, and according to the estimation in 
which they held his design. Subsequent occurrences, 
as the reader will presently see, resolved this dilemma. 
It may be just to remark, however, in passing, that it 
was his full determination to return to England when 
the mission had obtained a footing, hoping that he 
might then persuade Mrs. Carey to return with him, 
as it might seem to her less perilous, than it was to 
adventure at first, when the path was untrodden. 


Another difficulty arose out of the circumstances of 
his companion. He was in pecuniary embarrassment ; 
and, though he candidly avowed this in a very early, 
if not the first, of his communications to the com- 
mittee, it yet proved to be of more serious incon- 
venience than they seemed to be then aware of. Mr. 
Thomas was brought up to the medical profession; 
and, for some years, practised in London. ^ But find- 
ing it,' as he expressed himself, * more easy to give 
than to obtain credit,' he was compelled to sell all ofi*, 
and wait in lodgings until an offer was made him of 
going to Bengal as surgeon, in one of the Honourable 
Company's ships, in 1783, which he accepted. In 
1785, he returned to London, was received into 
church-fellowship by Dr. Stennett, and, soon after, 
began to exercise his talent as a preacher. In 1786, he 
again proceeded to India, when he made the acquaint- 
ance of some pious episcopalians, who, witnessing his 
fervent piety and * aptness to teach, ' prevailed upon 
him to remain in India, engaging to contribute to his 
support, while he should be making the acquisition of 
the language, and communicating, as he might be 
able, the gospel to the natives. He also laboured 
hard in attempting to translate the New Testament 
into the Bengali language. In the course of two or 
three years he and his friends separated their con- 
nexion. Upon this he revisited England, designing, 
should he be able, to realize sufficient encouragement 
from the religious public, to return to Bengal, and 
spend the residue of his life as a missionary. His at- 
tempt to compass this object, and the formation of the 


Baptist Missionary Society in Northamptonshire, were 
consentaneous events, which, becoming known to the 
respective parties, Mr. Thomas relinquished his 
purpose of forming any distinct agency on his own 
account, and became the Society's missionary. This 
arrangement becoming known to Mr. Thomas's former 
creditors, one of them came to Ryde, while the mis- 
sionaries were there awaiting the summons of em- 
barkation, to enforce his claims. Mr. Thomas was out 
when the unwelcome visitor made his appearance for 
this purpose. His companion was, as it may be sup- 
posed, in no small measure annoyed at the occur- 

But another disaster followed, far more withering 
to his hopes. The missionaries having obeyed the 
summons for embarkation, and gotten their baggage 
on board, an anonymous letter was received by the 
captain, admonishing him at his peril to proceed with 
persons unlicensed by the company. They were forth- 
with compelled to disembark. The anxiety and deso- 
lation which seized the mind of Mr. Carey cannot be 
described. The strong sturdy heart of Mr. Fuller 
upon this intelligence sunk within him. The feelings 
of each of them are best conveyed in their own words. 

'Rijde, Matf 21y 93. 
' My very dear Friend, 

*I have just time to inform you that all our plans 
are entirely frustrated for the present. On account of 
the irregular manner of our going out, an information 
is laid against the captain (I suppose by one of Mr. 


T.'s creditors) for taking a person on board without an 
order from the company. The person not being spe- 
eifiedy both he and myself, and another passenger are 
ordered to quit the ship, and I am just going to take all 
my things out. 

*Our venture must go, or it will be seized by the 
Custom-house officers. Mrs. Thomas and daughter 
go. I know not how to act, but will write you more 
particularly as soon as I get to some settled place. I 
leave the island to-day or to-morrow, and on Thursday 
the ship sails without us. All I can say in this affair 
is, that however mysterious the leadings of Providence 
are, I have no doubt but they are superintended by an 
infinitely wise God. 

*I have no time to say more. Mr. T. is gone to 
London again on the business. Adieu. 

* Yours, affectionately, 

*W. Carey.' 

Mr. Fuller transmitted the foregoing letter to Dr. 
Ryland, and wrote on it as follows : 

* Kettering^ May 2ith. 
*My dear Brother, 

* Perhaps Carey has written to you— We are all 
undone — I am grieved — yet, perhaps 'tis best — Tho- 
mas's debts and embranglements damped my pleasure 
before — Perhaps 'tis best he should not go — I am 
afraid leave will never be obtained now for Carey, or 
any other — And the adventure seems to be lost — He 
says nothing of the £250 for voyage — 'Tis well if that 
be not lost — Yours, ever, * A. F.' 


Mr. Carey and his companion returned to London, 
depressed and almost overwhelmed with their disap- 
pointment. In the course of a few days, however, the 
scene began to brighten, and their spirits to rally. 
The elasticity of Mr. Thomas's mind, his alacrity and 
enterprise, and the self-denial he manifested at this 
trying juncture, were astonishing, and justly entitled 
him to the grateful remembrance of all who feel an 
interest in the welfare of this mission. And so speedy 
and evidently propitious were the interpositions of 
Providence, that before the various friends of the 
institution could well be apprised of this apparent 
frustration of their counsels and their hopes, they saw 
it resolved into one of the most beneficial dispensations 
that could have been conceived of, circumstanced as 
it then was. Immediately a ship is heard of bound to 
Bengal, under a foreign flag, and therefore not subject 
to the control of the company. Mrs. Carey, too, con- 
trary to all expectation, is prevailed upon to accom- 
pany her husband. A passage is secured on most 
advantageous terms ; and, in a few days, after being 
forcibly rejected from the Earl of Oxford, they re- 
embark, and actually set sail for the distant East. 

These remarkable circumstances are vividly detailed 
by Mr. Thomas, in the following letter to Mr. Fuller. 

'Buddaul, March 10, 1794. 
* Rev. AND DEAR Sir, 

*This place is about sixty miles to the eastward of 
Malda. I am cdme hither on a journey with Mr. 
Udney's family. Mr. Carey and his family are about 


300 miles oSj to the eastward of Calcutta ; and my 
own family are on a journey from Calcutta to Malda, 
where Mr. Carey and all will meet, we hope, in a 
short time. We have been greatly distressed with 
difficulties, troubles, and fears on every side ; but the 
Lord is making room for us, and compassing us about 
with songs of deliverance. 

* You remember what I told you at Kettering of my 
being in debt, though having sent home muslins, 
camphor, &c., to the amount of 18,000 rupees, which 
sold, when the market was very low, for little more 
than £1,100. This was distributed among my credi- 
tors as far as it would go, and this was £500 short of 
their demand. I entertained some hopes of a compu- 
tation with my creditors when I saw you, by paying 
them a sum, which I found afterwards I was not able 
to raise. Having nothing to offer by way of payment, 
I neglected waiting on them, till they came after me. 
I then told them all the truth; appealed to my own 
experience, testifying my intention of paying them, 
but now I was very poor. Still, as they saw me bent 
on an expensive voyage, they could not believe this. 
I had a secret hope that money would come from some 
quarter or other, just to help us over the sea, through 
the kind providence of God, but had no assurance or 
possession of money, yet was as fully bent on going as 
if I had. My creditors could not see through all this, 
and suspected my integrity. They began to hunt, and 
I to flee as a partridge, yet still continuing to preach 
publicly wherever I was asked. Every day I had 
fears without that I should be arrested, and hopes 


witliin that I should escape: till at length the happy 
day was come when I was relieved by a chain of pro- 
vidences, and embarked with my family and my fellow- 
labourer on board the Earl of Oxford. We sailed off 
witli great joy to the Motherbank : but here we were 
detmned longer by many weeks than we expected. 
Matters being left in London not quite so well settled 
as I could wish, I returned to that city by land; and 
I had not been gone many hours, before one of my 
creditors called at my lodging in the Isle of Wight, 
with a writ and bailiff, to arrest me for £100 or less. 
Mr. Carey and my wife were in great apprehension 
and fear for me, and I trembled to think of my situa- 
tion. But, of his own accord, the man dropped the 
pursuit, after several menaces to the contrary: the 
time of sailing drew very near, and I ventured to join 
my family. 

*We were in expectation of sailing within four days, 
when the purser of the ship came to inform us, that 
the captain had received an anonymous letter from the 
India House, saying that a person was going out in 
his ship without the company's leave, and information 
would be lodged against him, if the person alluded to 
proceeded on the voyage; and that in consequence of 
this letter, the captain could not think of taking bro- 
ther Carey or me, suspecting it to mean one of us. 
Our distress on this occasion was very great. I went 
up to London to search for the author of this letter, 
hoping to satisfy the captain 'twas neither of us meant. 
I took the letter with me; but finding all inquiries 
vain, I returned to Portsmouth. There I met brother 


Carey in tears, telling me the captain was now fully 
determined to take neither of us ; and the season grew 
so late we had little hopes of any other ship, but con- 
soled ourselves with some broken hopes of going by 
land. In the midst of these dark and gloomy circum- 
stances, we could not help wondering to find Mrs. 
Thomas, who had with much difiiculty been persuaded 
to come at all, determined now to go without us, with 
her child, upon the hope of our following soon after. 

*The next day, Mr. Carey got all his baggage out 
of the ship, and, with a heart heavier than all, came 
away with me. That which would have made us leap 
for joy before, added to our grief now, viz., to see all 
the ships get under weigh and sail off: at the same 
instant, we, leaving our baggage at Portsmouth, re- 
turned to London. Carey was for asking leave of the 
company now; but they had just set their wicked 
faces against a mission to the East Indies, by sending 
some of their ablest advocates for total darkness to 
plead against all missionaries in the Commons of 
Great Britain. While Carey wrote to his wife, I 
would go to a coffee-house, with eager desire to know 
whether any Swedish or Danish ship was expected to 
sail from Europe to Bengal, or any part of the East 
Indies this season ; when, to the great joy of a bruised 
heart, the waiter put a card into my hand, whereon 
were written these life-giving words: ^A Danish East 
Indiaman, No. 10, Cannon Street.' No more tears 
that night. Our courage revived; we fled to No. 10, 
Cannon Street, and found it was the office of Smith 
and Co., agents ; that Mr. Smith was a brother of the 


captain's, and lived in Gower Street; that this ship 
had sailed, as he supposed, from Copenhagen; was 
hourly expected in Dover roads ; would make no stay 
there; and the terms were £100 for a passenger, £50 
for a child, £25 for an attendant. We went away 
wishing for money. Carey had £150 returned from 
the Oxford : this was not half sufficient for all, and 
we were not willing to part. Besides, our baggage 
was still at Portsmouth; and Carey had written to 
Mrs. Carey that he was coming to see her ; and also he 
entertained some faint hopes that she might now join 
us, if she could be so persuaded, for she had lain in 
only three weeks : but the shortest way of accomplish- 
ing all this would take up so much time, that we 
feared we should be too late for the ship. That night, 
therefore, we set off, and breakfasted with Mrs. Carey 
the next morning. She refused to go with us, which 
gave Mr. Carey much grief. I reasoned with her a 
long time to no purpose. I had entreated the Lord in 
prayer to make known his will, and not to suffer 
either of us to fight against him, by persuading her 
to go on the one hand, or stay on the other. This ex- 
pression moved her, but her determination not to go 
was apparently fixed. We. now set off to Mr. Ryland, 
of Northampton, to ask for money; and on our way 
thither I found Mr. Carey's hope of his wife all gone. 
I proposed to go back once more ; but he overruled 
it, saying it was of no use. At last I said, * I will go 
back.' — *Well, do as you think proper,* said he; *but 
I think we are losing time.' I went back, and told 
Mrs. Carey her going out with us was a matter of such 


importance, 1 could not leave her so— her family 
would be dispersed and divided for ever — she would 
repent of it as long as she lived. As she tells me since, 
this last saying, frequently repeated, had such an 
effect upon her, that she was afraid to stay at home ; 
and afterward, in a few minutes, determined to go, 
trusting in the Lord : but this should be on condi- 
tion of her sister going with her. This was agreed 
to. We now set off for Northampton like two dif- 
ferent men; our steps so much quicker, our hearts 
so much lighter. 

*The counting of the cost, however, was still enough 
to damp all our hopes. No less than eight persons' 
passage to be paid for, besides the necessaries to be 
bought for fitting all out for so long a voyage, would 
require £700 at least ! Mr. Ryland gave us to under- 
stand, that there was not so much in hand by far : but 
what there was he was heart-willing should go, and 
faith gave credit for the rest. So within the space of 
twenty-four hours, the whole family packed up, and 
left all, and were in two post-chaises on their way to 
London, where we were authorized to take up money 
if we could. Dear Mr. Booth, Thomas, and Rippon 
helped us with their whole might; while I went to 
bargain with the captain's agent. I rejoiced to hear 
him say that the ship was not arrived. I told him 
that, in hopes of being time enough, I had been down 
to Northampton, and brought up a large family to go 
in the ship. He was struck with the dispatch that 
had been made; and I continued to say, that their 
finances were slender, and expenses very great; 


that the terms I had to offer him were these : that two 
people should be at the captain's table only (Mr. and 
Mrs. C); that two cabins only would be required; 
and two persons (Mrs. C.'s sister and myself) would 
go as attendants, and receive their dinner from or 
with the servants, or any way whatever, that would 
be convenient to the captain ; that for these accom- 
modations I had three hundred guineas to offer him. 
I was moved with wonder, to see the hand of God 
on this occasion, in his accepting these terms, the 
lowest, I suppose, that ever were heard of. He said 
what wrought the most with him, was such a large 
family being actually advanced to go. 

* Within twenty-four hours after our arrival in 
London, Mr. Carey and his family embarked for 
Dover, to catch the ship in passing, while I set off 
for Portsmouth to fetch the baggage. It would be 
too late if I brought it by land; and it was so dan- 
gerous to go by water, that the boatmen refused large 
sums, saying the channel was full of privateers from 
France, which came hovering close on our coasts. 
At last, one man undertook to go in an open boat for 
twenty guineas. Terrified as I was lest the ship 
should pass by, yet I refused to give this sum ; and I 
spent two whole days in searching for a man, till 
a fisherman took me for nine guineas. In twenty-four 
hours more I arrived at Dover, having ran through 
all the privateers in the dark, if there were any, and 
met my brother Carey with great gladness of heart, 
and, without any other evil occurrent, embarked on 
board the Kron Princessa Maria, as you have heard. 


There, indeed, we could not expect the captain to 
treat us all as passengers, or to be very well pleased 
with such a crowd of people and such little money. 
But who can cease wondering, or praising, to find 
the captain gladly receive us all with the utmost 
tenderness and concern, admitting all to his table, 
and furnishing us all with handsome cabins?' 






The devout reader cannot have passed over the 
facts narrated in the foregoing section, without ad- 
miring the wisdom and benignity of the divine pro- 
vidence, in opening a way for an elevated devotion to 
display itself, at a crisis, and under circumstances, of 
such eminent discouragement. Nor can we fail, from 
such interpositions, to gather confidence in attempting 
the most arduous service, and offering the most costly 
sacrifice, to which the dictates of an enlightened con- 
science can urge us. 

The following documents, rehearsing the circum- 
stances of the voyage of Mr. Carey, and his friend 
Mr. Thomas, it is presumed, will be found of some in- 
terest to the christian reader. 

Extract of a letter from Mr. Thomas to 

'Bengal Bay, October 26, 1793. 

*0n Thursday morning, the 13th of June, we put to 

sea, in expectation of writing to you by the Triton 

frigate, which conveyed us out of the track of 

privateers, who might otherwise have detained us; 


but when we took leave it blew so fresh we could not 
hoist out a boat, so that a large packet of letters, 
written by each of us, was not sent you. 

* On our coming on board we felt ourselves a little 
awkward, thinking that some of them seemed very 
sensible that they were passengers of a better rank 
than we were, and considering they had paid £100 
each, and we, who were eight persons, only 300 
guineas ; wherefore, we expected to be treated accor- 
dingly, and determined to endure it. For my part, I 
expected a very uncomfortable and lonely passage, 
having agreed to mess with the servants. We agreed 
for two cabins only, and two persons to mess at the 
captain's table ; but he that gave Joseph favour in the 
sight of Pharaoh, had graciously provided for us and 
our little ones, far beyond our expectation. We found 
the captain a very well-bred Englishman. He neither 
would suffer me nor Mrs. Carey's sister to absent our- 
selves from his table, and received and entertained us 
all along as though we had been people of conse- 
quence; so that he has often shown kindnesses that we 
could no otherwise account for than by the good hand 
of God being upon us. On our coming on board, he im- 
mediately ordered the very best accommodation in the 
ship, and the largest to be prepared for Mrs. Carey 
and her children, and a cabin for me, and another for 
her sister was granted, while two of the gentlemen, 
who paid £200, slept in one cabin of the same size. 
On their being sea-sick, he ordered them soup, sent 
wine and other comfortable things, and would come 
himself and visit them, to see they wanted nothing 

H 2 


he could supply them with. Who can see the lovely 
accomplishments and shining abilities with which 
some are endowed, without grief of heart to see the 
'one thing needful' visibly wanting ! 

*Poor Mrs. Carey has had many fears and troubles; 
so that she was like Lot's wife, until we passed the 
Cape ; but ever since, it seems so far to look back to 
Piddington, that she turns her hopes and wishes to our 
safe arrival in Bengal. She has had good health all 
the passage, and her little babe has grown a stout 
fellow. All the children are remarkably healthy, 
which we cannot but feel as a great kindness towards 
us. Mrs. Carey's sister also shares good health, and 
all bear the heat much better than I expected. Mr. 
Carey was at one time ill with a complaint in his 
bowels, which he has been used to at home ; but the 
Lord had mercy on him and me : he is now as well, I 
suppose, as he ever was in his life, and has been for 
some months. We have preached twice on each 
Lord's-day, and have a tolerable choir of singers: 
some that came to hear us at first have entirely left 
us, and others have heard us constantly; but, to our 
great sorrow, we do not see the blessing of God on our 
labours : some profane customs on the Sabbath, and in 
common conversation, have been left off, but the one 
thing needful is lacking ; and now we remember the 
words which the Lord spoke to Ezekiel, iii. 6, * Surely,' 
&c. We have reason, nevertheless, to be thankful for 
some sweet and precious seasons of grace on board, 
which we have relished among ourselves, both on 
Sabbath-days, and in family worship, which we enjoy 


regularly twice a day. We have finished a translation 
of the book of Genesis on the passage ; and brother 
Carey helped me out in passages which I could have 
made nothing of without him. So let the goldsmith 
help the carpenter, and the carpenter the goldsmitli, 
that the work of God be done. 

*We have had some remarkable favours of pro- 
vidence on our passage besides those already men- 
tioned. About six or eight weeks s^o we began to fear 
a want of water, and to talk of an allowance; which, 
however extraordinary it may appear, we have never 
been limited by yet; well, the next day the Lord sent 
down abundance of rain, in two showers, and we 
filled many casks. About five or six days ago we 
thought ourselves driven to the southward by a strong 
current, as far as Vizagatapam, and the captain deter- 
mined to put in there. We began to be a little 
troubled in our mind as to what we should do for 
money, and, if we had it, how we should bear the charge 
of an expensive house, &c.; when the captain, very 
unexpectedly, came and told Mrs. Carey that he should 
take a house at Vizagatapam, and all her family would 
be welcome to stay there till the ship's departure. 
Moreover, he has promised to recommend us to the 
Danish governor of Serampore, sixteen miles from 
Calcutta; which will be no small favour or conve- 
nience, if the company should consider us as 
trespassers on their ground. But what is more, he 
has offered to recommend us to the secretary of the 
supreme council, that we may procure land ; and if 
this should be of God, we shall rejoice; if not — 


contented. But, in one sense, we are sure these kind 
favours from men are of God; and we have good 
hope that he will make room for us and our little 
ones, especially when we look back and see ourselves 
on the brink of sailing, but suddenly stopped and sent 
back; no prospect of another ship; I and my family 
become two bands; all darkness and threatening, 
fear and dismay; but in three days another ship 
appears, takes us, and the whole family; which we 
just before thought, on many accounts, impossible to 
be done. When we think of these things that are 
past, we trust Him for all that is to come. ' 

Amongst the many points of unavoidable secular 
detail in the conduct of missionary societies, the 
transit of their agents is one deserving no small 
attention. Comfort and economy are the points to 
be secured. The missionary himself, it is hoped, will 
generally pay as studious an attention to the latter, as 
the society that sends him forth; and the society, 
whilst justly anxious to husband well, and wisely 
apply, the resources placed at their disposal, should 
carefully avoid an inconvenient and pinching parsi- 
mony. The public, the missionary, and the society 
should consider that they are all mutually obliged in 
this work, and neither party should conceive it has 
any interest separate from the other. The public, that 
their devotion can be in some degree represented, and 
their obligations to the heathen world discharged, and 
the fruits of their benevolence profitably applied, 
through the labours and sufferings of one specially 


consecrated to this particular service. The missionary 
is equally so, as, by the bounty of the public, and the 
patronage of a particular society, he is enabled to 
gratify desires which he would be incompetent to do 
in his insulated capacity. The society is also both 
obliged and honoured, because, in their associated 
capacity, whilst they can effect more good than would 
be possible by their solitary efforts and contributions, 
they are constituted the depositaries of the con* 
centrated bounty of the christian world, and the 
directors and guardians of its devoted agents. Chris- 
tians in commercial life, whose property is in the 
shipping interest, may become the largest bene&ctors 
to the missionary cause at no very great sacrifice, 
whilst the fact of their proprietorship will be a 
guarantee for the proper treatment of the parties* 
Gentlemen might be referred to, who have in this way 
repeatedly rendered the Baptist Missionary Society 
their debtors, and who, we trust, will be imitated by 

Those to whom societies refer the negociation of 
passages for their brethren, should be solicitous to 
obtain a good ship and a reputable captain; and a 
keen regard should be had to the accommodations, 
especially when females are to be arranged for. No 
society should become a party to the mission of a 
single lady, except she can go under protection. The 
expense of a passage is of secondary importance. 
A crazy and crank vessel, with a rude and vulgar 
captain, bad fare, and low fellow-passengers, without 
the charge of a single farthing, would render a voyage 


far too costly. The inconvenience and mortification 
accruing from such sources would be a sufficient trial 
for a single day; but recurring every day, and every 
hour, for six months in succession, become intolerable, 
and are such as no missionary and his wife should be 
obnoxious to, if there exists a possibility of their pre- 
vention. Some painful tales might be told upon this 
subject, were it discreet to relate them, and such as 
might prove admonitory to those intrusted with the 
transaction of such aifairs. In negociating terms, no 
such severity should be observed as might disparage 
a missionary in the estimation of the captain. And, 
then, when a society has done its part, let the brother 
take special care he does not disparage himself. With- 
out such care, this may very soon be done. No scene 
is more trying to character and to temper than a 
ship, particularly to young and inexperienced persons, 
such as missionaries and their wives ordinarily are, 
and such as they must be, until those of some age and 
standing in the christian church embark in the work. 
Great circumspection is desirable in our intercourse 
with fellow-passengers, many of whom are of very 
dissimilar principles and habits to those which a mis- 
sionary is supposed to hold and cultivate. A christian 
in these, as in all other circumstances, should not be 
deficient in the civilities of life; yet he will find it 
convenient to put his social tendencies under more 
restraint than is needful at other times. The close 
and almost unavoidable contact into which you are 
thrown in the living details of every day, without care, 
>vill originate annoyance and collisions. Reserve will 


prove less inconvenient than familiarity. The fonner, 
though it will make you apparently less amiable, will 
yet throw a defence about you, and render insult and 
encroachment difficult. All altercation with fellow- 
passengers upon secular matters should be studiously 
avoided, though the temptation to it may be strong. 
The commencement of a voyage is often the most 
trying period ; and, from the novelty of the predica- 
ment in which we find ourselves, very difficult to be 
borne. Do not expect too much from ship-servants. 
The moment you most require them, they have ten 
calls, each one of which is as urgent as yours. In 
bad weather you are not likely to find your fellow- 
passengers bland and courteous. The inconvenience 
that all share will make every one careful only for 
himself. And, even at other times, some will be 
found, who, though on shore they might pass 
moderately well as gentlemen, through their consti- 
tutional impatience and the tedium of a sea-life, will 
be always misanthropic, and, whether the wind blow 
foul or fair, will quarrel with a straw. It is preferable 
to reconcile oneself to neglect or injury in such a 
case, than to risk remonstrance or complaint. Not 
but that a minister will meet with sympathy and 
defence under insult and ill-treatment; yet worldly 
gentlemen will offer it in their own way, which will 
incur an evil, perhaps, tenfold more aggravated than 
the one they resent. A christian minister, being once 
abusively spoken to by a fellow-passenger, was 
generously defended by another; but the resentment 
of the injury was shown by threatening the offender 


with a duel. Thus, his high-minded friend grieved 
him a thousand times more than his enemy. 

A missionary will witness much on board a ship to 
shock religious feeling. It will require as much 
wisdom as zeal to resolve how and when to reprove. 
A mistake in either of these particulars, may exas- 
perate and excite repugnance. 

Missionaries are generally allowed to conduct 
public religious exercises; though some captains have 
been, and still are, sufficiently prejudiced and absurd 
to prohibit them, judging that, if they take hold of 
the mind of a sailor, they disqualify in some way, they 
scarcely know how, for duty. Now and then, upon a 
very fine Sunday, they think it may do no harm to 
read the prayers of the church of England. When 
that is done, they consider * there is an end of it;* 
but what praying and preaching may lead to, is hard 
to tell. But this narrowness and misconception, once 
so common among seafaring officers, are fast wearing 
away. The good that missionaries have effected on 
their voyage has its living testimony in every part of 
the globe. Better behaved hearers are not to be met 
with through all the gradations of society than sailors 
and soldiers. Their habits of obedience are favourable 
at least to attention, and that, again^ to a correct per- 
ception of what is addressed to them ; and my belief 
is, that, according to the means of instruction they 
enjoy, the preaching of the gospel has been more 
successful among them than amongst any other 
portion of mankind. 

The religious reader will, perhaps, recur to some 


painful notices in the life of Henry Martyn, which 
may appear to militate against the correctness of such 
remarks. But two things should be remembered; 
first, that the contempt and bitterness he met with 
were from gentlemen passengers, who, when it can 
be done with impunity, will sometimes allow them- 
selves in improprieties which surprise common sailors, 
and make them blush. Secondly, those who have read 
attentively the life of that pious and truly excellent 
man, must have perceived that his main excel- 
lencies lay in the holiness of his affections, and the 
intensity of his zeal: a discriminating wisdom was 
that for which he was least of all distinguished. He 
was absorbed in the greater virtues, but was, perhaps, 
less considerate than he might have been, in their 
circumstantial developments. Nor does he appear 
at all times so patient under resistance, and so tran-^ 
quil under disappointment, as would have been 
corroborative of his principles, and just to his 
motives. On finding, after a Sabbath exercise, that 
some passengers had taken in bad part some ultimate 
and alarming truths which he had addressed to them, 
and that they were profane enough to turn them into 
ridicule, he records, that, the next time he preached, 
he took for his text, ^The wicked shall be turned into 
hell, with all the nations that forget God.' To induce 
the conviction that men are in utter ruin, and shut up 
to the faith of Christ, a direct criminating style is 
not the most judicious. Paul * reasoned of temperance, 
righteousness, and a judgment to come ; and Felix 
trembled.' If any class of men apprehend that you 


address them under an impression that their religious 
state is more desperate than that of other men, their 
self-righteousness will be provoked, and they will not 
scrapie at seizing the first occasion to manifest their 
disgust. I have been informed by those who sailed 
with Mr. Marty n, that he was subject to much vexa- 
tion the greater part of his voyage; which they 
attributed partly to the superior sanctity of his 
character, and partly to the style of his preaching. 
One of these witnesses continues to this day a me- 
morial of his faithfiilness and zeal. An incident 
occurred, at the regimental 'mess' at Dinapore, which 
strikingly evinced, and did honour, to his dauntless 
courage. The commanding officer, an aged man, 
having uttered himself profanely, Mr. Martyn re- 
proved him, at which the colonel was revolted, and 
said, with indignation, * I think, if nothing else could 
do it, my gray hairs ought to defend me from such 
remarks,' *Sir,' replied the man of God, *if your 
good sense cannot defend you, your gray hairs ought 

Mr. Carey's Journal. 1793. 

* Thursday, June 13. After being prevented from 
going in the Oxford (by reason of the abominable 
East India monopoly), we embarked, by divine Provi- 
dence, in the Kron Princessa Maria, a Danish ship, 
commanded by captain Christmas, an Englishman, 
at five in the morning, from Dover, and by night were 
ofl' Beachy Head. This, I hope, was a day of joy to 


my soul. I was returned to take all my family with 
me, and to enjoy all the blessings which I had sur- 
rendered up to God. This is an ebenezer which I 
raise to God, and I hope to be strengthened whenever 
I reflect upon it. 

*16. Lord's-day. A little recovered. Met for prayer 
and exhortation in my cabin. Had a dispute with a 
French deist. Lat. 46'. 12'. N., Long. 6°. W. 

*17 — 23. All this week nothing of moment oc- 
curred. We met every morning and evening for 
family prayer, and met with innumerable civilities 
from every body on board ; but have most awfiil proof 
of the efiects of human depravity when heightened 
by bad principles. The old deist (Barnard) is one 
of the most daring, presumptuous wretches, that ever 
I heard. Calms the last five days. 

*23. Lord*s-day. Had two public meetings. Mr. 
T. preached once, and I once. In the morning we 
had but one person more than our own family : in the 
afternoon we had three ; the Surgeon and two of the 
passengers. God grant that it may be useful ! 

'24, 25. Fell in with the trade-wind in lat. 39^ N., 
and the next day passed the island of Madeira. It 
was in sight the greatest part of the day. A French 
privateer hoisted English colours, and pretended to be 
bound for Sierra Leone. 

'*0n the 24th saw a number of flying-fish. Have 
begim to write Bengali, and read Edwards's Sermons, 
and Cowper's Poems. Mind tranquil and serene. I 
have of late found my mind more impressed than 
ordinarily with the importance of the work upon which 


I am going. God grant that I may feel it more and 

*29. This day, about three o'clock in the afternoon, 
passed the tropic of Cancer. The heat is very mode- 
rate, and has been all the voyage : the thermometer at 
72°, and has never been more. I find some delight in 
reading, and in preparing for my work by writing the 
Bengali; only, however, because it relates to my 
great work. 

*30. Lord's-day, A pleasant and profitable day. 
Our congregation composed of ten persons. But no 
good done yet. Lat. 21° 5'. 

* July 1. But little wind. Had a long conversation 
with the deist to-day ; but never found a man so har- 
dened and determined to turn scripture into ridicule 
as he. Oh how dreadfully depraved is human nature ! 

*6. But little wind. A busy day, but happy 
within. Yet a most unprofitable creature. I have 
need to read the word of God more ; and, above all, I 
want a heart to feed upon it. 

*7. Lord's-day. A pleasant, and I hope a profitable 
one. Our congregation increased by one. Had much 
sweetness and enjoyment of God. 

'10 — 21. Contrary winds, by which we were de- 
tained, and prevented from making much progress. 
Was very ill, owing to a bilious complaint, and 
obstructed perspiration, which is very dangerous in 
hot countries. Find my mind somewhat drawn out 
to God, but in general quite spiritless. On the 2l8t 
passed the line, and the whole day was spent by the 
sailors in mirth: but my soul was sad. 


*23 — Aug. 2. Last night passed the tropic of Ca- 
pricorn. This time has been filled up with various 
exercises of mind. I have in general reason to mourn 
that I have no more of the spiritual warfare maintained 
in my soul, and no more communion with God. I 
feel myself to be much declined upon the whole, in 
the more spiritual exercises of religion ; yet have had 
some pleasant exercises of soul, and feel my heart set 
upon the great work upon which I am going. Some- 
times I am quite dejected when I see the impenetra- 
bility of the hearts of those with us. They hear us 
preach on the Lord's-day, but we are forced to witness 
their disregard to God all the week. O may God 
give us greater success among the heathen. I am 
very desirous that my children may pursue the same 
work ; and now intend to bring up one in the study of 
Sanscrit, and another of Persian. O may God give 
them grace to fit them for the work ! I have been 
much concerned for fear the power of the company 
should oppose us; but though we have spent much 
time in contriving, we have at last concluded to apply 
to them for land to settle upon, and leave the success 
with God. 

*20. Nothing very material having occurred since 
we passed the tropic of Capricorn, I have not written 
any account; but this day we are off the Cape of Good 
Hope. We expected to have gone in there ; on accoimt 
of which, I had written to friends in England some 
time since: but now, having some hopes of arriving 
in Bengal before the breaking up of the monsoon, we 
pass by. I have some reason to regret this, as I had 


hopes of persuading one of the ministers there to 
engage in a correspondence with England : but the 
Lord is wise. I have reason to lament over a barren- 
ness of soul, and am sometimes much discouraged; 
for if I am so dead and stupid, how can I expect to be 
of any use among the heathen ? Yet I have of late 
felt some very lively desires after the success of our 
undertaking. If there is any thing engages my heart 
in prayer to God, it is that the heathen may be con- 
verted, and that the society which has so generously 
exerted itself may be encouraged, and excited to go 
on with greater vigour in the important undertaking. 
My wife, through mercy, is well satisfied with our 
undertaking, and we are all now in remarkably good 
health. Our course was by the islands of Trinidad, 
Saxemburg, Tristhand, de Cunha, and then from lat. 
27° S., long. 29° W., due east to this place. 

*25. A very pleasant day; had much enjoyment in 
public worship. But about half-past one on Monday 
morning, was awakened by the violent motion of the 
ship, and in about half an hour was informed that she 
had carried away her main-top and fore-top masts. I 
went upon deck, where a dreadful scene presented itself; 
the masts and rigging hanging over the side, and the 
ship violently rolling and pitching. Once I thought 
she must have gone down ; but through mercy all were 

' 29. All day a hard gale. 

*Nov. 9, 1793. From the time of my last journal to 
this, nothing of so much importance occurred as to be 
worth recording. I think that I have had more liberty 


in prayer, and more converse with God, than for some 
time before ; but have, notwithstanding, been a very 
unfruitful creature, and so remain. For near a month 
we have been within two hundred miles of Bengal, 
but the violence of the currents set us back when we 
have been at the very door. I hope I have learned 
the necessity of bearing up in the things of God 
against wind and tide, when there is occasion, as we 
have done in our voyage. We have had our port in 
view all along, and there has been every attention 
paid to ascertain our situation by solar and lunar ob- 
servations : no opportunity occurred that was neglect- 
ed. Oh that I was but as attentive to the evidence of 
my state, as they to their situation! A ship sails 
within six points of the wind ; that is, if the wind blow 
from the North, a ship will sail £, N. E. upon one 
tack, and W. N. W. upon the other: if our course is 
North, we must therefore go E. N. E. for a consider- 
able way, then W. N. W. ; and if the wind shifts a 
point, the advantage is immediately taken. Now, 
though this is tiresome work, and (especially if a cur- 
rent sets against us) we scarcely make any way; nay, 
sometimes, in spite of all that we can do, we go back- 
wards instead of forwards; yet it is absolutely necessary 
to keep working up, if we ever mean to arrive at our 
port. So in the christian life, we often have to work 
against wind and currents ; but we must do it if we 
expect ever to make our port. 


Mr. Carey to the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel amongst the Heathen. 

' Bay of Bengal, \lth Oct., 1793. 
*Dear Brethren, 

* Twice before this have I written, in expectation 
of an opportunity to send to you, but was disappointed. 
Once was in the Bay of Biscay, by the frigate which 
convoyed us on ; but when she parted with us, the sea 
ran too high to send a boat. Again, we expected to 
put in at the Cape of Good Hope ; but as there was a 
prospect of arriving at Bengal before the change of 
the monsoon, we did not put in there, or any where 
else. Thus far, through the mercy of God, we are 
arrived safe, and all in good health. Thinking we 
shall be engaged after we arrive, I begin my letter 

* The whole of our stay in England is known to 
you, and all that befell us. We waited at Dover till 
Thursday morning, the 13th of June, when we were 
called up, and saw the ship lying off the harbour. 
About five o'clock we came on board, and met with 
the greatest civility, which has continued till this day. 
The ship is called Kron Princessa Maria, Captain J. 
Christmas, an Englishman, whose own are the ship 
and cargo, one of the most polite, accomplished 
gentlemen that ever bore the name of a sea captain. 
He immediately ordered the great cabin to be sepa- 
rated, that we might be accommodated; so that we 
have a large cabin, half the width of the ship, with 
sash windows, and the sides papered, besides a 


smaller one. Mr. Thomas has likewise a cabin ; and 
though we went for so small a sum (the other pas- 
sengers paid 100 guineas), yet no kind of distinction 
has been observed, but we have all met with the same 
kind treatment. Four men passengers accompanied 
us, two of them English, and two French. One of the 
Frenchmen is the most presumptuous, hardened deist 
I ever saw or heard of. I have almost every day been 
engaged in disputes with him, but to no purpose; his 
dernier resort is to turn all into badinage. His credit, 
however, has sunk very much in the ship on that 
very accoimt. The captain is a man of very extensive 
reading, but never meddles with any thing written 
upon religion : he is half brother to lady Langham, of 
Cottesbrooke. The men are Danes and Norwegians; 
and if there is no religion among them, there is much 
less irreligion and profaneness than among the En- 
glish. Our first mate is son of a superintendent of 
a district of Norway ; and, from what I can learn, 
there is more real godliness among the established 
Lutherans of those countries, than in the English 
establishment. They seem to be more on a level with 
the Scots; but toleration is more extensive there than 
in England, for no civil penalties or disabilities are 
imposed upon any people for religion. 

* Our voyage has been, upon the whole, very agree- 
able and pleasant, though we have had some rough 
weather, and experienced many great deliverances. 
June 13th, sailed from Dover; 15th, in the Bay of 
Biscay; 24th, fell in with the trade wind; 25th, 
passed the island of Madeira; 27th, passed Palma, 

I 2 


one of the Canaries, saw Gomorra and Tera, but could 
not see TeneriiFe: saw flying-fish, 29th, passed the 
tropic of Cancer, heat 72°. July 2nd, becalmed 
between Cape Verd Island and Africa, heat 86*'. 
21st, passed the Line, Aug. 1st, passed the tropic of 
Capricorn; 20th, off the Cape of Good Hope: our 
course was by the islands of Trinidad, Saxemburg, 
Tristan de Acuntra; thence from lat. 72° S., Ion. 29<> 
W., straight to the Cape. Hitherto, our voyage had 
been very prosperous, and nothing of a disastrous 
nature had happened ; but in the morning of the 26th, 
we had a very distressing accident. A bank extends 
about eighty leagues into the sea, from Cape des 
Aquilas, the most southern part of Africa, upon which 
runs a very strong current, which, when it meets the 
wind, raises the sea in a very tremendous manner. 
We were in S. lat. 38°, and thought ourselves secure 
from that danger ; but, about one in the morning, I 
was awakened by the violent rolling of the ship, and 
found stools, tables, &c. rolling about the cabin, and 
presently pots, glasses, and every thing in the ship, 
not secured, were crashing at once. I arose, and put 
all to rights in our cabin, and was just got into bed 
again, when Mr. Thomas came to the door, and told 
me we had carried away our main and fore-top masts. 
I begged my wife and children to keep in bed, for 
fear of having their bones broken, and went upon deck, 
where the scene was shocking indeed. In the night 
(though very providentially the moon shone) the sea 
rose like mountains, beating the ship in all directions, 
the masts, yards, sails, and rigging hanging over the 


sides, and beating against the ship, and the men upon 
them in every part to unrig them and let them loose. 
All on board have unifonnly declared they never saw 
any thing like it, and at one time we concluded she 
was going to the bottom. Our ship is about 130 feet 
long in the keel, burthen about 600 tons; she was 
mounted on the top of a sea which could not be less 
than fifty or sixty yards in height, from which she 
descended head-foremost, almost perpendicular, or 
quite as nearly so as the roof of a house. I saw her 
going, and with others concluded she could not re- 
cover it. I had but a moment to reflect; I felt 
resigned to the will of Grod; and to prevent being 
tossed overboard by the motion, caught hold of what 
was nearest to me. The plunge was dreadful. Her 
bow-sprit was under water, and the jib-boom, which is 
festened to the bow-sprit, was carried away. But, in a 
moment, she recovered the plunge, and mounted upon 
another sea, without shipping a hogshead of water. 
At last, we cleared the wreck, and set our main-sail, 
which kept the ship a little steady. In four days after 
this, we had a violent gale ; but, except the uncomfort- 
able rolling of the ship, we sustained no damage. It 
took us up eleven days to repair our loss; and, only 
two days after that, a violent squall carried away our 
new main-top mast. Our fore-top mast was weak, 
and would not bear a gallant-mast, so that we were 
forced to put up a tung mast, for the main-top mast; 
and as the ship was victualled for four months only, 
and we had but little water left, we determined to go 
into the Mauritius to refit but strong northerly winds 


prevented our going that way. With care we came to 
this place. The rains have supplied us with plenty of 
water; and, except a black woman and child, who 
were very ill when they came on board, and died off 
the Cape of Good Hope, and the carpenter, who, by 
his great exertions in our misfortunes, caught cold, to 
which a pleurisy succeeded, followed by the scurvy, 
of which he died when we were within six days' sail of 
Bengal, we have had good health. Our infant has 
thrived more than if it had been on land, and the 
children are as well satisfied. 

'We have not been entirely destitute of religious 
opportunities. Family worship has been constantly 
attended, and every Lord's-day we had preaching 
twice in our cabin. Our congregation consisted 
sometimes of six people besides our own family : they 
consisted of Holsteins, Norwegians, Danes, English, 
Flemish, and French ; or rather, one of each. With 
respect to religious persuasions, they were lutherans, 
papists, and calvinists. We had some very pleasant 
seasons; but have been of no use, that I know of. 
Many private seasons I have enjoyed of great pleasure, 
and have a growing satisfaction in having undertaken 
this work, and a growing desire for its success; though 
I feel so much barrenness, and so little lively con- 
tinual sense of divine things upon my mind, that I 
almost despair of ever being of any use. But in ge- 
neral I feel a pleasure in the thought that Christ has 
promised to be with his ministers until the end of the 
world, and that as our day is, so shall our strength be. 
I have often felt much pleasure in recollecting the 


times of public worship in the churches in England, 
and reflecting that hundreds, if not thousands, are 
now praying for me. You will also easily believe 
that my friends have not been forgotten by me on 
these occasions. Your ten o'clock in the morning is 
our four in the afternoon, there being six hours dif- 
ference of time between you and us. 

^ Mr. Thomas has laboured indefatigably in trans- 
lating the book of Genesis, which he has now accom- 
plished. We expect in a few days to join Ram 
Boshoo and Parbottee. 

*I hope the society will go on and increase, and 
that the multitudes of heathen in the world may hear 
the glorious words of truth. Africa is but a little way 
from England; Madagascar but a little way further ; 
South America, and all the numerous and large 
islands in the Indian and Chinese seas, I hope will 
not be passed over. A large field opens on every 
side, and millions of perishing heathens, tormented in 
this life by idolatry, superstition, and ignorance, and 
exposed to eternal miseries in the world to come, are 
pleading; yea, all their miseries plead as soon as they 
are known, with every heart that loves God, and with 
all the churches of the living God. Oh, that many 
labourers may be thrust out into the vineyard of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and that the gentiles may come to 
the knowledge of the truth as it is in Him ! 

*You will do us very great service, if you send 
us a Polyglott bible (there is one at CoUis's) by the 
next conveyance. Ram Boshoo is a good Persian 
scholar, and it will certainly help us much. If you 
can get a copy of the gospels in Malay, it will be a 


help to US. I would wish you to send all that are pub- 
lished of Curtis's Botanical Magazine, and Sowerby's 
English Botany, from 77 Curtis, and No. 3 1 Sowerby. 
Continue sending them regularly, and deduct what 
they cost from my allowance. Whatever is published 
of note in England, especially among the baptists, I 
hope you will be sure to send ; and, in return, I hope 
we may be able to send you tidings that will rejoice 
your hearts.' 

* November 14. 

* After beating about, and being driven back by 
currents for nearly a month, we arrived in Balasore 
roads, on the 7th instant, and on the 10th Mr. Thomas 
and I began our labours. We came in a ponsowah 
from the ship, and at slack water we lay to at a bazar 
or market, when Mr. T. preached to the people. They 
left their merchandise, and listened for three hours 
with great attention. One of them prepared us a 
dinner, which we had on a plantain -leaf for dish and 
plates ; and instead of knives and forks, we used our 
fingers. When we left them, they desired us to come 

* Poor Ram Boshoo was waiting for us, but, to our 
grief, has been bowing to idols again.* He was for- 
saken by European christians, and discarded by 
Hindus, and he says, *I was very ill; nothing to 
support me or my family : all said Mr. T. would not 
return. I knew the roman catholics worshipped idols ; 
I thought that I had seen but a small part of the bible ; 

* Jhis W88 a Hindu who, Mr. Thomas hoped, was converted by his labours 
when before in India. 


perhaps the worship of images might be commanded 
in some part of it ; but it was for a piece of bread, 
and I still love Christianity the best/ 

^ 25th. Bam Boshoo still keeps close to us. I have 
engaged him as a mounshi. I am also much pleased 
with his conversation. We also hear that Parbotee 
stands well, and that he and Mohun Chund are 
coming down to us. We are, to-day, making appli- 
cation to the governor, for uncultivated lands to settle 
upon ; which, if we can obtain them, will be an asylum 
for those who lose caste for the gospel's sake. I have 
had several conversations with a Brahmun who speaks 
English well, and, being unable to defend himself 
gainst the gospel, intends to come attended by a 
pundit, and try the utmost of their strength. 

* Having so many letters to write, I must leave off. 
We are all well. The climate at this, which is the 
cold season, is not disagreeable, except it be the great 
difference between the heat of day and night, which 
is often ten degrees ; but the heat is quite tolerable. 
Mr. T. will give an account of proper articles of trade 
to send out ; and as our families are so different, and I 
have the expense of a mounshi too, I hope the society 
will settle the proportion between us. The more I 
know, the more I love him. He is a very holy man; 
but his faithfulness often degenerates into personality : 
though not to me, for we live in the greatest love. 
My family is well. All join in love to you, your 
people, all ministers and christians that you see or 
write to, and the society especially. 

* I am yours, most affectionately, 
*To Mr. Fuller. 'W. Carey.' 


To HIS Sisters. 

'Bandell, Dec. 4th, 1793. 
*Dear Sisters, 

* You are, undoubtedly, very desirous to hear of me 
and my family ; and though I have nothing of any 
consequence to communicate, yet I take the first op- 
portimity of writing to you. The wonderful leadings 
of Providence, in so ordering it that my whole family 
should come with me, you are acquainted with. 

* We sailed from Dover, June 13th, and arrived all 
safe and well at Calcutta, the capital city of Bengal, 
on the 11th of November, after a voyage of five 
months all but two days; all which time we never 
were out of the ship, though we were in Europe, 
America, Africa, and Asia. 

* Our captain was an Englishman, and half-brother 
to Lady Langham. His original name was Smith; 
but now he is a naturalized Dane, and his name is 
changed to Christmas. We found him a remarkably 
kind, attentive man ; and, excepting one or two days, 
in which we lost our top-masts through the violence 
of the sea, and several long and tedious calms, our 
voyage was very pleasant and agreeable. The 
children were complete sailors; and the women were 
much better than I ever expected. 

*We had opportunities of family worship every 
day, and preaching on Lord's-days; and though our 
congregation was but small, yet I trust we were not 
without enjoyment of Gbd and his blessing. No one 
was converted, nor any good done that I know of, yet 
the work was to us a reward. 


* I am more and more convinced of the real piety of 
Mr. Thomas, though he is a man of like passions with 
others. And now that we are upon land, we preach 
in our own families, and are at present much occupied 
in settling ourselves in this situation. The place 
where we live is about thirty miles from Calcutta, and 
is a Portuguese settlement. Here we intend to re- 
side. All the people are catholics and mahomedans ; 
but many Hindus are at the distance of a mile or two ; 
so that there is work enough for us here; and ten 
thousand ministers would find full employment to 
publish the gospel. 

* The country is amazingly populous, and the in- 
habitants are very attentive. It is astonishing to see 
the different kinds of business carried on, and the 
diligence of the people. They are remarkably talka- 
tive and curious; but, go where you will, you are 
sure to see something of an idolatrous kind ; flowers, 
trees, or little temples by the way-side, consecrated to 
religious uses ; and I have seen two or three who have 
swung by flesh-hooks, with the mark in their backs : 
yet they are very willing to hear, and you are sure of 
a congregation, go where you will. In short, 
every thing combines to encourage us ; and to see 
such kind people so ignorant and brutish, is enough 
to stir up any one who has any love for Christ in his 

'The country is very fruitful, but more than half 
uncultivated. We have now many sorts of fruits 
unknown in England. Pine-apples grow under the 
hedges. It is now the height of harvest with us. 


The days are as hot as June in England; but the 
nights are as cold as September. All Bengal is a 
flat country, with not a hill in it, and scarcely a stone. 
Wild beasts are plentiful. Jackalls are every where. 
Mrs. Thomas had a favourite little dog, for which she 
had been offered 200 rupees, carried off from the door 
by one, while we were at prayer one evening, and the 
door open. Yet they never attack man. Serpents 
abound. To-day I found the skin of one, about six 
feet long, which was just cast off in my garden. We 
have no tigers nearer than eight or ten miles, and 
indeed have no more fear of them than you have in 
England. Upon the whole, it is a charming country. 

*I have no doubt but I shall soon learn the lan- 
guage. Ram Bashoo, my mounshi or interpreter, is 
a very sensible man, and, I hope, a very pious man. I 
have not yet seen Parbotee, but expect soon to have 
him down here. I have great hope of success; but 
their superstitions are very numerous, and their at- 
tachment to their caste so strong, that they would 
rather die than lose it upon any account. This is 
one of the strongest bonds that ever the devil used to 
bind the souls of men ; and dreadfully effectual it is 
indeed. May God put on his great power, and attend 
his word with great success ! 

* I hope your souls are prospering, and pray you not 
to be too much attached to this present world. It will 
soon perish, and then they who sow to the flesh will 
find that to be carnally-minded is death. Embrace 
Christ, with all the consequences of Christianity, and 
commit all your ways to the Lord. Choose affliction 


always rather than sin; and let it be your daily 
business to walk near to God, and to endure as seeing 
him who is invisible. 

*For my own part, I must confess my wretched 
carnality, indolence, and worldliness; yet, if I find 
satisfaction in any thing, it is in the things of God, 
and in the exercises of religion. 

'I am at present incapable of preaching to the 
Hindus. I am imacquainted with their language; 
and my whole congregation is our two families ; so 
that the work of the ministry is to me yet a very dull 
work ; yet I find some sweet pleasures in it, notwith- 
standing; and I promise myself much, when I am 
able to go and publish among the gentiles the un- 
searchable riches of Christ. 

* I am your most affectionate brother, 

*Wm. Carey/ 




The compiler cannot open to the reader the ensuing 
chapter without bespeaking his candour, by intimating 
the serious diflSculty he experienced in the selection 
of its contents. There were some delicate points, 
which, upon first consideration, it seemed desirable to 
escape from noticing. Facts are called into review, 
which a feeling heart would rather wish to conceal, 
and even to obliterate ; a mere advertence to which 
may convey such reflection upon individuals, that 
christian charity may not very easily tolerate. Yet, 
silently to pass over every incident and every charac- 
teristic remark, how important soever it might be to 
the design of such a volume, because of their seem- 
ingly unfriendly aspect upon particular persons, would 
have thrown this part of the narrative into so very 
general a style, and have required the substitution of 
so much vague and editorial, for vivid autobiographi- 
cal composition, as to have marred its interest, if it 


did not interfere with its integrity. The embarrass- 
ments and afflictions to which Mr. Carey was subject 
the first year and a half from his arrival in India, 
were such as few have encountered in modem times, 
and which, yet, were borne with a holy heroism and a 
pious constancy, entitling him to the admiration of 
the christian world. So much so, that the ardour and 
the patience he evinced, in pursuing the paramount 
objects of his mission, and in sustaining the adversi- 
ties surrounding him, would justify an apostolic de- 
claration in his case : * None of these things move me ; 
neither count I my life dear unto myself ; so that I 
may finish my course with joy, and the ministry I 
have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel 
of the grace of God.' 

The reader will remember, that Mrs. Carey, in the 
first instance refused, and was afterwards with much 
difficulty prevailed upon, to accompany her husband. 
Though at length she yielded to the entreaties of Mr. 
Thomas, her acquiescence was reluctant, and her 
devotion to the work but partial. When severe trials 
arose, therefore, as they soon did upon their landing 
in India, she was quite unequal to their endurance. 
Their resources, slender fipom the first, were fast ex- 
hausting; their little comforts, becoming more cir- 
cumscribed and scanty, were every hour diminishing, 
without the least prospect of replenishment from any 
known source. But will not the christian female be 
slow to censure, and be rather tender to commiserate ? 
A mother, with a young and in&nt family, in a 
foreign land, without the presence of a single friend to 


soothe her, or the power of uttering or understanding 
a sentence beyond the limits of her household, the 
very abode they lodged in, incommodious as it was, 
secured to them only by the daily sufferance of a 
native. Week after week passed away, until they 
were brought almost to the brink of starvation. Let 
it be remembered, too, that every thing in her former 
life and her physical constitution, was unfavourable to 
the stern and sublime exercise of the christian virtues 
to which her circumstances now called her. Brought 
up in an obscure village, without any advantages of 
mental, and few of religious culture, with a spirit un- 
usually timid, and a bodily frame always feeble, it 
was no wonder she should be dismayed when such 
trials befell her, as might make even firm and disci- 
plined minds falter and quail. Besides all this, it is 
now past doubt that the incipient inroads of mono- 
mania which so distracted the last years of her life, 
and the malignant influence of which continued to her 
death, was unhinging her intelligence, and corroding 
her passions. And this is the main plea of the com- 
piler for introducing a subject of such painful delicacy. 
Had this been clearly apprehended by Mr. Carey, at 
the time the events of which we are now describing, 
melancholy as was the fact, it would in some degree, 
have eased the anguish of his heart, it being certain 
that the bitter anxiety she occasioned him, then, and 
to the close of her life, was justly imputable to her 
awful malady, and not to be reckoned as her sin. 

Another affliction, and almost equally severe with 
that just brought into view, which exercised the pa- 


tience of Mr, Carey, arose from the character of his 
companion. He was unthinking, unthrifty, versatile, 
and capricious; characteristics the very opposite of 
those which constituted the mind and determined the 
conduct of Mr, Carey, He was deliberate, frugal, and 
self-denying; clearly defining to himself some great 
master object, and pursuing it, through fire and 
through water; whilst, in all minor interests, he was 
compliant to the will of others, and was always ready 
to resign the secularities of life to any one disposed to 
assume their management. The little money they 
had in hand was in Mr. Thomas's keeping, who took 
his measures, and disbursed funds, almost independ- 
ently of the advice, and frequently with too little 
apparent regard to the comfort, of his friend. Having 
been twice a resident in India before, it was not sur- 
prising that, in temporal arrangements, and during 
the early part of their residence, Mr. Carey should 
defer to his opinion, and yield himself to his guidance. 
This was so far the case, that in a few months they 
were all reduced to destitution. He also appeared for 
a time as though disposed to relinquish the mission, 
and actually commenced business in his own pro- 
fession. Not that his companion conceived him to 
entertain any purpose of ultimately renouncing their 
united work ; but a temporary and seeming recession 
from it, was to him a source of most poignant sorrow. 
Nevertheless, he always referred to Mr. Thomas with 
marked tenderness, and attributed those parts of his 
conduct most difficult to interpret, and most destructive 
to his own comfort, to some infelicity in his constitu- 



tional temperament, rather than to any deliberate 
purpose of doing wrong, or of acting unkindly. When 
we recur to Mr. Thomas in a subsequent part of this 
work, the reader will meet with the true solution of 
what at this period may seem eccentric in his cha- 
racter, and strangely erratic in his demeanour. Those 
notices, in the mean time, which may present him in 
a light less gratifying than that in which a benevolent 
mind would desire to view him, must be perused with 
forbearing tenderness. 

Long and circumstantial religious diaries are a 
species of composition, to many readers, not very 
agreeable or edifying. That they may be serviceable, 
in some instances, to those who keep them, may be 
easily conceived. A faithful record and a rigid 
review of our religious experience and affections, may 
be helpful to a better control of our minds and deport- 
ment in future: but that great circumspection is 
needful, in those who preserve such memorials of their 
spiritual life, is evident ; nor less so, that great pa- 
tience is ordinarily required in those who read them. 
The often reiterated and severe animadversions of 
David Brainerd, upon his own mental feelings and 
conflicts, are tiresome and oppressive. He was imi- 
tated to an' extreme by Mr. Martyn; though the copy 
is a great improvement upon the original, it being 
far less tedious, and in a measure freed from its 
irrelievable gloom. With how much more of that 
*hope' by which * we are saved' does a person rise from 
perusing the memoir of Jesus Christ, given by the 
evangelists, than he attains by the study of that of his 
servant above referred to ! 


Before Mr. Carey left England, he was deeply 
imbued with North American theology. President 
Edwards, its great master, was his admired author. 
The strong and absorbing view in which he ex- 
hibited some leading principles in the system of 
revealed truth, seemed so clearly to explode the 
errors of arminianism on the one hand, and of 
pseudo-calvinism on the other, and to throw such a 
flood of irresistible light on the mediatorial dispen- 
sation, as perfectly captivated, and almost entranced, 
the ministerial circle with which Mr. Carey wad con- 
nected. David Brainerd was supposed, by President 
Edwards, to exemplify and irradiate the main 
features of his own system. This, indeed, was a 
principal reason why he compiled the history of his 
religious experience and labours: and hence it be- 
came the constant manual of the devoted admirers of 
that great man's theological system; whilst its in- 
trinsic worth, as ofiering a sublime and experimental 
display of religious afiections, through a scene of 
arduous labour and patient suffering, rendered it the 
devotional guide of multitudes who remained strangers 
to that grand theory of evangelical sentiment it was 
conceived to illustrate. Dr. Ryland, the intimate 
friend of the subject of this memoir, was often heard 
to say, that ^ Brainerd's life ranked with him next to 
his bible.' In his esteem of this eminent saint and 
prince of missionaries, Mr. Carey was not behind 
him. His trials during the early period of his resi- 
dence in India, were not inferior to those of Brainerd ; 
they were even more severe, complicated, and perplex* 



ing, and the religious devotion he manifested under 
them was equally pure, if not equally intense. Of 
this the reader will presently have proof. I have 
simply desired to record so much of his experience as 
appeared relevant to his mission; so much of his 
pleasures or his pains, his hopes or his fears, his suc- 
cesses or his disappointments, as met him while pur- 
suing the grand purpose of his life : for the missionary 
spirit was so much incorporated with all he thought, 
and felt, and did, that to commemorate the missionary 
is to describe the christian. 

'Nov. 9th, 1793. To-day was the first time of an 
interview with the Hindus. Two boats came to sell 
us fish ; and Mr. T. asked the men in one of them, 
whether they had any shastras ? Their answer was, 
*We are poor men; those who have many cowries (or 
are rich) read the shastras, but we do not know them/ 
I like their appearance very much ; they appear to be 
intelligent persons, though of the lowest caste ; rather 
beneath the middle stature, and apparently attentive 
to whatever was said to them. We have not yet been 
ashore ; but on Monday we intend, God willing, to go. 
O may my heart be prepared for our work, and the 
kingdom of Christ be set up among the poor Hindus ! 

* 1794, Jan. 13. For these two months past, I have 
seen nothing but a continual moving to and fro. For 
three weeks we were at Calcutta selling our venture ; 
but the great expense into which Mr. T. had inad- 
vertently given, of servants, &c., filled my mind with 
anxiety and wretchedness ; and the continual hurry 


of business took up all my time, and preyed upon my 
soul : so that the prospect of worldly poverty, and 
the want of a sense of divine things, filled me with 
constant discontent and restlessness of mind. We 
therefore went an excursion into the country, when 
we had the offer of either buying or renting a house 
at Bandell. We thought at first of purchasing; but, 
the time approaching when we must pay, and money 
not being at hand, we changed our minds ; and from 
that moment, my mind was fully determined to go up 
into the country, and build me a hut, and live like 
the natives. Mr. T. had entertained thoughts of 
settling in his profession at Calcutta, on account of 
his creditors; but, upon my determination to go up 
the country, he resolved not to leave me. One day, 
however, he went to Calcutta, and while he was there, 
he was informed by captain Christmas, that the com- 
pany had been looking out for a person of botanical 
ability, to superintend the company's garden. Being 
advertised of this, I went to Calcutta, but found the 
station disposed of already. Mr. T. having deter- 
mined to reside there, I inquired of a Banian whether 
land could be procured near Calcutta, who informed 
me that it might. I went, therefore, and we brought 
our families down to Calcutta again ; he in expectation 
of settling there, and I in expectation of having land 
to settle upon. Upon our arrival, I found that I had 
only been trifled with about land, and that no free 
land could be got now. The Banian offered me to 
live in his garden-house, till some could be got ; at 
which house I now am, at Manicktulla, and have sent 


a trusty old native to procure jungle land, at Deharta, 
about sixteen coss, or thirty-two miles, from Calcutta, 
to the eastward, where, if I succeed, I intend to build 
a bungalow, or straw-house, and cultivate about fifty 
or one hundred biggahs of land. The uncle of Ram 
Ram Boshoo being zemindar in that place, I have 
hope of succeeding ; but have had much trial for both 
faith and patience. I shall be thirty-two miles from 
Mr. T. My wife, and sister too, who do not see the 
importance of the mission as I do, are continually ex- 
claiming against me ; and as for Mr. T., they think it 
very hard indeed that he should live in a city, in an 
* affluent manner, and they be forced to go into a wil- 
derness, and live without many of what they call the 
necessaries of life, bread in particular. But I not only 
am convinced of the impossibility of living in Calcutta, 
but also of the importance of a missionary being like, 
and living amongst, his people. The success of future 
missions, also, lies near my heart; and I am fearful 
lest the great expense of sending out my family should 
be a check upon the zeal of the society: how much 
more if I should now live upon a European plan, and 
incur greater charge. Now I see the value of faith, 
in some measure, and think I feel more than ordinary 
sweetness in the word of God. O may I again taste the 
sweets of social religion, which I have given up, and 
see, in this land of darkness, a people formed for God V 

Mr. Carey describes some of the painful circum- 
stances of his predicament at this time, in a letter to 
his friend, Mr. SutclifF. 


' ManicktvUo, Jan. 3, 1794. 
*My dear Brother, 

^ I shall not be able to communicate more to you 
by this, than what you will hear through the medium 
of other letters sent to England ; yet, I think I should 
be wanting in friendship if I neglected to write to 
you, especially considering the ties of christian affec- 
tion by which I am bound to you. 

* Our voyage was very long, as you will find from 
my letter to the society, but it was also very agreeable ; 
though the company on board a ship is the most 
injurious to the soul that can be conceived. All is 
carnal gentility, and religion is the furthest from their 
thoughts of any thing in the world. 

*We arrived at Calcutta on the 11th of November, 
and have been in an unsettled state ever since. We 
found Mrs. T. in a house there ; but the expense of 
living there being very great, we removed to Bandell. 
This was, however, a place where we could not enter 
into that state which missionaries should live in, 
namely, a state of similarity to that of the people 
among whom they labour: we, therefore, intended 
going further up the country, and mixing with the 
natives ; but one of Mr. Thomases creditors had sent 
his bond to India, and he is not sure that others have 
not done the same, so that he is in perpetual danger 
of being put under an arrest. In this state of per- 
plexity, we knew not what to do. We went to Nud- 
dea, and he, myself, and Mounshi sought the Lord by 
prayer for direction. Several of the most learned 
Pundits and Brahmuns much wished us to settle 


there; and, as that is the great place for eastern learn- 
ing, we seemed inclined, especially as it is the bul- 
wark of heathenism, which, if once carried, all the 
rest of the country must be laid open to us. Our 
captain had promised to apply to some of the com- 
pany's officers for waste lands for us to settle upon; we 
therefore agreed to wait till we heard of his success. 
In the mean time, several of Mr. Thomas's friends 
entreated him to settle at Calcutta, and follow his 
profession; and some of the most opulent natives 
offered him their business, and at the same time 
expressed a desire that we would settle there, and 
instruct them, especially as there are 200,000 natives 
or more in this town, besides the suburbs, which are 
as populous as the environs of London. He was afraid 
of his creditors, who, if he did no business, would be 
quite out of patience ; yet, determined to go with me 
if I went up the country. While we were hesitating, 
he went down to Calcutta, where he was informed 
that waste land could not be obtained of the com- 
pany ; but the captain had often spoken of me 
as a person of botanical taste, and had lent a 
botanical work of mine to one who is high in the 
service. He desired that I might call upon him, 
which I did ; when I found that a person of botanical 
taste had been sought for some time, to superintend 
a part of the company's botanical garden, but that a 
person had lately been put into it. He invited me to 
dine with him, and offered me considerable kindness; 
and there is reason to suppose, that I may be presented 
with a place there. This, concurring with other cir- 


cumstances above mentioned, induced Mr. T. to de- 
termine upon Calcutta for his residence ; and I intend 
to take land of Brahmuns, or other natives, and settle 
in the neighbourhood, and wait till I see the event of 
things. You see that I have not been following my 
own plan ; but I confess that I have complied with 
Mr. T.'s wishes contrary to my own private judgment. 
I think it the most practicable of any, notwithstand- 
ing; and am, myself, going to adopt it immediately, 
unless the Lord should appear, and more liberally 
supply me, by giving me the employment I men- 
tioned. This would be a pleasant and profitable 
amusement, and would take up very little of my time. 
This, however, I leave with God. 

* I have already learned so much of the language, 
as to understand a few phrases, and many words ; but 
having so many who speak English about me, is 
a disadvantage. The characters are about six hundred, 
which I send you a specimen of, ***** » 

* Since I have been here, my family has been much 
afflicted ; my wife and two eldest children have been 
very ill for a month past, and my eldest son is now 
far from being out of danger. These things are a 
great affliction, and severely felt ; but I trust that all 
will work for good, and in the end bring forth fruit to 
the praise and glory of God. Through divine mercy, 
I have all along enjoyed very good health, and so has 
my sister ; the rest of us are all much better, except 
Felix. If my family were but hearty in the work, I 
should find a great burden removed; but the carnal 
discourse of the passage, and the pomp and grandeur 


of Europeans here, have intoxicated their minds, so as 
to make them unhappy in one of the finest countries in 
the world, and lonely in the midst of a hundred thou- 
sand people. These are burdens and afflictions to me ; 
but I bless God that I faint not; and when my soul 
can drink her fill at the word of God, I forget all. 
Mr. T. is a very good man, but only fit to live at sea, 
where his daily business is before him, and daily pro- 
vision made for him. I own, I fear that his present 
undertaking will be hurtful rather than useful to him ; 
the^ fickleness of his mind makes him very unfit for 
such an undertaking. I love him, and we live in the 
greatest harmony; but I confess that Ram Ram 
Boshoo is much more a man after my heart. He is 
a £gLithful counsellor, and a discerning man. He is 
very inquisitive and intelligent, though, I am sorry to 
say, his timidity has been a snare to him. He is, I 
doubt not, a truly converted man ; and if he wants 
anything, it is zeal. I have been seriously talking with 
him to-day, and hope that in a little time I may see 
a church formed for God ; but time alone can show 
this. The superstitions and religious follies of this 
people I know too little of to say much about, and 
long observation alone can tell precisely what they 
are. They worship one God, and have tolerable 
notions of his moral perfections, except that they uni- 
formly believe him to be the cause of sin. Their 
ideas of redemption are very confiised. All their 
supposed gcids are good men departed, or useful 
creatures; and they suppose that ofierings made to 
them are acceptable to Grod. Polygamy is very 


common, but lying and cheating are their national 
character. As I observe more, I shall communicate 

* I hope, when you sold my furniture, you did not 
forget to pay yourself what I was indebted to you. 
But I must conclude with my warmest love to all 
your friends, all ministers of my acquaintance, and all 
who love God : but, especially, I am very affection- 
ately yours, 

*W. Carey.' 
*Rev.J. Sutcliff, Olney.' 

Journal continued. 
*Jan. 16, 16. On the first of these days, I received 
an account that I may have as much land as I please, 
for three years, for nothing, and after that, to pay a 
small rent per annum. I therefore went to Mr. T. to 
consult him, and to obtain money ; when I found that 
my all was expended, and that Mr. T. was already in 
debt. I was much dejected at this. I am in a strange 
land, alone, no christian friend, a large family, and 
nothing to supply their wants. I blame Mr. T. for 
leading me into such expense at first, and I blame 
myself for being led; though I acceded to what I 
much disapproved of, because I thought he knew the 
country better, and was in earnest to go and live up 
the country; and that, for a week or two, while we 
sold our venture, it would be a greater expense to have 
a separate house and servants than for us to live to- 
gether. I am dejected, not for my own sake, but my 
family's, and his, for whom I tremble. He is now at 
the certain expense of £400 per annum ; and unless 


he has speedy practice, he must be irrecoverably in- 
volved. I must borrow five hundred rupees, if I can ; 
with which I intend to build a hut or two, and retire 
to the wilderness. There are many serpents and 
tigers, but Christ has said his followers shall take up 
serpents, &c. unhurt. 

*1794, Jan. 17. Went to Calcutta to Mr. T. for 
money, but to no purpose. Was very much dejected 
all day. Have no relish for any thing of the world, 
yet am swallowed np in its cares. Towards evening, 
had a pleasant view of the all-sufiiciency of God, and 
the stability of his promises, which much relieved my 
mind ; and as I walked home in the night, was enabled 
to roll my soul and all my cares in some measure on 
God. On my coming home, I found all much more 
calm than I expected ; for which I bless God, and pray 
that he may direct us into the patient waiting for 
Christ. What a mercy it is to have a God ; and how 
miserable must they be who have no knowledge of or 
value for the throne of grace ! 

nS. I find the ardour of my mind after divine 
things less, and my soul too much swallowed up with 
the things of this present world. O that I could live 
entirely to and for God ! 

* 19. This day, as every sabbath since we have been 
in the country, we went among the natives. For these 
three last Lord's-days we have discoursed to a pretty 
large congregation at ManicktuUo bazaar or market ; 
for we have just the same business done here on that 
day as any other. Our congregation consisted princi- 
pally of mahomedans, and has increased every Lord's- 


day. They are very inquisitive, and we have addressed 
them upon the subject of the gospel with the greatest 
freedom, and in the following manner. A burial- 
place, with a consecrated tomb, where offerings 
are daily made to the spirit of the departed person 
was near; some inquiries about the reason of their 
offerings were made, which led on to questions on 
their part ; and then the gospel and the koran insensibly 
became the subject of conversation. They alleged 
the divine original of the koran; we inquired, *Have 
you ever seen or read it?' The universal answer was, 
No ! But to-day a man came who pretended to have 
seen it. We asked him if he knew the beginning of 
every chapter, for the chapters all begin with these 
words : * In the name of God, gracious and merciful ;' 
but he said no, for it was written in Arabic, and no 
one could understand it. The question now was, 
*Then how can you obey it?' and * wherefore are you 
mahomedans T To this they could not reply. They 
said, and so says the koran, that the koran was sent 
to confirm the words of scripture. We insisted that 
the bible said, * Whosoever shall add to or diminish 
from the word of God, shall be under the curse of 
God ;' but the koran was written after the bible, and 
pretends to divine authority : therefore, if the gospel 
be true, Mahomed must be accursed, and the koran 
of no authority; and if the bible be not true, the 
koran cannot, for that, you say, was to confirm it. 
They answered, that the jews and christians had cor- 
rupted the bible, which was the reason why God 
made the revelation by Mahomed. We answered. 


•then how could the koran come to confirm it: if it 
was corrupted, it needed correction, not confirmation.' 
Being driven to the last shift, they said, * Mahomed 
was the firiend of God, but Esu, by whom they mean 
Jesus, was the spirit of God:' to which Moonshi 
shrewdly replied, *Then which would you think 
highest, your friend, or your soul or spirit?' All this 
they bore with great good temper; but what effect it 
may have, time must determine. Many more things 
were said to recommend the gospel, and the way of 
life by Christ; and as night came on we left them. 

* 20. This has been a day of seeking money. Had 
on oflfer of a bungalow, belonging to the company, at 
Deharta, till I can get a place made for myself and 
family : so that it has been a day of mercy, though, to 
my shame, of spiritual barrenness. 

*21. Felt some pleasure in the morning in prayer, 
but all the rest of the day was at an awful distance 
from God. This evening I had a very profitable con- 
versation with Moonshi, about spiritual things ; and 
I do hope that he may one day be a very useful and 
eminent man. I am so well able to understand him, 
and he me, that we are determined to begin correcting 
the translation of Grenesis to-morrow. 

* 22. I am fiill of perplexity about temporal things ; 
but the word of God is sure, which abundantly pro- 
mises every thing that I can want. My wife has, 
within this day or two, relapsed into her affliction, 
and is much worse than she was before ; but in tlie 
mount the Lord is seen. I wish I had but more of 
God in my soul, and felt more submission in my heart 


to his will ; this would set me above all things else. I 
feel happy, however, in this, that I am in my work, 
and that is the work of God; and the more I am em- 
ployed in it, the more I find it a rich reward. 

*23. This day I feel what it is to have the testi- 
mony of a good conscience, even in the smallest 
matters. My temporal troubles remain just as , they 
were. I have a place, but cannot remove my family 
to it for want of money. Mr. T. has now begun to 
set his face another way. At his motion I went to 
Calcutta; then to Bandell, at which place all our 
money was expended. He ordered all the expenses, 
and lived in his own way; to which I acceded, though 
sore against my will. He was inclined first, then de- 
termined, to practise surgery at Calcutta. I agreed to 
come and settle as near him as possible, though I had 
previously intended to go to Gowr, near Malda ; and 
all this that I might not be first in a breach of our 
mutual undertaking. Now he is buying, and selling, 
and living at the rate of I know not how much, I sup- 
pose 250 or 300 rupees per month, has twelve ser- 
vants, and this day is talking of keeping his coach. I 
have remonstrated with him in vain, and I am almost 
afraid that he intends to throw up the mission. How 
all these things can be agreeable to a spiritual mind, I 
know not. But now all my friends are but one; I 
rejoice, however, that he is all-sufficient, and can sup- 
ply all my wants, spiritual and temporal. My heart 
bleeds for him, for my family, for the Society, whose 
steadfastness must be shaken by this report, and for the 
success of the mission, which must receive a sad blow 


from this. But why is my soul disquieted within me ? 
Things may turn out better than I expect: every thing 
is known to God, and God cares for the mission. O 
for contentment, delight in God, and much of his fear 
before my eyes ! Bless God, I feel peace within, and 
rejoice in having undertaken the work, and shall, I 
feel I shall, if I not only labour alone, but even if I 
should lose my life in the undertaking. I anxiously 
desire the time when I shall so far know the language 
as to preach in earnest to these poor people. 

*24. I wish to feel myself always in the exercise of 
a spirit of meekness, but feel it hard work. Yesterday 
my mind was much hurt to see what I thought 
a degree of selfishness in my friend, which amounted 
to an almost total neglect of me, my family, and the 
mission ; though I do not think he seriously intends 
to neglect either, but inadvertently runs into such 
things as make it impossible to attend to either. This 
morning went to visit a professor of religion to whom 
I was recommended at the Isle of Wight ; but, to my 
sorrow, found him at dice. From thence went to visit 

the Rev .* He is an evangelical preacher 

of the church of England, and received me with cool 
politeness. I staid near an hour with him ; found him 
a very sensible man ; but a marked disgust prevails, 
on both sides, between him and Mr. T. He carried 
himself as greatly my superior, and I left him without 
his having so much as asked me to take any refresh- 
ment, though he knew I had walked five miles in the 

* This same gentleman, to his commendittion we record it, became afterwards 
one of the best friends of the Baptist Mission. 


heat of the sun. To-day found my mind more calm, 
but the evening was turbulent and stormy. 

* 25. Was employed in buying some necessaries for 
our removal into the wilderness, and after that was 
done, further engaged in correcting Genesis. There 
are some things that have no name in Bengali, 
being utterly unknown, as whales ; but found no 
very great difficulties to-day. Have reason to. bless 
God for a day of quietness and calmness, though I 
must mourn over my barrenness, and the strange 
stupidity of my heart. I have abundant cause for 
thankfulness, but have an unthankful heart. I feel 
pleasure in the work and ways of God, but have a 
disobedient soul. When will the Lord take full pos- 
session of my mind, and abide there for ever ? 

*26. Lord's day. All the morning I had a most 
unpleasant time, but at last found much pleasure in 
reading Edwards on the Justice of God in the dam- 
nation of sinners. Then went to visit our congrega- 
tion of natives again ; they gave very great attention, 
and all the Mussulmans present (except the keeper of 
the consecrated place, and one or two fakirs) acknow- 
ledged that the offerings made to the Peer, or soul of 
the dead man whose tomb was consecrated, were 
made without any command, either in the koran or 
elsewhere. The person who acted as priest or keeper 
of the place, was so ashamed when we told him that 
all the offerings were made to his belly, that he went 
away confounded with the laughter of the people. 
Their inquisitiveness and numbers increase ; and one 
Hindu appeared more than ordinarily anxious to 


know what was the right way. I wish that we might 
see some good fruit of our labours ; and doubt not 
but we shall soon have some reason to rejoice in the 
salvation of God. 

*27. This morning went to Bahayut to procure a 
boat to carry us over the lakes to the place where 
we hope to go. Through the delays of my com- 
panion, I have spent another month and done scarcely 
any thing, except that I have added to my knowledge 
of the language, and had opportunity of seeing much 
more of the genius and disposition of the natives than 
I otherwise could have known. This day finished 
the correction of the first chapter of Genesis, which 
Moonshi says is rendered into very good Bengali. 
Just as we had finished it, a Pundit and another man 
from Nuddea came to see me. I showed it to them ; 
and the Pundit seemed much pleased with the 
account of the creation ; only they have an imagi- 
nary place somewhere beneath the earth, and he 
thought that should have been mentioned likewise. 
I said that the earth was a planet, and that heavens 
and earth included all the material creation. There 
are several minutiae of geography and chronology 
which it is necessary to explain, as they have many 
superstitious opinions which enter deeply into their 
system of idolatry. 

*28. This morning I was at Calcutta. Again dis- 
appointed about money. Was much dejected and 
grieved. Advised with Moonshi, who is my trusty 
friend, but could find no settled plan. In the even- 
ing had much relief in reading over Mr. Fuller's 


charge to us at Leicester. The affection there mani- 
fested almost overcame my spirits, for I have not been 
accustomed to sympathy of late. O ! I think again, I 
am not only ready to be offered, so as to suffer any 
thing, but if I be offered upon the service and sacri- 
fice of the faith, I joy and rejoice in it. O what a 
portion is God^ and what a shame that I am not 
always satisfied with him ! 

^29. This has been a day of calmness, but the calm 
has been rather of the unprofitable kind : I may 
rather call it a day of idleness, than any thing else. 
Have spent part of it in my study of Bengali, and 
yet no communion with God, which only can produce 
comfortable reflection at night. Had a very pleasant 
evening in studying and criticising upon the second 
chapter of Genesis, and comparing the different lec- 
tions and renderings. There is an obscurity in the 
pihrase ^created and made,' occasioned by departing 
from the Hebrew, which is * created to make ;' that 
is, created the original matter in order that he might 
modify and adorn it, in the manner in which it now 
is: thus most render it. The 4th, 5th, and 6th 
verses appear to be designed to recapitulate the work 
of creation, and to show that, antecedent to the exist- 
ence of second causes, God produced every thing by 
his own power. I have rendered it like the English, 
except the sixth verse, where I have followed Junius 
Tremellius, and many others, in continuing the nega- 
tion of second causes, and have rendered it thus, * Or 
vapour ascending from the earth, which might water 
the face of the ground.' The Hebrew will bear this 

L 2 


quite as well as * But, &c. ;' and it seems more conso- 
nant to the design of the narration. 

'30. The blessings of the gospel are far greater 
than we can think, unless we discourse with those 
who never had them. This evening I had a conver- 
sation with the Moonshi about his first opinions con- 
cerning God ; but his ideas of angels were much 
more consistent than those of our artists. Seeing a 
picture in which an angel was represented, he made 
this inquiry: *Sir, are angels women, or birds? I see 
they have got feathers, therefore they must be birds ; 
and then I can see them, and catch them. Now we 
think that they are great powers which can go any 
where in an instant, without wings, or any such helps/ 
These simple inquiries were put to Mr. Udney, as 
soon as he became acquainted with Mr. T. He is 
now much hurt at seeing pretended pictures of God, 
or the Holy Spirit with wings like a dove, and many 
of those representations in cuts with the bible are to 
him, and others who are still heathens, a very great 
stum bling-block . 

*Feb. 1. Spent to-day in preparations for our de- 
parture on Monday to the intended place of our resi- 
dence. Was very weary, having walked in the sun 
about fifteen or sixteen miles ; yet had the satisfac- 
tion of discoursing with some money-changers at 
Calcutta, who could speak English, about the import- 
ance and absolute necessity of faith in the Lord Jesus 
Christ. One of them was a very crafty man, and 
tried much to entangle me with hard questions ; but at 
last, finding himself entangled, he desisted, and went 


to his old occupation of money-changing ^ain. If 
once God would by his Spirit convince them of sin, a 
Saviour would be a blessing indeed to them : but 
human nature is the same all the world over, and all 
conviction fails except it is produced by the effectual 
working of the Holy Spirit. 

*4. Proceeded on our journey through salt rivers 
and a large lake. In the afternoon saw an offering 
made to the god of learning, viz., of writing and read- 
ing. The idol was placed under a shed, and all 
around her (for I believe it is a female) were placed 
large dishes full of rice, fruits, &c., which the people 
had brought. The Brahmun was employed in laying 
the whole in order, after which a little was distributed 
to the attendants, and the Brahmun had the rest. 
The whole was attended with horrid music, and the 
next day the idol was to be thrown into the river. I 
felt very much concerned for these poor people, but 
could not speak to them. 

*5. There not being water enough for us to go the 
nearest way, we were necessitated to go through the 
Sunderbunds, which is a very large, impenetrable 
forest, only intersected with large rivers, by which our 
boats went. These forests are some hundreds of miles 
in extent, and entirely uninhabited by man ; they 
swarm with tigers, leopards, rhinoceroses, deer, buf- 
faloes, &c. I thought I heard the roar of a tiger in 
the night, but am uncertain. Had a little sweet 
pleasure in meditation in this place ; but no one 
dares go on shore, so as to venture a hundred yards 
from the boat. 


* 6. Arrived early in the morning at Deharta, where 
the company have a bungalow. The person, whose 
name is Tfir. Short, who resides there to superintend 
the salt-works, immediately sent to me, and invited 
my whole family to stay there till our own house is 
finished. Here, therefore, we are at present, and he, 
though an utter stranger to me, and to all godliness, 
insists upon supplying all our wants while here.' 

When the house of Mr. Short came into view, Mr. 
Carey and his family were so far reduced that they 
had not provisions remaining sufficient for one day. 
This testimony was borne by Mrs. Carey's sister, who 
was afterwards united in marriage to this gentleman, 
and in a few years returned to England. 

Mr. Fuller concludes the fragment of the memoir 
he had commenced of his friend, given in the first 
chapter, with the following pathetic lines. 

* Soon after Mr. Carey's arrival in India he was re- 
duced to great extremities ; the goods which they had 
taken with them for their immediate support were 
disposed of, and the money, in far less time than they 
apprehended, was gone. 

*In a strange land, with a wife's sister, a wife, and 
four children, without money, without friends, and 
without employment, he must needs feel himself in a 
delicate situation. Taking a boat, he went with his 
family, and Ram Boshu for his guide, up the country. 
It was now, as Mr. Ward lately observed on visiting 
the place, that, like the father of the faithful, he went 


out, not knowing whither he went. As they were 
rowing along the river, about forty miles east of 
Calcutta, at a place called Deharta, they espied a 
house which seemed to be English built. Mr. Carey 
asked his guide if he knew the owner ; he answered 
he was an English gentleman. *Then (said Mr. C.) 
I will call upon him.' They all left the boat, and 
walked toward the house. Some of the servants, 
looking out, saw them, and went in and told their 
master that an English gentleman, two ladies, and 
several children were walking in sight of the house, 
as if they meant to come in. The owner, who proved 
to be the late Charles Short, Esq., immediately eame 
forth to meet them, and very politely invited them 
in. Mr. Carey frankly told him his object and his 
present straits. Mr. S. had no conceit of the former, 
for he was an unbeliever, but told him he was at* per- 
fect liberty to make his house a home for himself and 
femily till he should see what to do ; he might stop, 
he said, for half a year, or longer if he pleased ! Kind- 
ness like this, and in such circumstances, must have 
greatly affected him ; yet, perceiving in his hospitable 
benefactor a total contempt of religion, the idea of a 
dependance upon him could not but be unpleasant.' 

Mr. Carey continues his journal as follows. 

*8. Went this morning to Hashnabad, where I 
expected to have land. I had the choice of the whole 
country, and at last pitched upon a place at CoUa- 
tullah, which is a fine soil and pleasant situation, and 


nearly opposite to the place where I now am, on the 
other side of the river. Several villages are in the 
neighbourhood, and provisions are as cheap as at any 
place in Bengal. The river Jubona, which is as large 
as the Hoogly at Calcutta, separates us from Deharta. 
* From that time to the 23rd, employed in the same 
work. I meet with great kindness from Mr. Short, 
with whom I am ; but he is a stranger to religion, and 
I cannot therefore enjoy that freedom which I could 
at home. My soul is barren, and absorbed in tem- 
poral things. Lord, enlarge my heart! 


MR. Thomas's account of his visit to malda — invitation op himself and 


A DISPENSATION of providencc now occurs, as de- 
cisively favourable to Mr. Carey's desires as every 
thing heretofore had been adverse and thwarting. 
As in securing the ship and arranging for the voyage 
to India, so in dissipating Mr. C.'s present gloom, 
and supplying the means of relief and future comfort 
and useiulness to him, Mr. Thomas was the active 
agent. George Udney, Esq., then of Malda, was a 
religious friend, well known to Mr. T. during his 
former residence in Bengal, and liberally contributed 
to his support whilst acquiring the language and 
making his first missionary efforts ; but, from some 
disrelish of his constitutional peculiarities, was in- 
duced to withdraw his countenance. This gentleman 
is now overwhelmed with domestic affliction. Mr. 
Thomas, with prompt, ingenuous kindness, as though 
no contrariety of feeling between them had ever 
arisen, interposes the expression of his sympathy : 
this is acceptable to his christian friend. Mr. T. 
then goes a journey of two hundred miles to offer his 
condolence in person : mutual greetings and floods of 
tears testify their sincere and fervent affection, and 
the readiness of each party to obliterate all that was 
painful in the recollections of their former connection. 


Mr. Udney was at this time erecting two additional 
indigo factories in the same district, to the superin- 
tendence of which he invites Mr. T. and his desolate 
and all but heart-broken friend, with such overtures 
as would afford competent support to their respective 
families, and leave a surplus applicable to the further- 
ance of their missionary labours. By this means, too, 
Mr. C. became introduced to associations, both Euro- 
pean and native, favourable to his ministerial in- 
fluence, and was able to commence and vigorously 
pursue studies preliminary and indispensable to those 
final and momentous labours, a retrospect of which 
justified his declaration upon his djring bed : *I have 
not a single wish ungratified.* Mr. Thomas's state- 
ment shall introduce the reader to the knowledge of 
this eventful crisis in Mr. Carey's life and plans. 

Mr. Thomas to Mr. Fuller. 
* Ever since we have been here we have found it 
impossible to keep within our income, though we all 
lived in one house to save rent, and kept but one 
table. In the midst of our contrivances to live, one 
of my creditor's agents came upon me with a bond in 
hand, who seemed not violent, though hardly satis- 
fied. I took a house at Calcutta, thinking my atten- 
tion to some business might relieve us, and recover 
my circumstances. As to Mr. Udney, I had enter- 
tained hopes of his helping us in any emergent 
distress ; but as he had declined the support of the 
mission, I never applied to him for help, though I 
find since I should have been sure to have had it. 


And now being just got into my new house, I received 
a letter from Mr. Udney, which has given a wonder- 
ftil turn in its issue to all our affairs and situation, 
especially with respect to the mission. This letter 
was in answer to a consoling epistle I had sent to him 
on the sickness of his mother, which was occasioned 
by the very affecting loss of her son, who was drowned 
with his wife, by their boat oversetting as they were 
crossing Calcutta river. In this letter I had said 
that, on hearing she was sick, I nearly set off to 
Malda, but business prevented. Mr. Udney replied^ 
with a very pressing and affectionate invitation, with 
proposals to accommodate me at his expense, &c. 
I went: we met, with two hearts overflowing with 
affectionate remembrances of each other, and recol- 
lection of the sad occasion of our meeting now. Many 
tears fell, and many steps were taken, before one 
word was uttered on either side. We went and 
mingled our tears with his dear mother, who lay 
smarting under the afflicting hand of Grod, in body 
and mind, carrying about with her deep marks of 
heart-breaking grief. The same morning I directed 
her to get a word from Christ, by preaching from 
Cant. viii. 13. I fatigued her body with long walks, 
hoping thereby to make the mind less capable of 
grief ; and the Lord blessed, &c.* 

Mr. Carey's Journal. 
* March. 1. After having been employed in build- 
ing me a house, and almost finished it, I received an 
invitation this day to go up to Malda, to superintend 


an indigo manufactory. This appearing to be a re- 
markable opening in divine providence, for our com- 
fortable support, I accepted it ; so that we are still 
unsettled : but I only wait to receive another letter, 
in order to set off this long journey of two hundred 
and fifty miles with all my family. 

*2 — 4. In this state of uncertainty, nothing but 
suspense and vacancy of mind is experienced ; though 
I have the great pleasure of hoping that the mission 
may be abundantly forwarded by having a number of 
the natives under my immediate inspection, and at 
the same time, my family be well provided for. 
Though I have no doubt respecting provision, even 
here, yet, too great a part of my time must have been 
necessarily employed in managing my little farm 
with my own hands. I shall likewise be joined with 
my colleague again, and we shall unitedly engage in 
our work. O that my soul were not so barren and 
unfruitful in the work and ways of God ! 

*5. Still I mourn my barrenness, and the foolish 
wanderings of my mind. Surely I shall never be of 
any use among the heathen, I feel so very little of the 
life of godliness in my own soul. It seems as if all 
the sweetness that I have formerly felt was gone; 
neither am I distressed, but a guilty calm is spread 
over my soul, and I seem to spend all my time, and 
make no progress towards the desired port, either in 
a public or private way. I am full of necessities, yet 
am not distressed; I want wisdom to know how to 
direct all my concerns, and fortitude and affectionate 
concern for the glory of God, and faith, and holiness 


in all its branches: then my soul would be like a 
well-watered garden, but now it is a mere jungle. 

6 This day I feel much remains of my past careless- 
ness and absorption in the affairs of the world, though 
somewhat more of an inclination to the things of God 
than for some time back. I hope my soul, like a pen- 
dulum, though it swings to and fro about the necessary 
things of the world, yet can rest nowhere but in its 
centre, God ; and I trust I feel that there is an incli- 
nation to rest there. O when shall I serve God 
uninterruptedly, and pursue every thing in a subser- 
viency to his divine will, and in such a manner as to 
commune with him in every thing that I do. 

'7. In the morning, had a very miserable, unhappy 
time for some hours. O what a body of death do I 
carry about! How little can I bear! How little 
patience have I under the contradictions I meet with ; 
and the afflictions I meet, how little are they sancti- 
fied ! Instead of growing in grace, I almost conclude 
myself to be destitute of the grace of Grod at all. 
How can a wretch like me ever expect to be of use to 
the heathen, when I am so carnal myself ! 

' I see much now of the value of christian society. 
When I had that advantage, I have often felt that 
visiting a friend was like throwing oil upon the fire ; 
or, like as iron sharpeneth iron, so have the counte- 
nances of my friends stirred me up to a holy activity 
and diligence in the things of God. Towards evening, 
however, had some more enjoyment, and felt a little 
drawn forth in prayer to God. 

^ 9. This has been one of the most pleasant sabbaths 


that I have ever enjoyed since I have been in this 
country. Spent most of the day in family exercises. 
Particularly, had much enjoyment in reading Ed- 
wards's sermon upon the manner in which the salva- 
tion of the soul is to be sought. Through the whole 
day enjoyed pleasure and profit. 

* 10. Felt some drawings of soul after God, and 
prayer has especially been pleasant. The study of 
a language, though a dull work, yet is productive of 
pleasure to me, because it is my business, and neces- 
sary to my preaching in any useful manner. The soul 
and spirit of preaching must be wanting, unless one 
has some command of language. 

* 11. I begin to find my soul more at home. The 
multiplicity of other things which I have been forced 
to attend to, had drawn my mind from God, and em- 
ployed it too much upon the world ; but now I begin 
to feel again, that to live after the flesh, or to myself, 
is entirely contrary to the spirit of the gospel, and 
that no happiness or usefulness is to be expected unless 
we live near to God. 

* 12. I am very defective in all duties, both with 
respect to the matter and manner of them. In prayer 
I wander, and am formal, not having that lively sense 
of my wants which is necessary to wrestling with God. 
I ask for blessings, yiet seem almost contented to go 
without obtaining them. I soon tire; devotion lan- 
guishes; and I do not walk with God, considering 
myself always as in his sight. O what a mercy it is to 
live near to him, and to realize his perfections and 
'•elations to us constantly. 


* 13. A day of sacred pleasure. The conversion of 
the heathen, and the setting up of Christ's kingdom, 
has been a pleasant theme of contemplation. 

* 15. In this wilderness, O how my soul wanders ! I 
thirst, but find nothing to drink. O Lord, I beseech 
thee, deliver my soul ! 

^16. Such another sabbath I hope I shall never 
pass. What a hell it would be to b^ always with 
those who fear not God, as is the case with the bene- 
volent man with whom I reside. This is one of the 
Bengal holidays, and in the afternoon a number of 
people, smeared over their heads with red powder, 
who had been to celebrate the Obitar, or incarnation 
of Krishnu, returned, and danced and played their 
idolatrous tricks before the door. O how much more 
zealous are idolaters than christians I I suppose 
that not less than ten thousand people met at the 
temple of Krishnu, many of whom had travelled 
twenty or thirty miles to worship. And this is the 
case all over the country; and upon one of these 
holidays many of the rich spend perhaps a lack, or 
100,000 rupees; and they would rather undergo the 
greatest distress, than labour upon these days. Though 
the most timid people on the earth at other times, 
yet now they are enthusiastic, intrepid, and fearless. 

* 20. A most unhappy day ; yet much affected with 
some instances of generosity in my Moonshi, such 

. as I am sure would have done honour to the most 
eminent christian in the world. 

*21. The conversion of the heathen is the object 
which above all others I wish to pursue ; yet a long 


course of unforeseen things, and changing circum- 
stances, have hitherto prevented my making that 
active effort which I wish. I however am daily 
employed in learning the language, and as Moonshi 
can understand a considerable deal of English, we 
are going over Mr. Thomas's translation of Genesis. 
I find this both a pleasing and profitable employment, 
and now begin to see that the Bengali is a language 
which is very copious, and abounds with beauties. 
If my situation at Malda should be tolerable, I most 
certainly will publish the bible in numbers. 

*22. Still in suspense; waiting in daily expectation 
of a letter from Malda, to direct how we may go up. 
Have much pleasure oftentimes in conversation with 
Moonshi. In this country there is, he informs me, 
something similar to the scriptural demoniacs ; they 
call the spirits of bad men departed, Bhoot, and say 
that oftentimes when a woman walks near the woods, 
the Bhoot comes from some tree and possesses her, 
upon which she becomes in a manner insane. A 
man of learning is employed to expel the demon, 
which is performed in the following manner: He 
repeats by heart the substance of some book, and then 
commands the Bhoot to go out ; upon his refusing, 
he threatens to flog him out, and then draws with his 
finger the figure of a woman upon the earth, which 
he beats most violently, till at last the Bhoot begins 
to capitulate, and declares that he will go, and directs 
the learned man to take some very heavy weight, as 
a large jar of water, or the like, which the woman is 
commanded to lift with her teeth ; after much labour 


she performs this task, and immediately swoons ; 
then the learned person, by command of the Bhoot, 
calls her three or four times, and she revives ; but if 
he appoints ten or twelve times, she dies. He also 
gives as a sign, that when he goes out, such a tree, or 
some branches thereof, shall fall, and the woman im- 
mediately recovers. They say that the Bhoot causes 
the w(»nan to pronounce his words in a whining 
tone. What this singular thing may be, I cannot 
tell. Moonshi says that he has often seen it, and I 
am determined to investigate it ; if true, it is, like 
Indian powowing, a striking proof of the power 
which the devil exercises even over the bodies of 
people in countries wholly under his dominion, and 
must be a complete answer to all the objections 
which Socinians or others make to the scripture 
account of demoniacs.' 

It is to be regretted that ministers and commenta* 
tors should hesitate to receive and expound the evan- 
gelical statements upon this awfiil subject literally, as 
they find them. Why cannot the divine writers be 
allowed to mean what they say, and to describe things 
as actually they were, and to call things by their 
proper names? Why should we seek to evaporate 
the force of their narration of some of the most im- 
portant interpositions of the power which incarnate 
Deity put forth to verify the truth and illustrate the 
merciful purposes of his mission, by affirming that 
they so write, that they may assimilate their phrase- 
ology to the known prejudices and unphilosophical 

M * 


views and diction of the Jewish nation ? All serious 
christians admit an adverse spiritual agency, seduc- 
tive or terrifying, as the infernal prince is permitted 
to put it forth. Hence we are taught to pray for 
deliverance from the evil one ; to * resist him steadfast 
in the faith ;' to * be sober, to be vigilant, for your 
adversary the devil goeth about as a roaring lion, 
seeking whom he may devour.' Most devout persons 
accept these passages as they find them, without 
afiecting to explain away or abate their force, and 
without regard to the difiiculty they may feel, of 
making it square with their ideas of the spontaneity of 
human actions and their consequent moral turpitude. 
Why, then, should we esteem it more hard of belief 
that the great adversary, or some part of the apostate 
agency over which he presides, should mischievously 
assail our intellectual nature, and disturb the 
connection between it and that part of our animal 
economy through the medium of which it acts, than 
that he should criminally operate to our spiritual 
detriment ? In both cases, Satan is under the control 
of Omnipotence ; and beyond this a pious mindcan de- 
sire no stronger guarantee for its defence andcomfort. 
It has indeed sometimes been assumed, that the 
possessions referred to in the gospels took place by a 
special providence during the incarnation and minis- 
try of our Lord, to supply occasions for the more 
splendid demonstrations of his power. A weak and 
hazardous hypothesis, and calculated to create far 
more scepticism than ever it can remove. In what a 
circle of absurdity would it involve us, to suppose one 


miracle, or one series of miracles, should be created, 
to offer an occasion for the display of a second ! We 
should act quite as reasonably, and confer as much 
honour upon the evangelical testimony, if we were to 
believe and aflBirm, that all the sick, and all the blind, 
and all the deaf, the maimed, the leprous, and the 
dead, were brought into their respective conditions 
that the compassion and power of the Saviour should 
be evinced in their recovery. 

Besides, these possessions are never referred to by 
our Lord or his apostles, neither at any time by their 
bitterest adversaries, as new creations ; but always as 
existing, and well known and acknowledged calami- 
ties. * If I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do 
your sons cast them out ? therefore they shall be your 
judges.* The Hindus entirely agree with the Jews in 
their ideas upon this mysterious and affecting subject, 
and their language precisely accords with that used 
by the divine historians. If a sufferer of this class 
attract the attention of an European, and he inquire 
of a native as to his malady, the reply will be, * He 
is possessed, a spirit hath gotten or seized him.' 

*23. Lord's day. Enjoyed much happiness in 
reading to and instructing my family. Had much 
pleasure, and a revival of ancient friendship in my 
soul, by reading dear Mr. Ryland's Circular Letter on 
Zeal ; but sorely feel the loss of those public opportu- 
nities which I enjoyed in England. Hope, however, 
to have something more to do for God at Malda. 

*24. Devoted in some measure to God; but O how 

M 2 


little is my will swallowed up in his ! Long delay 
and unsettledness have filled me with discouragement, 
and drank up my spirit ; but I feel some rising com- 
posure in reflecting, that all my times are in the hand 
of God. This evening I was enabled to contend for 
the truth as it is in Jesus, with my host. O that God 
would requite his kindness to us by converting his 
soul ! 

*25 — 28. Days spent in a mixture of pleasure and 
pain, and every day in expectation of being removed 
from hence. I am loaded with civility from the kind 
Mr. Short, but I am ashamed to receive the tokens 
of his friendship : was it not that my wife is so ill as 
to be unable to sustain the fatigue of an incommo- 
dious voyage to Malda, I would set out at any rate; 
but as it is, I cannot till Mr. Thomas sends me a 
letter. I rejoice to find and feel that all my times 
are in the hand of God. O what must those persons 
undergo in afiiiction, if their consciences are at all 
awake, who have no sense of the infinite wisdom and 
goodness which order all things here below ; but 
eyeing a covenant God, I can say, with exultation, 
* Though the fig-tree should not blossom, and there be 
no fruit in the vine; though the labour of the olive 
should fail, and the herds be cut off from the stall ; 
yet will I rejoice in the Lord, I v^U joy in the God of 
my salvation.' 

*29. Through mistake spent this day as the sab- 
bath. I have, however, abundant reason to be thankful 
for the mistake ; it has been a time of refreshing in- 
deed to me. O what is there in all this world worth 


living for, but the presence and service of God ! I 
feel a burning desire that all the world may know 
this God and serve him. O how long will it be till I 
shall know so much of the language of the country as 
to preach Christ crucified to them ! But, bless God, 
I make some progress. 

*31. A day of hard labour at Bengali, and I trust 
some enjoyment in divine things. This evening the 
long expected letter from Malda arrived, at which 
my heart was made glad : the prospect of re-union 
with my colleague, and of our being so provided for 
as to carry on the work of printing the bible, glad- 
dened my heart. I am resolved to write to the 
Society that my circumstances are such, that I do not 
need future help from them, and to devote a sum 
monthly for the printing of the Bengali bible. 

'April 1, 2, 3. These three days have not at all 
been favourable to the growth of grace. The com- 
pany of four of the first gentlemen in the settlement, 
though civil, genteel, and kind, is yet unfriendly to 
the work of God within. However, this good end is 
answered, I become more known, and have assurances 
that even the officers of government will help me in 
the work which I am engaged in ; though the cause, 
I am well assured, will thrive without any of their 
help. However, if offered, I think it would be crimi- 
nal to reject any thing that may tend to the advance- 
ment of the work, and the comfort of my family. 
Nothing yields me more pleasure than the prospect 
of Mr. Thomas and I being re-united in the work ; 
and particularly as he has, of his own accord, written 


to me that he knows his conduct at Calcutta was 
wrong, and he was desperately drinking into the 
spirit of the world, to the destruction of godliness. 

*5. How wicked is the heart of man; and what a 
curse must it be to be wholly under its wicked do- 
minion ! Then all mercies are repelled, all privileges 
neglected, and all God's authority slighted. This 
awful spirit so prevails in me, that I can scarcely tell 
whether I have the grace of God or not. If I have it, 
how very low is the degree ! And if not, then how 
sliall I teach others ! I can scarcely determine ; but be 
it as it may, I am resolved to spend and be spent in 
the work of my Lord Jesus Christ. 

'6. Had some sweetness to-day, especially in read- 
ing Edwards's sermon, 'The Most High a prayer- 
hearing God.' What a spirit of genuine piety flows 
through all that great man's works ! I hope I have 
caught a little fresh fire to-day; but how desirable 
and important is it that God should constantly fan 
the heavenly flame ! I need abundance of grace, in 
order to communicate divine things to others ; but to 
my comfort, Christ has said, * He that believeth on 
me, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living waters ;* 
no doubt meaning, that faith is a commimicative 
principle, and that true believers will as naturally 
speak of the things of God, as a fountain casts forth 
streams of water. I wish I could speak so as to be 
understood : I can say a little, but not sufficient to 
answer the objections brought against the gospel. 

* 7. I have enjoyed some pleasure in God to-day, 
and spent the evening in a long dispute with my 


friendly host. I was enabled, through mercy, to be 
iaithful, and speak of the necessity of faith in Christ 
in order to salvation. This was called illiberal and 
uncharitable, as it excluded unbelievers, and event- 
ually adjudged the heathens to eternal misery. I 
argued that I was no more uncharitable than the 
bible ; and that if that was the case, God would appear 
gloriously just. But my friend is a deist, though not 
hardy enough to avow it. I can see that he is glad 
of every thing that he can think of to invalidate the 
bible. I feel a pleasure in being valiant for the 
truth, and much wish that God would convert his 
soul. He is indeed a kind and hospitable man. 

*8. A day of business, hurry, sorrow, and dejection. 
I seem cast out of the christian world, and unable yet 
to speak to the heathen to any advantage ; and daily 
disappointment discourages my heart. I not only 
have no friend to stir me up, or encourage me in the 
things of God, but every discouragement, arising from 
my distance from Mr. Thomas, the infidelity of 
Europeans, who all say that the conversion of the 
natives is impossible, and the stupid superstition of 
the natives themselves. In England, I should not be 
discouraged by what infidels say; but here, I have 
not the blessing of a christian friend to sympathize 
with me, nor the ability to make the trial of preaching 
the gospel. All my hope is in, and all my comfort 
arises from, God; without his power, no European 
could possibly be converted, and his power can con- 
vert any Indian : and when I reflect that he has 
stirred me up to the work, and wrought wonders to 


prepare the way, I can hope in his promises, and am 
encouraged and strengthened. 

* 13. Lord's day. This has been a day of real en- 
joyment to my soul, and of true profit. I think that 
if it were not for some opportunities of this nature, the 
wheels of religion would be entirely clogged ; but 
these seasons of refreshing oil them anew, and I move 
on again. 

* 14. Still a time of enjoyment of God- I feel that 
it is good to commit my soul, my body, and my all 
into the hands of God. Then the world appears little, 
the promises great, and God an all-sufficient portion. 

*15. Bless God, that his presence is not departed. 
This evening, during the approach of a violent storm 
of thunder, I walked alone, and had sweet converse 
with God in prayer. O! I longed to have all my 
fetters knocked oflf, that I might glorify God without 
any hinderance, either natural or moral. 

* 18. This day was tumultuous in its beginning, but 
was afterwards more calm. Yet a burden of guilt is 
not easily removed : nothing short of infinite power, 
and infinite goodness, can remove such a load as mine. 
O that I had but a smiling God, or an earthly friend 
to whom I could unbosom my soul ! But my friend 
is at a great distance, and God frowns upon my soul. 
O may his countenance be lifted upon me again ! 

MQ. O how glorious are the ways of God! *My 
soul longeth and fainteth for God, for the living God, 
to see his glory and beauty as I have seen them in the 
sanctuary.' When I first left England, my hope of 
the conversion of the heathen was very strong; but. 


among so many obstacles, it would entirely die away, 
unless upheld by God. Nothing to exercise it, but 
plenty to obstruct it, for now a year and nineteen 
days, which is the space since I left my dear charge 
at Leicester. Since that I have had hurrying up and 
down ; a five months' imprisonment with carnal men 
on board the ship ; five more learning the language ; 
my Moonshi not understanding English suflftciently 
to interpret my preaching; my colleague separated 
from me ; long delays and few opportunities for social 
worship ; no woods to retire to, like Brainerd, for fear 
of tigers (no less than twenty men in the department 
of Deharta, where I am, have been carried away by 
them this season from the salt-works) ; no earthly thing 
to depend upon, or earthly comfort, except food and 
raiment. Well ; I have God, and his word is sure ; 
and though the superstitions of the heathen were a 
million times worse than they are, if I were deserted 
by all, and persecuted by all, yet my hope, fixed on 
that sure word, will rise superior to all obstructions, 
and triumph over all trials. God's cause will triumph, 
and I shall come out of all trials as gold purified by 
fire. I was much humbled to-day by reading Brainerd. 
O what a disparity betwixt me and him ! He always 
constant, I as inconstant as the wind ! 

*22. Bless God for a continuance of the happy 
frame of yesterday. I think the hope of soon acquir- 
ing the language puts fresh life into my soul; for 
a long time my mouth has been shut, and my days 
have been beclouded with heaviness ; but now I begin 
to be something like a traveller who has been almost 


beaten out in a violent storm, and who, with all his 
clothes about him dripping wet, sees the sky begin to 
clear: so I, with only the prospect of a more pleasant 
season at hand, scarcely feel the sorrows of the present. 

*23. With all the cares of life, and all its sorrows, 
yet I find that a life of communion with God is suffi- 
cient to yield consolation in the midst of all, and even 
to produce a holy joy in the soul, which shall make it 
to triumph over all affliction. I have never yet re- 
pented of any sacrifice that I have made for the gospel, 
but find that consolation of mind which can come 
from God alone. 

^24. Still a continuance of the same tranquil state 
of mind. Outwardly the sky lours, but within I feel 
*the soul's calm sunshine, and the heart-felt joy.' 
Hope more strongly operates, as the time of my being 
able to speak for Christ approaches ; and I feel like a 
long confined prisoner whose chains are knocked off 
in order to his liberation. 

* 25. Blessed be God for a continuance of his mercy 
to me this day. I feel a calm, serious frame of heart; 
but yet have cause to mourn the want of a contempla- 
tive mind. Things come and go, and seem to make 
but very little impression upon my heart. O what 
need I have of a spirit of importunate intercession 
with God! I pray for divine blessings, yet rest too 
well contented without obtaining them. 

*27. Some lowering circumstances served to distress 
me this morning, and threatened to spoil all the 
comfort of the whole day; but, blessed be God, I 
found him a sufficient friend, and a sufficient portion. 


Had much pleasure and affection in instructing my 
family f and have seen some such impressions upon 
my two eldest children as are matter of great encou- 
ragement to me. O that they may be followed up by 
God to good purpose ! 

*29. This has been a time of abundant mercy to me 
in every respect. My soul has been strengthened and 
enlightened ; I only want a heart endued with gra- 
titude and love. I want to be filled with a sense of 
the mercy of God, and to feel my heart warmed with 
a hearty regard to him and all his ways. I find great 
reason to fear lest I should contract an unfeeling, 
carnal form of godliness, without the power. 

^30. I have reason to bless God for all the benefits 
with which he loads me. O how apt we are to over- 
look all his goodness and all his beauty, and to dwell 
on those parts of our experience which are dreary and 
discouraging ! But I feel that the light afiiictions and 
momentary sorrows which I endure, diminish in their 
bulk and lose their nature, while we look not at tem- 
poral but at eternal things. While concerned about 
temporal things, I see all temporal troubles magnify 
themselves; and on the contrary, when I see the 
beauty of holiness, and the importance of my work, all 
that I have to meet with in the prosecution of it 
disappears and is scarcely perceptible. 

*May 2. Still I have reason to bless God for sere- 
nity and composure of soul : but the state in which I 
am is such as precludes me from action, and almost 
discourages me. Yet, blessed be Grod, the k*anslation 
goes on, and I find much pleasure in the prospect of 
being able to print it soon. 


*4. I have had considerable sweetness to-day in 
duty, and particularly in reading some part of 
Witherspoon on Regeneration. I have frequently 
feared that a day would end in wretchedness, when 
the Lord has cleared my skies, and I have felt the sun 
of righteousness arise with healing under his wings. 

'8. Moonshi is employed in preparing boats to 
carry us up the river to Malda. The translation 
stands still, and my soul is awfully barren. O what 
a wilderness I am without God ! May he soon restore 
to me the light of his countenance ! 

* 12. A sabbath not quite unprofitable, but attended 
rather with perplexity than any enjoyment. I hope 
the sabbath above will more than compensate for the 
loss of so many below, and I hope not to have many 
more such as these on earth. God grant that I may 
see much more the beauty of his ways! 

*13, 14, 15. Days that have accumulated my guilt, 
for I have done nothing for God ; and what is worse, 
have no desire, or scarcely any. O what a blessing is 
the gospel, which provides a Saviour and a Sanctifier ! 

*16. Tempestuous without, but, blessed be God, 
calm and serene within. O what are all earthly 
pleasures or pains if we have God's presence, and that 
which is its companion, the testimony of a good con- 
science, that in simplicity and godly sincerity we 
have had our conversation in this world ! 

*17. Feel very much degenerated in my soul; 
scarcely any heart for God ; but a careless indolence 
possesses my spirit, and makes me unfit for any thing. 
I need much of the presence of God to conquer indo- 


lence, to which the heat of the country probably 
contributes; but my own disposition would much 
nourish it, though I bless God that I never enjoyed 
better health. 

' 18. I hope that not many days will be spent like 
this. We expect our boats this night, and hope we 
may even go one tide towards Malda. 

'19. A sabbath almost fruitless. I think that I 
never saw so much of my ignorance as now. Very 
distressing circumstances have put my wisdom to the 
proof, and I feel myself to possess very little indeed ; 
but the gracious declaration of promise in James, * If 
any man lack,' &c. is, when considered as the word of 
a faithful God, like balm to my soul. 

*20, 21, 22. Have been days of delay, and barren- 
ness to my soul. I think that I have too much impa- 
tience under disappointments; yet I can in general 
feel a pleasure in thinking that my times are in the 
hand of God, and that whatsoever becomes of me, yet 
he will be glorified at last. 

*23. This morning at three o'clock, set out on our 

journey to Malda, which is about three hundred miles, 

and will take us about three weeks. I feel thankful to 

God for thus providing, and also that we have a place 

of our own, though not a house, but a boat : my sister 

stays behind us. 

*24. On the river Jubona passed Buddareea, and 

have felt that satisfaction and pleasure which I have 

for a long time been a stranger to. But I long for 

fresh anointing with the Spirit of God. 

*26. Arrived at Chundareea, on the river of Isa- 


muty ; my soul somewhat more barren than yesterday. 
Towards evening, I felt myself somewhat more drawn 
towards God, especially when I was surroimded by 
a large body of the natives at this place. I had a 
little talk with a few of them, but found myself much 
at a loss for words ; however, I find myself begin to 
improve in my knowledge of the Hindu language. 
It is a considerable disadvantage that two languages 
are spoken all over the country ; the Brahmuns and 
Costs or Ca^sts speak Bengali, and the common 
people Hindostani. I understand a little of both, 
and hope to be master of both ; but in this I need 
wisdom from above, as in all things else. 

*26. This day kept sabbath at Chandureea; had 
a pleasant day. In the morning and afternoon ad- 
dressed my family, and in the evening began my 
work of publishing the word of God to the heathen. 
Though imperfect in the knowledge of the language, 
yet, with the help of Moonshi, I conversed with two 
Brahmuns in the presence of about two hundred people, 
about the things of God. I had been to see a temple, 
in which were the images of Dukkinroy, the god of 
the woods, riding on a tiger; SheetuUa, goddess of 
the small-pox, without a head, riding on a horse with- 
out a head ; Punchanon, with large ears ; and CoUoroy, 
riding on a horse. In another apartment was Seeb, 
which was only a smooth post of wood, with two or 
three mouldings in it, like the base of a Tuscan pillar. 
I therefore discoursed with them upon the vanity of 
idols, the folly and wickedness of idolatry, the nature 
and attributes of God, and the way of salvation by 


Christ. One Brahmun was quite confounded, and 
a number of people were all at once crying out to him, 
*Why do you not answer him? Why do you not 
answer him?' He replied, *I have no words.' Just 
at this time a very learned Brahmun came up, who 
was desired to talk with me; which he did, and so 
acceded to what I said, that he at last said, images 
had been used of late years, but not from the begin- 
ning. I inquired what I must do to be saved; he 
said, I must repeat the name of God a great many 
times. I replied, would you, if your son had offended 
you, be so pleased with him as to forgive him if he 
were to repeat the word * father' a thousand times? 
This might please children or fools, but God is wise. 
He told me that I must get faith; I asked what faith 
was, to which he gave me no intelligible reply, but 
said I must obey God. I answered, what are his 
commands? What is his will? They said God was 
a great light, and as no one could see him, he became 
incarnate, under the threefold character of Brhumma^ 
Bishno, and Seeb, and that either of them must be 
worshipped in order to life. I told them of the sure 
word of the gospel, and the way of life by Christ; 
and, night coming on, left them. I cannot tell what 
effect it may have, as I may never see them again. 

*27. Still pursuing our course up the Isamuty. 
This day nothing material occurred. My soul tran- 
quil, but not so spiritual as I could wish. Peace is 
little worth unless it arises from seeing Him who is 
invisible. This day translated a chapter. 

*28. Arrived this night at a place which I named 


Musquito creek, from the great number of those 
insects which infested us. Blessed be God, we all 
enjoy much better health than we have done; though, 
I have reason to be thankful that the climate agrees 
with me better than England did. Could I but see the 
cause of God prevail here, I could triumph over all 
affliction which ever I have had the fear of going 
through : for indeed I have gone through very little 
yet; but my carnality I have daily, nay, constant 
reason to deplore. 

*29, 30, 31. Made very little way on account of 
the crookedness of the river ; we laboured two days 
to make about four miles in a straight line. I thought 
that our course was very much like the christian life, 
sometimes going forward, and often apparently back- 
ward, though the last was absolutely necessary to the 
prosecution of our journey. Had some intervals of 
pleasing reflection on my journey. 

* June 1. Blessed be God, this has not been a day 
totally lost ; when I can feel my soul going out after 
God, what pleasure it yields ! and an hour spent with 
a near and endearing sense of the divine perfections, 
how very pleasant and refreshing it is ! 

*2. In many respects this has been a time of refresh- 
ing to me. I thought of trying to talk to some poor 
people at Sultanpore this evening; but just before I 
was going to begin, a fire broke out which consumed 
three houses, and called the attention of the few 
people who were here, till it was too late. 

*3. Had some serious thoughts this morning upon 
the necessity of having the mind evangelically em- 


ployed. I find it is not enough to have it set upon 
duty, sin, death, or eternity: these are important; but 
as the gospel is the way of a sinner's deliverance, so 
evangelical truth should, and will, when it is well 
with him, mostly occupy his thoughts. But alas, in 
the afternoon I felt peevish and uncomfortable. 

*4, 5, 6. Deadness and carnality prevailed these 
days. I have no opportunities for retirement, and 
what is worse, little heart to retire: perhaps this is 
the reason why I excuse myself by saying, I have no 
place. • 

*7. Arrived at Bassetpore, at the place where Isa- 
muty river runs out of the Granges. I was busied most 
part of the day in procuring sails, making ropes, &c. 
for our boats, to go up the Ganges. Towards evening, 
went into the river, but ran upon a sand-bank, and 
was forced to come to under an island. The river at 
this place is eight or nine miles wide, but abounds 
with shallows. Was in a very unpleasant state most 
part of the day. 

* 8. Sailed in the Ganges, and in the evening arrived 
at Bowlea, where we lay to for the sabbath, to-morrow. 
Felt thankful that God had preserved us, and won- 
dered how he can regard so mean a creature. Was 
enabled this evening to wrestle with God in prayer 
for many of my dear friends in England. Several of 
my friends at Leicester lay very near to my heart; 
and several ministers of my most intimate acquaint- 
ance : I seemed to feel much on their account. The 
society was an object of my desires likewise. This was 
a time of refreshing to my soul indeed. 



*9. I have this day had more enjoyment of God 
than for many days past. I trust that the reading of 
the bible has been truly useful to my soul. Had some 
affecting views of the value of Christ, and grace, 
whilst reading part of M*Laurin's Treatise on Chris- 
tian Piety. Felt enlarged in prayer, and thankful 
for the many mercies which I daily receive from 
God ; but my unprofitableness has been a source of 
humiliation to me. Kept sabbath to-day near a place 
called Rampore Bowlea, on the banks of the Ganges. 

*10. Pursued our journey on the Granges; twice 
were stuck fast on some shallows, which hindered us 
much, and were the cause of some anxiety ; but yet 
had a day of mercy, though yet a day of negligence, 
and disregard in a great measure of the loss of com- 
munion with God. 

*11. This evening arrived at the entrance of the 
river Mahanunda, which goes to Malda. Had some 
little enjoyment of God to-day; but travelling with 
a family is a great hinderance to holy, spiritual me- 

*12, 13, 14. Proceeded up the river Mahanunda, 
and arrived this evening at Boolahaut, about six 
miles from Malda. Much mercy has followed us all 
through this journey ; and, considering the very weak 
state of my wife, we have been supported beyond ex- 
pectation. Travelling, in general, I have always found 
unfriendly to the progress of the divine life in my 
soul ; but travelling with a family more particularly 
so. Yet, through the mercy of God, I have not been 
without some seasons of enjoyment and inward delight 


in God, though mixed with an aMrful degree of cold- 
ness and inattentiveness, to that which, when attended 
to, has always been productive of the greatest pleasure 
and satisfaction to my soul. 

* 15. Received a note from Mr. Udney, inviting us 
all to the factory ; to which place we went, and arrived 
there about twelve o'clock. Found Mr. Udney and 
his mother very agreeable people indeed, and had 
once more the happiness of joining in prayer with 
those who love God. 

* 16. This day I preached twice at Malda, where 
Mr. Thomas met me. In the morning had much 
enjoyment, and though our congregation did not 


exceed sixteen, yet the pleasure that I felt in having 
my tongue once more loosed, I can hardly describe : 
was enabled to be faithful, and felt a sweet affection 
for immortal souls. 

*17, 18. Had much serious conversation and sweet 
pleasure these days. I feel now as if released from 
a prison, and enjojring the sweets of christian fellow- 
ship again. O that our labours may be prosperous, 
and our hearts made glad to see the work of the Lord 
carried on with vigour. Surely the Lord is not thus 
making room for us, and removing every difficulty, 
without some gracious design ! I much desire a spirit 
of activity and affection. 

* 19. To-day Mr. Udney told me that my salary 
was to be two hundred rupees per month, and com- 
mission upon all the indigo that is sold ; and that next 
year he intended to present me with a share in the 
works ; so that my situation is very eligible. His 



manner of conferring these favours upon us (for our 
situations are alike) was admirable: *I always/ said 
he, * join the interest of those I employ in places of 
trust with my own ; so that no obligation lies upon 
you whatsoever more than others.' Resolved to write 
immediately to the society in England, that they send 
me no more supplies, as I shall have an ample suffi- 
ciency. This gives me great pleasure, as I hope they 
may the sooner be able to send another mission 
somewhere ; and I should much recommend Sumatra, 
or some of the Indian islands. If they send to any 
part south or east of Bengal, it will be best to send 
them in a foreign ship to Bengal, from whence their 
passage may be taken in a country ship to any place ; 
and as we have houses here they may stay with either 
of us till an opportunity offers, which will save much 




We have hitherto met with little in the life of Mr. 
Carey but discouragement and affliction. The scene 
is now relieved, and he is introduced to comparative 
comfort; at least delivered from want, and its conse- 
quent humiliation and anxieties. Not that his en- 
gagements yielded him any very large return ; two 
hundred rupees per month, which was the salary 
apportioned him, could have left him but a trifling 
surplus when the wants of a large family were sup- 
plied. Mrs. Carey's indisposition so increased upon 
her, that she was quite incapable of regulating the 
domestic economy ; nor need any who are acquainted 
with social life in India be informed, that the pecula- 
tion of native servants is so universal and unremitted, 
through all the details of expenditure, that no item is 
ever excepted from it ; and managed, too, with such 
perfect system and so much subtlety, as to escape 
detection under the most wakeful superintendence, 
and to defy all control. Yet, notwithstanding these 
social disadvantages, he spared from one-third to one- 
fourth of his income for missionary purposes. For, 


from the first day he could command a single frac- 
tion not absolutely required for his subsistence, he 
began to practise that rigid and unreserved consecra- 
tion of his substance, for which he continued so bright 
an example through life ; and which, though for 
thirty years he was in receipt of a large income, gave 
him the privilege and the dignity of dying poor. 

The labour requisite for discharging the duties of 
his present situation, might be deemed sufficient for 
the time and strength of any common man ; but, 
besides fulfilling these with a diligence and a fidelity 
reaching to the minutest circumstances, he attempted 
native education, acquired the dialect of the province 
in which he lived, daily addressed the idolatrous 
natives, often travelled considerable distances to 
preach in English, maintained an extensive corre- 
spondence, and withal, laid a broad foundation of 
oriental grammatical science, by mastering the ele- 
ments of one of the most difficult and classic languages 
in the world. 

His journal is now continued, by the perusal of 
which, the reader will be competently informed of 
his exertions, his encouragements, and his conflicts. 

*June 19, 1794. This evening, set out with Mr. 
Thomas for Mudnabatty, which is to be the place of 
my residence, and is thirty-two miles north of Malda, 
in a straight line, but nearly seventy by water, and is 
upon the river Tanquam. 

*20 — 21. We were employed in journeying, and 
about the middle of the night arrived at Mudnabatty. 


^ 22. Set out again for Malda, and, as it was down 
the stream, arrived there in about fifteen hours. 

*23. Enjoyed a very pleasant day indeed. I 
preached twice with much afiection ; one time from 
Eph. ii. 13, *Ye, who sometime were afar off, are 
brought nigh by the blood of Christ;' and in the 
evening, from the words, ' By grace ye are savqd.' 
There was much seriousness among us, and I hope 
the sabbath has not been in vain. 

*23. Had some sweet conversation upon divine 
things, and affection in praying with dear Christian 

. *24. Employed in sending off my boat, which I 
intend to meet to-morrow morning. Had some plea- 
sure and pain, I trust of the truly evangelical kind, 

'25, 26. Journeyed to Mudnabatty ; arrived about 
two in the afternoon, and spent the day in regulating 
the concerns there. 

*27. Employed in the works, but had a pleasant 
season of retirement. It is now just one year and 
fourteen days since I left England, all which time I 
have been a sojourner and wandering to and fro ; at 
last, however, God has provided me a home. May 
he also give me piety and gratitude ! 

*28. I am at present busily employed in arranging 
all my people and my affairs, having about ninety 
people under my management ; these will furnish a 
congregation immediately, and, added to the exten- 
sive engagements which I must necessarily have with 
the natives, will open a very wide door for activity. 


God grant that it may not only be large, but effec- 
tual ! I felt not much spirituality to-day, but had the 
pleasure of detecting a shocking piece of oppression 
practised by those natives who managed the affairs 
of this place before my coming. They had hired 
labourers for two and a half rupees per month, but 
when the poor people came to be paid, they deducted 
two anas* from each man's pay for themselves. I 
am glad of this detection on two accounts; namely, as 
it affords me an opportunity of doing justice among 
the heathen, and of exposing the wickedness of their 
leaders, one of their oppressors being a Brahmun ; and 
as it so discouraged the poor people from working 
for us that we could scarcely procure labourers at any 
rate. This will serve a little to remove the prejudices 
of the people against Europeans, and prepare a way 
for the publication of the gospel. 

*30. This has been the first sabbath spent at the 
place of my intended abode. I passed the day in 
reading and prayer. Found some sweet devotedness 
to God towards evening, and much concern lest I 
should become negligent after so great mercies. But 
if, after God has so wonderfully made way for us, I 
should neglect the very work for which I came hither, 
the blackest brand of guilt and infamy must lie upon 
my soul. Found myself desirous of being entirely 
devoted to God, and disposed of by him just as he 
pleases. I felt also much concern for the success of 
the gospel among the heathen. 

*July 1, 2, 3. Much engaged in the necessary 

* Sixteen unas make one rupee. 


business of preparing our works for the approaching , 
season of indigo making, which will commence in 
about a fortnight. I had on the evening of each of 
these days, very precious seasons of fervent prayer to 
God. I have been on these evenings much drawn 
out in prayer for my dear friends at Leicester, and for 
the society, that it may be prosperous ; likewise for 
the ministers of my acquaintance, not only of the 
Baptist, but other denominations. I was engs^ed for 
the churches in America and Holland, as well as 
England; and mifch concerned for the success of the 
gospel among the Hindus. At present I know not of 
any success since I Jbave been here. Many say that 
the gospel is the word of truth ; but they abound so 
much in flattery and encomiums, which are mere 
words of course, that little can be said respecting 
their sincerity. The very common sins of lying and 
avarice are so universal also, that no European who 
has not witnessed it can form any idea of their various 
appearances : they will stoop to any thing whatsoever 
to get a few cowries, and lie on every, occasion. O 
how desirable is the spread of the gospel ! 

'July 4. Rather more flat, perhaps owing to the 
excessive heat; for in the rainy season, if there be a 
fine day, it is very hot indeed. Such has be^n this 
day, and I was necessitated to be out in it from morn- 
ing till evening, giving necessary directions. I felt 
very much fatigued indeed, and had no spirits left in 
the evening, and in prayer was very barren. 

*5. Very poorly to-day from being exposed* to 
yesterday's heat, and obliged to be rather more cau- 


tious ; felt little heart for the things of God till 
evening, when I was much comforted by reading of 
the fidelity and constancy of Job, in the first two 
chapters ; wished for the same spirit, and afterwards 
was much enlarged in prayer to God ; my soul was 
drawn out for the success of the gospel among the 
heathen. Had some pleasant and spiritual conver- 
sation with Moonshi, who I hope will lose caste for the 
gospel, which, with a Hindu of his rank, is a greater 
sacrifice than life, his being the highest, except the 
Brahmun. Their strong attachment to caste may 
appear by the following incident. As I was coming 
up hither I was in great want of a servant-boy. At a 
place which we passed through, a poor boy of the 
shoemaker caste, which is the very lowest of all, so 
that no Hindu, or even Mussulman of credit, will 
suffer one of them to come into his house, but they 
are universally despised, much more than can be con- 
ceived, came begging to Moonshi, and said that he 
had neither food, clothing, nor friends, but was an 
orphan. Moonshi asked him to come as my servant, 
and told him that he should have a sufficiency of all 
necessaries, and, if he behaved well, be taken good care 
of ; but, for fear of losing caste, he refused. Perhaps 
this is one of the strongest chains with which the 
devil ever bound the children of men. This is my 
comfort, that God can break it. 

* 7. Busy all day, but rather more inclined to con- 
template spiritual things. This evening was enabled 
to plead a little with God for the heathen ; but it was 
so flat, and destitute of strong crying and tears, that 


it scarcely deserves the name of prayer. Had some 
profitable conversation with Moonshi this evening; 
and, indeed, he is the only conversable person in this 
place, all the natives here being very ignorant, and 
speaking a dialect which differs as much from true 
Bengali, as the Lancashire dialect does froiji true 
English ; so that I have hard work to understand 
them, and to make them understand me. 

*July 9. — Aug. 4. Employed in visiting several 
factories to learn the process of indigo making. Had 
some very pleasant seasons at Malda, where I preached 
several times, and the people seemed much affected 
with the word. One day, as Mr. Thomas and I were 
riding out, we saw a basket hung in a tree, in which 
an infant had been exposed ; the skull remained, the 
rest having been devoured by ants. On the last of 
these days I arrived with my family at Mudnabatty, 
the place of my future residence and the seat of the 

*5, 6, 7. Much employed in settling the affairs of 
the buildings, &c., having been absent so long, and 
several of our managing and principal people being 
sick. It is indeed an awful time here with us now, 
scarcely a day but some are seized with fevers. It is, 
I believe, owing to the abundance of water, there 
being rice-fields all around us, in which they dam up 
the water, so that all the country hereabouts is about 
a foot deep in water ; and as we have rain, though 
moderate to what I expected the rainy season to be, 
yet the continual moisture occasions fevers in such 
situations where rice is cultivated. Yet the rainy 


season is the most pleasant weather in this country ; 
nor do I think the rains any more violent than sum- 
mer rains in England. Felt at home and thankful 
these days. O that I may be very useful ! I must soon 
leam the language tolerably well, for I am obliged to 
converse with the natives every day, having no other 
persons here except my family. 

*0n the two last of these days the Mahomedaus 
were employed in celebrating the Mohurrum, the 
time of lamentation for the slaughter of Mahomed's 
family. They were going about with pipes, drums, 
&c., incessantly for two days and nights ; and, on the 
last day, upwards of a thousand people of all ages 
came just before our door, the house being built on 
the bank of a tank, part of which is consecrated to a 
peer, or spirit of some saint who was buried there. 
They wished much to display the whole scene to us ; 
though perhaps half of them came out of curiosity, 
having never seen a white woman, and many not a 
white man, before ; and it was very curious to hear 
them inquiring one of another, which was Saib, and 
which was Bibby Saib, that is, which was I, and 
which my wife. They brought four or five orna- 
mented biers, in which the dead family of Mahomed 
are supposed to be represented ; and after the whole 
exhibition was ended, they buried or drowned them 
in the tank, and then dispersed. Their zeal on these 
occasions is very great ; every thing is sacrificed to 
their religion, and every Mussulman, rich or poor, 
joins in the ceremony. 


*To THE Baptist Missionary Society. 

* Mudnabatty, Aug. 5, 1794. 
'Dear Brethren, 

*I am, through the mercy of God, still in the land 
of the living, and have been led by divine providence 
through an amazing labyrinth of circumstances, till I 
am in a very unexpected manner settled in this place, 
and surrounded with the most pleasant circumstances 
and flattering prospects. 

* My last letters to England were from ManicktuUo, 
from which place I removed to Dayhotta, and was 
there preparing a house, and had taken land to cul^ 
tivate for the support of my family. Mr, T. had 
likewise engaged in his own profession at Calcutta, 
on which account we were separated about forty 
miles. But Mrs. Udney at Malda being very ill, 
through grief on account of the death of her son and 
his wife at Calcutta, who were both drowned in cross* 
ing the river in the night, Mr. T. was sent for to 
attend her. It was remarkable that Mr. Udney, of 
Malda, had just begun to erect two indigo manufac«* 
tones at some distance north of Malda, but without 
knowing of any persons to superintend them; he 
therefore engaged Mr. T. to take the oversight of one, 
and wrote to me to superintend the other. This 
seemed to me such a remarkable appearance of provi- 
dence, so unexpected, unsought for, and furnishing so 
ample supplies for our wants, and at the same time 
opening so large a field for usefulness, putting us each 
in a state of direct or indirect influence over more 
than a thousand people, that I could not hesitate a 


moment in concluding it to be the hand of God ; I 
therefore left my unfinished house and farm, and set 
out to Malda, about two hundred and fifty miles. 

* My place is about thirty miles further north, and 
Mr. T.'s sixteen or seventeen miles further than 
mine. We are situated between the rivers Tanquam 
and Pumabudda, in the district of Dinagepore, and 
within a hundred and twenty miles of Tibet. The 
name of my place is Mudnabatty, that of Mr. T. 
Moypaldiggy. Here, then, is the principal seat of 
the mission ; and if any lose caste for the gospel, we 
have good and profitable employment for them. Mr. 
Udney allows us each two hundred rupees per month, 
with commission for all the indigo we make, and 
promises next year to present us each with a fourth 
share of our respective works. In consequence of 
which I now inform the society, that I can subsist 
without any further assistance from them ; and at 
the same time sincerely thank them for the exertions 
they have made, and hope that what was intended to 
supply my wants, may be appropriated to some other 
mission. At the same time it will be my glory and 
joy to stand in the same near relation to the society 
as if I needed supplies from them, and to maintain 
the same correspondence with them. The only 
favour that I beg is, that I may have the pleasure of 
seeing the new publications that come out in our con- 
nection, and the books that I wrote for before, viz., a 
Polyglott bible, Arabic testament, Malay gospel, and 
botanical magazine. 

'Whatever you send, Mr. Savage will contrive to 


get on board some ship; and if directed tome at this 
place, to the care of TuUoh and Co., Calcutta, will 
be sure to reach me. I wish you also to send me a 
few instruments of husbandry, viz. scythes, sickles, 
plough- wheels, and such things ; and a yearly assort- 
ment of all garden and flowering seeds, and seeds of 
fruit-trees, that you can possibly procure; and let 
them be packed in papers, or bottles well stopped, 
which is the best 'method. All these things, at what- 
ever price you can procure them, and the seeds of all 
sorts of field and forest-trees, &c., I will regularly 
remit you the money for every year ; and I hope that 
I may depend upon the exertions of my numerous 
friends to procure them. Apply to London seedsmen 
and others, as it will be a lasting advantage to this 
country ; and I shall have it in my power to do this 
for what I now call my own country. Only take care 
that they are new and dry. 

* A lai^e door is opened, and I have great hopes. 
I cannot speak the language so well as to converse 
much, but begin a little. Moonshi is not yet baptized. 
Mohun Chund is either a christian or a great im- 
postor. Parbotee I have not yet seen : he is at a great 
distance from us. We are upon the point of forming 
a church ; but our beginning will be but small, five or 
six persons. Mr Udney is, I think, a truly pious 
man, and his mother a serious woman ; but they are 
not baptists. We have a pretty congregation at his 
house, perhaps twenty persons, who live in the com- 
pass of 80 or 100 miles, consequently are aU there 
together but seldom. I have hopes of about half of 
them : they are praying people. 


* The obstacles in the way of the gospel are very 
great, and were it not that God is almighty and true, 
would be insurmountable. The caste is such a super- 
stition as no European can conceive, and more tena- 
ciously regarded than life. It was, I think, originally 
political, but is now interwoven with every circum- 
stance of their lives ; and their deceit and avarice are 
unparalleled. But the work was begun by God, and 
I doubt not but he will carry it on. 

* My journal I intend to send by the ships of this 
season, in which, though the greatest part is per- 
sonal, relating to myself, yet some hints will be 
found relative to what I have observed among the 

* I was much disappointed on the arrival of the 
Nancy, packet, by the return of which I send this, at 
not receiving one European letter. Surely you have 
not forgotten us. As the packet is expected every 
day to sail, and I have been removing so much from 
place to place till this week, I must refer all my 
friends to this letter, and desire to be remembered to 
all the churches and ministers of Christ, especially 
my christian acquaintance. 

* I am, with warm affection, yours, 

'W. Carey/ 

To Mr. Sutcliff. 

' Mudnahatty^ Aug. 9, 94* 
'My dear Brother, 

*I scarcely think this letter can be in time for the 
packet; but write, hoping that it may. I have hastily 


written to the society ; but many particulars I have re- 
sensed to write to my friends which are not there 
mentioned. The packet sailing much sooner than 
was expected, will however make it impossible for me 
to write to many. 

* The particulars of my situation I mentioned in 
that letter, and only observe to you that a more eli- 
gible situation could not have been chosen. Mr. T. 
and I are only sixteen miles distant from each other, 
and our respective factories will furnish support for 
several thousands of people; so that there vnll be 
a comfortable and honourable asylum for all who lose 
caste for the gospel. 

* I have not yet seen Parbotee. Moonshi is with 
me, and I hope is a real christian, but wants zeal and 
fortitude : he has not yet lost caste. Mohun Chund 
professes more zeal than Moonshi, but there is some- 
thing suspicious in him. It is very difficult to get 
these people together: travelling is expensive, and 
they are all poor ; though Moonshi's was one of the 
first families in that part of Bengal, till ruined by 
Mr. Hastings. We are now just upon the point of 
forming a gospel church, which I hope may be pros- 

* As for the dangers and difficulties of the country, 
we think very little about them. Some diseases are 
very common here; as dysentery, which generally 
arises from the coldness of the night air, after the 
heat of the day. With this disorder my wife and 
eldest son have been afflicted for eight months : my 
wife is nearly well, but my son very ill now. Fevers 



are frequent in the rains, or rather agues ; perhaps 
arising from the number of rice-fields which are full 
of water. But the country agrees better with my 
health than England did: I never was better in my 

* We have no fear of beasts, though there are many 
bufialoes, hogs, and tigers in our neighbourhood. 
Tigers seldom attack men, but commit dreadful devas- 
tation among cattle ; except those of the Sunderbunds, 
a very large forest near the sea, where there are no 
cattle; there they seize men. Serpents are numerous; 
and some so mortal that the patient never survives 
two hours, and often dies in five minutes ; but they 
give us no concern, or very little. Crocodiles no 
man minds: I have one in a pond about ten yards 
from my door, yet sleep with the door open every 
night. The whole country is one large valley or 
plain, without a hill ten feet high, unless made by 
art, or a single spring of water. The Ganges and 
Berhampooter run quite through it; each of them 
about three miles wide upon an average, though in 
many places ten, with large inhabited islands in the 
middle ; and these branch out into some hundreds of 
rivers more, many as large as the Thames. Major 
Rennel's map, or ra her atlas, of India, will give you 
a very just idea of the geography of this country ; and 
Sonnerat's voyage will ftimish you with the best 
epitome of Hindu mythology extant: allowing for 
the different writing of names in diflferent dialects, he 
has related the whole in a very just and impartial 


' The language is very copious, and I think beau- 
tifiil. I begin to converse in it a little ; but my third 
son, about five years old, speaks it fluently. Indeed, 
there are two distinct languages spoken all over the 
country, viz., the Bengali, spoken by the Brahmuns 
and higher Hindus ; and the Hindostani, spoken by 
the Mussulmans and lower Hindus, which is a mixture 
of Bengali and Persian. I intend to send you soon 
a copy of Genesis, Matthew, Mark, and James, in 
Bengali ; with a small vocabulary and grammar of 
the language, in manuscript, of my own composing, 
to which you will afibrd a place on one of the shelves 
in your library. I have written to the society to stop 
my allowance, as I am amply provided for : perhaps 
it might be acceptable to Mr. Thomas to continue his 
a little longer on account of his debts. 

* I cannot day much about myself. I intend to 
send my journal soon; but it only relates to myself, 
or very little to other things. However, I may ex- 
press my hope, nay, I may say confidence, that God, 
who has so astonishingly made our way plain and 
clear, will bless the word to the conversion of many, 
and thus crown the wishes of the praying ministers 
and people in England. 

* At present, being incapable of preaching, I can say 
nothing of success ; but my heart is engaged in the 
work, and I know that God can convert the most ob- 
stinate and superstitious, and has promised to do it. 
This is the foundation of my hope, and in this confi- 
dence I engage in the work. Adieu, 

* Affectionately yours, W. Carey/ 
o 2 



*Aug. 16 — 24. Nothing worth recording passed. I 
feel too much sameness to be spiritual. If I were in a 
more spiritual frame, the holy war would be carried 
on in my soul with greater vigour, and the fresh 
discoveries of sin would cause new hopes, new fears, 
and new struggles ; but when I am at ease, it is like a 
calm at sea, where there is a contrary current : I not 
only get no ground, but am insensibly carried back. 

*The last of these days was Lord's-day ; I spent it in 
reading to and praying with my family. Towards 
evening I went out, when the workmen who have 
built the works came to me, and said that, as I was to 
begin making indigo to-morrow, it was much their 
wish that I would make an offering to Kally, the 
goddess of destruction, that I might have success in 
the work. This Kally is the most devil-like figure 
that can be thought of : she stands upon a dead man ; 
her girdle is strung with small figures of human 
skulls, like beads upon a bracelet ; she has four arms, 
and her tongue hangs out of her mouth below her 
chin ; and in short, a more horrible figure can scarcely 
be conceived of. I took the opportunity of remon- 
strating with them upon the wickedness and folly of 
idolatry, and set my face as much as possible against 


their making anj^ offering at all, and told them that 
I would rather lose my life than sacrifice to their 
idol; that God was much displeased with them for 
their idolatry, and exhorted them to leave it and turn 
to the true God. But I had the mortification of see- 
ing, the next day, that they had been offering a kid ; 
yet I doubt not but I shall soon see some of these 
people brought from darkness to the marvellous light 
of the gospel. 

* 25. Had some little spirituality, but much inter- 
rupted through the carelessness of our head man. 
Had some sweet wrestling and freedom with God in 
prayer. These seasons are but of short duration, but 
they are little foretastes of heaven. O may God con- 
tinue them long, and frequently thus visit my soul ! 

*27. Nothing new. My soul is in general unfruit- 
ful ; yet I find a pleasure in drawing near to God, 
and a peculiar sweetness in his holy word. I find it 
more and more to be a very precious treasure. 

*28 — 30. Nothing of any importance, except, to 
my shame, a prevalence of carnality, negligence, and 
spiritual deadness; no heart for private duties ; indeed 
every thing seems to be going to decay in my soul, 
and I almost despair of being of any use to the heathen 
at all. 

*31. Was somewhat engaged more than of late in 
the things of God ; I felt some new devotedness to 
God, and desire to live entirely to him and for his 
glory. O that I could live always as under his eye, 
and feel a sense of his immediate presence ! This is 
life, and all besides is death to mv soul. 


*Sept. 1 — Oct. 1. During this time I have had a 
heavy and long affliction, having been taken with a 
violent fever. One of the paroxysms continued for 
twenty-six hours without intermission, when provi- 
dentially Mr. Udney came to visit us, not knowing 
that I was ill, and brought a bottle of bark with him. 
This was a great providence, as I was growing worse 
every day ; but the use of this medicine, by the bless- 
ing of God, recovered me. In about two days I 
relapsed, and the fever was attended with a violent 
vomiting and a dysentery ; and even now I am very 
ill, Mr. Thomas says, with some of the very worst 
symptoms. On the last of these days it pleased God 
to remove, by death, my youngest child but one ; a fine 
engaging boy of rather more than five years of age. 
He had been seized with a fever, and was recovering ; 
but relapsed, and a violent dysentery carried him ofi*. 
On the same day we were obliged to bury him, which 
was an exceedingly difficult thing. I could induce 
no person to make a coffin, though two carpenters are 
constantly employed by us at the works. Four Mus- 
sulmans, to keep each other in countenance, dug a 
grave ; but though we had between two and three 
hundred labourers employed, no man would carry 
him to the grave. We sent seven or eight miles to 
get a person to do that office ; and I concluded that I 
and my wife would do it ourselves, when at last a 
servant kept for the purpose of cleaning, and a boy 
who had lost caste, were prevailed upon to carry the 
corpse, and secure the grave from the jackals. This 
was not owing to any disrespect in the natives 


towards us, but only to the cursed caste. The Hin- 
dus bum their dead, or throw them into the rivers 
to be devoured by birds and fishes. The Mussul- 
mans inhume their dead ; but this is only done by 
their nearest relations ; and so much do they abhor 
every thing belonging to a corpse, that the bamboos 
on which they carry their dead to the water or the 
grave are never touched or burnt, but stand in the 
place and rot ; and if they only tread upon a grave, 
they are polluted, and never fail to wash after it.' 

The points of coincidence between the Jewish 
people and the Hindus are so very numerous, that 
both in their religious, ceremonial, and throughout 
their domestic economy, you are continually re- 
minded of some scriptural term, incident, or usage. 
When engaged in preparing a harmony of the four 
gospels in the Bengali language, my Pundit would 
often interpose the remark, * Sir, there can be no 
doubt but the Jews were originally Hindus.' 

'During this affliction my frame of mind was 
various ; sometimes I enjoyed sweet seasons of self- 
examination and prayer, as I lay upon my bed. 
Many hours together I sweetly spent in contem- 
plating subjects for preaching, and in musing over 
discourses in Bengali ; and when my animal spirits 
were somewhat raised by the fever, I found myself 
able to reason and discourse in Bengali for some 
hours together, and words and phrases occurred 
much more readily than when I was in health. 


When my dear child was ill, I was enabled to attend 
upon him night and day, though very dangerously 
ill myself, without much fatigue ; and now, I bless 
God that I feel a sweet resignation to his will. I 
know that he has wise ends to answer in all that he 
does, and that what he does is best ; and if his great 
and wise designs are accomplished, what does it 
signify if a poor worm feels a little inconvenience and 
pain, who deserves hell for his sins? 

*Oct. 12. This day Mr. Thomas came to see me, 
and we spent the sabbath together. We agreed to 
spend the Tuesday morning every week in joint 
though separate prayer to God for a blessing on the 
mission. I felt a sweet resignation to the divine will 
this day. 

*13. This day a very disagreeable circumstance 
turned up. Though the Mussulmans have no caste, 
yet they have imperceptibly adopted the Hindu 
notions about a caste, and look upon themselves as a 
distinct one ; in consequence of this they will neither 
eat nor drink with any but Mussulmans. On account 
of the four men above mentioned digging a grave for 
my poor child, the Mundal, that is, the principal 
person in the village, who rents immediately under 
the Rajah, and lets lands and houses to the other 
people in the place, forbad every person in the village 
to eat, drink, or smoke tobacco with them and their 
families, so that they were supposed to have lost caste. 
The poor men came to me full of distress, and told 
their story. Mr. Thomas being with me, we sent for 
the principal Mussulmans in the neighbourhood, and 


inquired whether they thought these men had done 
any thing amiss ; and they said, jio. Then we sent 
two Hircarrahs * to call the Mundul who had forbidden 
the people to have any intercourse with them, but with 
secret orders to bring him by force if he refused to 
come. He soon came, however, and then said that 
they had done no fault, and that he would smoke but 
not eat with them. As we knew it to be a piece of 
spite, and a trick to get money, we placed two guards 
over him, and told him that he must either eat and 
drink with the men before the men of his own village, 
or stay here till we had sent the four men to Dinage- 
pore, to the judge, about the matter. He stood out, 
however, till about dinner-time ; when, being hungry, 
he thought fit to alter his terms, and of his own 
accord wrote and signed a paper, purporting that the 
men were innocent, and he a guilty person. He then 
went away and gave them a dinner, and ate and 
drank with them in the presence of the people of the 
village, and persons whom we had sent to witness it. 
Thus ended this troublesome affair, which might also 
have proved a very expensive one if it had not ended 
thus. I feel these things ; but, blessed be God, I am 
resigned to his will, and that makes me easy under all. 

< 14 — 20. Very ill, and scarcely able to crawl about ; 
but supported through all by the upholding hand of 
a gracious God. 

'Mr. Udney, having for some time past designed 
to settle me in a more healthy spot, this having 
proved remarkably unhealthy, had projected a jour- 

^ Messengers. 


ney towards Tibet for me and Mr. Thomas. This 
was designed in part for my health, and in part to 
seek for a more eligible spot for new works. Accord- 
ingly I set out this day, the 20th, in Mr. Udney's 
pinnace, with my family, up the Tanquam river ; but 
I was so weak and poorly that I could scarcely hold up 
my head. I felt, however, secret drawings of soul 
after God, and a desire to be directed by him in all 

*21. Arrived this evening at Moypaldiggy, at Mr. 
Thomas's. Company and conversation raised my 
spirits, and I hope the time was profitably spent. 

*22. At Moypsddiggy, somewhat better, but very 
weak. We had some profitable discourse, and spent 
some time in prayer with each other. It is good to 
enjoy the communion of saints; and its value can 
scarcely be estimated unless in a situation like mine, 
where I am surrounded with Pagans and Mahom- 
medans, and have no other to converse with. 

*24. Still going on our excursion. This evening 
we were forced to come-to in the midst of a jungle ; 
and in the night I, who was the only person awake, 
heard some animal make a very violent spring at the 
boat ; it awoke Mr. Thomas, and we immediately 
concluded that it must be a tiger. We therefore 
arose, and counted all the men, who, to the number of 
eight or ten, were sleeping upon the open deck; but 
providentially all were safe. All concluded that it 
was a tiger springing at a jackal, and that the jackal, 
to avoid him, had jumped to the boat. We could, 
however, discover no marks of any animal in the 


sand but jackals ; yet, as they never spring at their 
prey, it is certain it must have been a tiger or leopard ; 
and the people told us that a male and female tiger 
had their nest, with young, near the place where we 
were, and had killed a buffalo the day before. We 
were, however, mercifully preserved; indeed, the men, 
and not we, were in danger. 

* 27. This day arrived at Ranee-gunge, where we 
spent the evening, and had a little discourse with a 
Brahmim about spiritual things ; but I have only dead- 
ness and coldness myself; my soul is like the heath 
in the desert, which withereth before its beauty 
appears, and is scarcely profitable for any thing. 

* This day a buffalo stood in the river ; and, as the 
men dare not pass it, Mr. Thomas shot at it; but 
though three or four bullets entered his body, and the 
blood ran very copiously, he got away. 

*28. There not being a suflSicient quantity of water 
in the river for the pinnace to go, Mr. Thomas and I 
left it, and proceeded in a dinghy, or small boat, to 
Govendagur, and intended to have gone to the moun- 
tains which part Bengal from Boutan or Thibet ; but 
we found here a lieutenant Sloane, who is stationed 
with seventy seapoys at this place to guard the fron- 
tier from the depredations of the Fakirs, who some- 
times, to the number of some thousands, lay waste a 
considerable part of the country. It is but a little 
time since they attacked a factory under Mr. Udney's 
care, but far from his residence, and robbed it of pro- 
perty to a very considerable amount. We spent the 
afternoon with this officer ; but a very unpleasant one 


it was. I am sure an eternity with such as he, would 
be a hell indeed to me. He said, that, owing to the 
jungles of grass, fourteen or fifteen feet high, which 
we must pass through, it will be impossible for us to 
get there at this season ; and that, as the water was 
rapidly decreasing, we should run a great hazard of 
leaving the pinnace behind us for want of water. He 
said that we were about forty coss, or seventy miles, 
from the highest mountains. 

*29. Returned to Ranee-gunge, and spent the 
afternoon there. Mr. Thomas was the greatest part 
of the day trying to kill a buffalo ; but though he had 
three or four bullets in his body, and one in his head, 
he got away. They are amazing animals ; I believe 
it was six feet from tip to tip of his horns ; and the 
largest ox in England is a small creature when com- 
pared to one of them. There are two kinds, one 
much smaller than this. They are very destructive 
to the rice-fields ; very sluggish ; but, when enraged, 
so swift that it is impossible to escape them on a very 
good horse. I was in great fear for Mr. Thomas for 
some hours, not seeing or hearing any thing of him ; 
for, as I am no hunter, I staid at the boat. He at last, 
however, came safe, to my great joy. 

* This day my soul was somewhat revived, and I felt 
some desires after God. 

*30. Came down to Corneigh, a pretty large place; 
went to look at two temples of Seeb, which were built 
by the Rajah and Ranee, or the king and queen of 
Dinagepore. They are elevated, and you ascend 
several steps to go to them. On these steps Mr. 


Thomas preached to a pretty large concourse of 
people, who heard the word with great attention. 

*31. Arrived at Moypaldiggy, at Mr, Thomas's 
house, about nine this evening. This has been a 
somewhat more profitable day than many heretofore. 
I feel that God is my portion, and then I feel that I 
desire no other. O that he would give me grace to 
live to his glory, and spend my strength in his ser- 
vice ! If I could but always view his excellency and 
all-sufficiency, then his w^ork must be delightful and 
pleasant, and all suffering for his sake easy. 

Nov. 3, 4. — Returned to Mudnabatty, where I ar- 
rived early on Tuesday morning. Feel in some 
measure humbled before God under a sense of my 
own unprofitableness, yet am not without hope that 
the Lord may soon work. Moonshi has been very ill 
for three months with the fever, so that I could 
scarcely derive any benefit from him, and as an 
assistant in preaching none at all. I am therefore 
prevented from much discourse with the natives; for 
though I can discourse a little, yet not long together ; 
and when they say much, I find it difficult to under- 
stand it; for by ignorance of one or two words, or 
peculiarities of construction, the thread of the dis- 
course is broken, and rendered unintelligible to me in 
a great measure. May God give me wisdom, and 
a spirit of application, till all these difficulties are 
overcome ! 

'5. Set out to Malda, where I staid till the 10th. 
Had some return of the fever, but preached twice on 
the Lord's-day, though very weak and full of pain. 


The congregation appeared very serious; but I did 
not perceive that affection, either in myself or the 
audience, that I have seen at some other times. The 
interval spent at this place was very agreeably filled 
up, and I trust with profit and pleasure on all sides. 
Mr. Udney signified his wish for me to remove to 
Sadamaht, as a more healthy place, and to go up im- 
mediately and try to get a pottah* for land of the 
Eajah : he seems desirous to abandon Mudnabatty. 

* 14, 15. Journeyed with my family to Moypal- 
diggy, where I left them, having received an intima- 
tion from Mr. Udney that he intended to improve 
Mudnabatty yet more, and that I must return from 
Sadamaht as soon as the pottah was obtained, to 
superintend those improvements. So now I am all 
uncertainty and doubt^ and know not which place I 
am to be at. O ! I long to be settled ; but God does not 
see proper. Yet I feel a calm pleasure in waiting the 
will of God. 

* 17. Was detained in fitting up dinghies f to go 
the rest of the journey, there not being water for the 
pinnace to proceed further. Found this a day of 
hurry and business, and was much fatigued at night, 
yet had some desires after God. 

* 22. Was much busied in surveying the country, 
and settling for my stay in this place. Found my 
heart much carried away with the business of the 
world, and had only wretchedness to mourn over. 

* 23. A solitary sabbath. In the afternoon tried to 
preach to the people who were with me, but could not 

* Agreement. t Small boats. 


even fix their attention. They seemed shockingly 
unconcerned, and were all the time gazing about 
upon the objects around them. Was grieved with 
their inattention, yet felt a pleasure that I had ad- 
dressed them upon the great concerns of another 
world. Besides, I know that God can bless that 
which we are most wretched in delivering, and which 
is the weakest attempt. 

* Dec. 1 — 4. Continued at the same place, and with 
much the same frame of mind. My fever was also 
comfortably removed by taking bark ; and on the last 
of these days I left Sadamaht without obtaining the 
object for which I went thither. Arrived at a place 
called Aslabad, and spent the night there. 

'6. Left Moypal and arrived at Mudnabatty. 
Blessed be God for preserving me during this jour- 
ney, which cannot be less than two hundred miles by 
water, though not more than eighty by land. Feel 
thankful to God for his great goodness in providence 
to me. 

* 7. This morning felt somewhat barren, but in the 
evening had much pleasure and freedom in preaching 
to the natives at Mudnabatty. These were more 
attentive also than those at Sadamaht, and I doubt 
not but God has a work to do here. It has been his 
general way to begin among the poor and despised, 
and to pass by those who imagine themselves to be 
wise; but here we have only poor and illiterate 
people, and scarcely any of those who value them- 
selves on account x)f being the higher caste. 

* 8. Having been so long from home, I was busied 


very much in settling my books, and in giving direc- 
tions for several new works which will be necessary to 
be made on account of the very great- increase of 
business for next year : but though I mourn want of 
retirement, yet I feel happy in being at home and in 
my work. On Lord's day, the 13th, preached to the 
natives of another village, who were very attentive, 
and raised my expectations very much. On the last 
of these days set out for Malda, with my family, to 
spend the christmas with Mr. Udney and other 
European friends who are met together there. Ar- 
rived at Bomangsthak in the evening. 

' 19, 20. Journeying to Malda; my mind as full of 
wretchedness as I can think of; but principally from 
outward causes, which are like a shower of the fiery 
darts of the enemy. Arrived in the evening, and was 
much refreshed and relieved by the conversation of 
christian friends. 

*21. Preached in the morning from Heb. vi. 18, 
*That by two immutable things, in which it was 
impossible for God to lie, we might have strong 
consolation,' &c. Dwelt much on this, that it is the 
will of God that his saints should have strong conso- 
lation. In the evening preached from Jude 24, * Now 
unto him who is able to keep us,' &c. Myself and 
the whole congregation were much edified, I hope ; 
and the word seemed to take good efiect. 

* 22 — 31. Spent this time at Malda in very agree- 
able society. Preached on christmas day, and twice 
on I-^ord's day, the 28th ; and I think I may say with 
truth, that the whole of this time was a time of real 


refreshing to my soul, which had long been in a 
barren and languid state. O that I could indeed 
praise the Lord for his goodness towards me ! On the 
last of these days left Malda to return home; and 
towards night, met Mr. Thomas and his family going 
down to begin the new year at Malda. I have gone 
through many changes this year; but how much has 
the goodness of God exceeded my expectations ! 

'1795. Jan. 1 — 15. Much cause to complain of 
want of spirituality, and really have not had time to 
write my diary, having between four and five hundred 
men's labour to direct. On the Lord's day I have 
preached to the natives in the surrounding villages, 
and I hope not without some good effect ; the Mus- 
sulmans of one village having appeared much struck 
with the word, and promised to cast off their super- 
stitions. Last Lord's day they continued in the same 
resolution, and were joined in it by several others 
who had not heard the word before. Yesterday I was 
much dejected on finding that one of our workmen, 
a bricklayer, had almost made an idol of the same 
kind as that mentioned in my journal of Feb. 4, last 
year, Sorosuadi the patroness of learning, and which 
was to be consecrated on the 4th of Feb. following. 
I might have used authority, and have forbidden it ; 
but thought this would be persecution. I therefore 
talked seriously with the man to-day, and tried to 
convince him of the sinfulness of such a thing, as well 
as its foolishness ; when he acquiesced in all I said, 
and promised to throw his work away ; so that I hope 


the idol will be put an end to here. O may God 
turn them from idols to himself ! 

* 16. Had much to struggle with outwardly and 
inwardly. Have great reason to complain that there 
are not more and stronger struggles. O that I were 
but more in the spirit of Christ ! This would make 
sin a burden to me, and earthly things light ; but I 
am a poor, unfeeling, and ungrateful wretch towards 
God, and much under the deception of living to 
myself: yet I know that this is diametricaUy opposite 
to the spirit of Christ. 

*17. In the morning was in the same wretched 
state as yesterday ; but in the afternoon Mr. Thomas 
came. I trust his spiritual conversation was blessed, 
and served to arouse my drowsy soul in some degree. 
Had some reviving in prayer with him, and feel that 
as iron sharpeneth iron, so doth the countenance of 
a man his friend. 

* 18. Bless God for this day. I trust my soul has 
been quickened in it. In the morning read part of 
Flavel on Providence, which was truly refreshing. 
In the afternoon Mr. Thomas preached with much 
affection to a company of Hindus, who were met to 
sacrifice to the sun. This is a species of idolatry in 
which both Hindus and Mussulmans unite, and is 
peculiar to this part of the country. Plantains and 
sweetmeats were brought by the women, and exposed 
opposite to the setting sun, while singing and music 
were performed. Just before the sun set, the women 
placed pots of burning coals on their heads, which 


were so made as not to bum them, and walked round 
the offering several times, which ended the sacrifice. 
Many left the sacrifice and discoursed all the way 
home about the things of God. We formed a plan 
for setting up two colleges, for the education of 
twelve youths in each. I had some months ago 
set up a school, but the poverty of the natives 
caused them frequently to take their children to 
work. To prevent this, we intend to clothe and 
feed them, and educate them for seven years in San- 
scrit, Persian, &c. ; and particularly to introduce the 
study of the holy scriptures and liseAil sciences 
therein. We intend also to order types from England 
at our own expense, and print the bible, and other 
useAil things, in the Bengal or Hindosthani languages. 
We have reason, indeed, to be very thankful to God 
for his kind providence, which enables us to lay out 
any thing for him. May our hearts be always 
ready ! 

*20. Blessed be Grod for a continuance of calm 
sweetness ! This being a season in which idolatrous 
worship is most common, I have frequent occasion to 
warn the people against it. To-day an idol, Kally, was 
made in the neighbourhood. Had some conversation 
with some natives on the great wickedness of idolatry. 

*21. Much barrenness, but some sweet pleasure in 
the things of God. Had another opportunity of press- 
ing the necessity of obtaining pardon from God for 
their idolatry and other sins. Was enabled to be 
serious and faithful. 

*22. I have continual reason to complain on ac- 



count of the barrenness of my soul towards God. 
Surely no one who has received such uncommon 
favours can be so ungrateful as myself. I have need 
of more spiritual life, and a more evangelical turn of 
mind. I want true faith, and in a great degree ; and 
I have great need of an aptness or readiness to teach. 
Indeed, I always was very defective in this; and now I 
need more of this spirit than ever I did in my life. 
I have often thought, on this very account, that I never 
was fit for the gospel ministry ; but how much less fit 
for the work of a missionary among the heathen. 

may God give me his Holy Spirit, to furnish me 
for every good work ! 

*23. Still barren. O ! if I did but see and feel any 
thing ! Better feel the severest pangs of spirit on this 
side hell, than live from one day to another in this most 
wretched, unfeeling state. If I felt the weight of sin, 
shame for it, resolutions against it, or any thing else, 
it would be much better than the miserable state that 

1 now am in. O Lord, I beseech thee, deliver 
my soul. 

' 25. I bless God for some little revival of soul, and 
pleasure in his work. This was the day for the wor- 
ship of the patroness of literature. The idol was 
prepared near the place where I live. In the morn- 
ing I was enabled to speak feelingly to two or three 
people about the sinfulness of idolatry, and was 
determined to go and preach to them in the evening, 
when the offering would be at its height. I accord- 
ingly went ; and after asking what that thing was, the 
Brahmun, who attended the offering, said it was God. 


I said, pray did that make men, or men make that? 
He confessed that it was made by men. I then asked 
him how many Gods there were? He said, one. I 
inquired who made the world? He said, Brhamah. 
I asked whether he was God ? He said, yes. Then, 
said I, there may be a lack, or 100,000 gods, at this 
rate. He then said, that he did according to his faith, 
and that the Shastra commanded this. I inquired 
what Shastra? He said, the Byacorran. I said, 
that Shastra is only a Sanscrit grammar, and com- 
mands no such thing: have you read it? He ac- 
knowledged that he had not. Then, said I, you can 
have no faith about the matter ; for faith is believing 
some words; but this thing cannot speak, and the 
Shastra you have never read. He then said, that it 
was the custom of the country. Said I, are all the 
customs of this country good ? He said, yes. I asked 
whether the custom of thieves, to steal and murder, 
was good ; and, said I, it is a common custom in this 
country to tell lies, so that you will not find one man 
in a thousand who does not make lying his constant 
practice : is this a good custom ? Is whoredom a good 
custom? He was quite stunned with this, but pre- 
sently said that his ancesters had always done so. I 
inquired whether there was a heaven and a hell ? He 
said, yes. Then, said I, how do you know but they 
are gone to hell? He inquired why God sent the 
Shastras, if they were not to be observed. I answered, 
how do you know that God sent the Hindu Shastras? 
Did he send the Mussulmans' Koran also ? He an- 
swered, that God had created both Hindus and 


Mussulmans, and had given them different ways of 
life. I said, then God could neither be wise nor 
unchangeable to do so, and that all such foolish 
worship was unworthy of either God or men. I then 
took an opportunity of pointing out the justice of God, 
and the gospel way of salvation by Christ, and then 
entreated the people to cast away those fooleries, and 
seek pardon through the blood of Christ; for, said I, 
you see your Brahmun is dumb ; he can say nothing. 
If he can defend his cause, let him speak now; but 
you hear that he cannot tell whether this thing is 
God, or man, or woman, or tiger, or jackal. I felt 
a sweetness and great affection for them in my own 
soul, and was enabled to speak from the heart; and 
God assisted me much, so that I spoke in Bengali for 
nearly half an hour without intermission, so as to be 
understood, and much more than ever before. Blessed 
be God for this assistance. O that I may see the 
good fruits of it, and that God may bless it for their 
eternal good ! As to the people, they care just as 
much for their idol as carnal men in England do for 
Christ at Christmas : a good feast and a holiday is all 
in all with them both. I observed before, that this 
idol is worshipped on the 4th of February; but now 
find that it is regulated by the time of the moon, like 
English easter. 

* 26. Had some longing of soul for the conversion 
of the poor natives, and an opportunity of discoursing 
to some of them upon the danger of their state, 
and the evil of their practice; but was in my own 
soul barren, and had little communion with God, 


consequently but little of the enjoyment of true 

*27. Was employed considerable part of the day in 
detecting a cheat practised by one of the overseers of 
the works, and am obliged to discharge him. These 
dishonest tricks are so common with them, that they 
play them without a blush. O that God would make 
the gospel successful among them ! This would un- 
doubtedly make them honest men ; and I fear nothing 
else will. 

*28. Some little enjoyment in prayer. I find it a 
blessed thing to feel the plague of my own heart and 
my spiritual wants in any measure; then, it is a 
pleasing, though a melting, sorrowful enjoyment, to 
pour out the soul to God. O that I had this spirit of 
prayer at all times ! But, alas, I soon lose all that is 

'Much engaged in writing, having begun to write 
letters to Europe ; but having received none, I feel 
that hope deferred makes the heart sick. However, 
I am so ftilly satisfied of the firmness of their friend- 
ship, that I feel a sweet pleasure in writing to them, 
though rather of a forlorn kind ; and having nothing 
but myself to write about, feel the awkwardness of 
being an egotist. I feel a social spirit though barred 
From society. 

*30. My great crime is neglect of God, and a spi- 
ritual stupidity. I always am best pleased when I 
feel most, but live from one day to another without 
seeing or feeling to any considerable degree. I am 
sure that my deadness and stupidity, want of a spirit 


to admire God and honour him, is the very reverse to 
that of Christianity. O may God make me a true 
christian ! 

*31. Mercy has brought me through another 
month. Many mercies have been received from God, 
and many evils warded off: blessed be his holy name ! 
But this day has increased the measure of my ingra- 
titude and neglect. O that I had much faith and 
grace, and more of the meek and lowly spirit of God / 

*Feb. 1. Through the day had not much enjoyment. 
Yet I bless God for any. My soul is prone to barren- 
ness, and I have every day reason to mourn over the 
dreadful stupidity of my nature, and the wickedness 
of my heart, so that I need daily cultivation from tiie 
hand of God, and from all the means of grace. Had 
a little liberty in addressing the natives ; but was for 
some time much dejected, seeing them inattentive, 
and afterwards putting all the quirking questions 
they could think of. I was, however, enabled to be 
faithful, and at last God seemed a little more to fix 
their attention, and they desired me to set up a 
weekly meeting to read the bible to them, and to ex- 
pound the word. 

*2. Had a miserable day; sorely harassed from 
without, and very cold and dead in my soul. I could 
bear all outward trials if I had but more of the spirit 
of God. 

*3. This is indeed the valley of the shadow of death 
to me, except that my soul is much more insensible 
than John Bunyan's Pilgrim. O! what would I give 
for a kind sympathetic friend, such as I had in En- 


gland, to whom I might open my heart! But I re- 
joice that I am here notwithstanding; and God is here, 
who not only can have compassion, but is able to save 
to the uttermost. 

*4. I believe my fault is this, magnifying every 
trouble, and forgetting the multitude of mercies that I 
am daily loaded with. I have been reading Flavel on 
Providence lately ; but under every new shadow of a 
trial I find myself to be a learner, and even to have 
made no new advances in the necessary science of 
improving all mercies to promote thankfulness, and 
all trials to promote patience. 

* 5. O what a load is a barren heart ! I feel a 
little forlorn pleasure in thinking over the time that 
is past, and drown some of my heaviness by writing to 
my friends in England, and some by going about the 
various works carrying on here ; but the only effectual 
way is to cast it upon God : this I feel such a back- 
wardness to, that the load is rendered much heavier 
by the consideration. 

*6. I sometimes walk in my garden, and try to pray 
to God ; and if I pray at all, it is in the solitude of 
a walk. I thought my soul a little drawn out to-day, 
but soon gross darkness returned. Spoke a word or 
two to a Mahommedan upon the things of God, but I 
feel to be as bad as they. 

*7. O that this day could be consigned to oblivion ! 
What a mixture of impatience, carelessness, forgetful- 
ness of God, pride, and peevishness have I felt ! God 
forgive me! 

*8. I had more enjoyment to-day than for many 


days past. Had two pleasing opportunities, and felt 
my heart encouraged. Went to a village called Mad- 
dabatty to preach to the natives, but found very few. 
I felt much for them, but had not the freedom I 
wished : yet I know God can bless a weak attempt. 

*9 — 14. I cannot say any thing this week, except 
proclaim my own shame. I think that it is a wonder 
indeed that the goodness of God endureth yet daily. 

* 15. This day had some little reviving. Preached 
in the evening to a pretty large assembly of the na- 
tives ; but when I told them of the immortality of the 
soul, they said they had never heard of that before 
this day. They told me they wanted instruction, and 
desired me to instruct them upon the Lord's-days. 

*16. Had some little continuance of yesterday's 
frame. I ardently wish for the conversion of the 
heathen, and long for more frequent opportunities of 
addressing them ; but their poverty requires them to 
labour from sun-rise to sun-set. I have opportunities 
of privately instructing them very frequently. O 
may I never want a heart to do so ! 

*17. I have to complain of abundance of pride, 
which I find it necessary to oppose, and the more 

^ is always blaming me for putting myself 

on a level with the natives. I have much to conflict 
with on this score, both without and within. I need 
the united prayers of all the people of God, and O 
that I had but the spirit to pray more for myself! 

* 19. Have reason to be thankful for any degree of 
enjoyment of God. My soul is so much swallowed up 
in its own indolence and stupidity, that I have scarcely 


any enjoyment of divine things, or sense of my own 
necessities; but from day to day the state of my soul is 
exceedingly forlorn. But to-day I felt rather more 
inclined to God and heavenly things. All this light, 
however, was only like the peeping out of the sun for 
a minute or two in very rainy weather, and soon I felt 
my gloom return. 

*20, 21. I think I feel some longings of soul after 
God; but yet my soul feels exceeding solitary and 
comfortless, [and I want every thing, in my own ap- 
prehension, that belongs to godliness. I have no 
zeal, no love, no aptitude for contemplation. 

* 22. A somewhat lowering morning. Read a sermon 
of Havel's on these words, * Now if any man be in 
Christ, he is a new creature,' but felt scarcely any- 
thing. In the afternoon I was much cheered by 
a considerable number of the natives coming for in- 
struction, and I endeavoured to discourse vnith them 
about divine things. I told them that all men were 
sinners against God, and that God was strictly just, 
and of purer eyes than to approve of sin. I endea- 
voured to press this point, and to ask how they could 
possibly be saved if this was the case. I tried to ex- 
plain to them the nature of heaven and hell ; and told 
them that, except our sins were pardoned, we must go 
to hell. They said, that would be like the prisoners 
in Dinagepore gaol. I said, no, for in prison only the 
body could be aflBlicted, but in hell the soul ; that in 
a year or two a prisoner would be released, but he 
never would be freed from hell; that death would 
release them from prison, but in hell they would 


never die. I then told them how that God sent his 
own Son to save sinners ; that he came to save them 
from sin ; that he died in the sinner's stead ; and that 
whosoever believed in him would obtain everlasting 
life, and would become holy. They said they were all 
pleased with this, but wished to know what sin and 
holiness were. I told them that there were sins of the 
heart, the tongue, and the actions; but as a fountain 
cast out its waters, so all sin had its source from the 
heart ; and that not to think of God, not to wish to 
do his will, not to regard his word, and also pride, 
covetousness, envy, &c. were great sins ; and that evil 
and abusive language was very sinful ; that not to be 
strictly upright in their dealings was very sinful. I 
told them that God was under no obligation to save 
any man ; and that it was of no use to make offerings 
to God to obtain the pardon of sin, for God had no 
need of goats, kids, sheep, &c., for all these are his at 
all times ; and that if God forgave them, it must be 
from his own will ; but that he was willing to save for 
the sake of Jesus Christ. After this, part of the 5th 
chapter of Matthew was read by Moonshi, and ex- 
plained to them, and they went away proiAising to 
return next Lord's day; and my spirits were much 
revived. I am encouraged much, as this is the 
beginning of a congregation, and that they came of 
their own will, and desired to be instructed. They 
are collected from the villages where I have preached 
before, and from some where I have not been. Most 
of them, also, were men of influence, being Munduls, 
or heads of villages. Their attention was very great. 


and their questions serious and pertinent; and had I 
a greater command of their language, I might be able 
to convey much instruction to them. They, however, 
understood what was delivered. Another pleasing 
circumstance is, that they already remember some 
religious terms, as the name of Jesus Christ, and his 
mission, with its design, and the necessity of pardon in 
order to salvation. They have a word for heart, as the 
seat of the affections, viz. untuccura; but here it is not 
understood, so that when I speak of sin coming from 
the heart, I am forced to use the word dele, which 
only signifies the heart as a part of the body, and 
means a sheep's heart as well as a man's heart. 
Much circumlocution is therefore necessary ; but 
God's cause, I doubt not, will triumph over all ob- 
stacles soon.* 

One of the greatest difiiculties a missionary has to 
encounter, especially during the two or three first 
years of his work, arises from the poverty and perver- 
sion of language. In communicating ideas upon spi- 
ritual subjects, it is hard to find a corresponding 
word with the one with which he is familiar. This 
is felt severely in a rural district, and where the 
population is degraded, such as that was amongst 
which Mr. Carey and his colleague were now settled. 
They must have been ignorant, however, beyond what 
it is common for the poorest of the inhabitants to be 
in towns and cities^ For it is certain, you may always 
find, in fair Bengali, words such as all understand 
and speak, for * heart, love,' &c.; and though there 


is no single word answering to our single word 
* conscience,' yet, by the slight periphrasis of only two 
or three words, as *the knowledge or judgment of 
good and evil,' we express the idea, perhaps, more 
satisfactorily than could be done by a single word, as 
by our word conscience, had it not been that its long 
conventional use had sufficiently appropriated it to 
a specific moral purpose. 

But a missionary finds far greater hinderance to his 
work from the metaphysical and idolatrous use of 
language, than simply from paucity of words. The 
former has restricted all the terms applicable to intel- 
lectual and spiritual subjects to mere obstructions 
and subtle speculation. And to disengage them 
from their long philosophical application, and appro- 
priate them to a simple, popular, and religious use, 
is a work of time and labour. By the Hindu system, 
the Supreme Essence is itself merely an abstraction, an 
ideal existence, without positive attributes, natural or 
moral, a mere figment of the imagination. And yet 
this mere metaphysical abstraction, this essential 
'nihil,' is the primordial of all mind, and of all 
spiritual existence in the universe : besides it, indeed, 
there is no mind, no spirit, no mover, no cause, no 
final end. It pervades everything, it contains every- 
thing, nay, it is itself everything, and everything is it, 
whether on earth, or in the lowest hell, or in the 
highest heaven. And, again, since there is strictly 
but one doer of all things, all spontaneous agency and 
all accountability are annihilated ; and all distinction 
in morals is lost, and only tolerated in discourse as 


a vulgar absurdity. The contact and union of mind 
with matter, animal or otherwise sensitive, throughout 
the universe, with all its agencies and susceptibilities 
of pleasure and pain, yea, and with all we understand 
by virtue and vice, and their retributions through the 
horrors and all but interminable mazes of metemp- 
sychosis or transmigration of souls ; all are illusion in 
the estimation of an oriental philosopher and religious 
devotee, whose ultimate and only proper good is in 
the loss of their identical existence in final absorption. 
Hence, with them, all things are involved in a circle 
which nothing can dissolve, and from which no power 
on earth can move them. 

So extremely, also, have poetry and the popular 
idolatry combined to poison the current of human 
thought, that no religious conception is ever formed 
apart from the fictitious and the monstrous; and so 
effectually have they abused and perverted the use of 
language, that scarcely a single word can be safely 
used without periphrasis. Neither God, nor holiness, 
nor heaven, nor hell, nor sin, nor any other word 
within the compass of religious phraseology, can con- 
vey any just impression to the mind of a Hindu, 
without explanation ; his idolatry having invested 
every possible term with something fabulous and alien 
from truth. There is, indeed, no language in the 
world which idolatry has not profaned. The English 
is scarcely purged from it to this day, though many 
generations have passed since heathenism was pro- 
fessedly renounced. Hence the frequent use of 
the words 'fortune, fate, muse, nature,* and many 


others; not merely by poets, but by other writers; 
and, in common conversation, not shunned by some 
who would think it hard not to be deemed christians.* 

Journal continued. 

*23. I felt some encouragement through this day, 
arising from the circumstance of the people coming 
yesterday for instruction, and was enabled to plead 
with God for them. I long for their deliverance from 
their miserable state on two accounts; principally, 
because I see God daily dishonoured, and them 
drowned in sensuality, ignorance, and superstition; 
and, likewise, because I think that news of the con- 
version of some of them would much encourage the 
society, and excite them to double their efforts in 
other places for the propagation of the glorious 

'24, 25. I think one of the greatest blessings on 
earth is christian society ; for if one becomes some- 
what dull, conversation serves to enliven his spirits, 
and to prompt him on in godliness. I have but little 
of this help, and, to my sorrow, often fall when I have 
not one at hand to lift me up again. I think my 
peevishness, fretfulness, and impatience is astonish- 
ing. O that the grace of God might but be in me, 
and abound! 

* See some excdlent strictorea upon this subject, in Mr. Hum's ' Reasons for 
Secession/ p. 289, and onward ; where the influence of poljrtheism upon the litera- 
ture and langui^e of this country is stated with great force. The work throughout 
is pregnant with sound sense and deep seriousness ; and exhibits a mass of in- 
formation upon painfully controyerted subjects, without a bitter or provoking sen- 


A missionary living among the heathen is shut up 
to his own resources. His feelings, his objects, his 
labours are known and appreciated by no human 
creature. In the midst of a teeming population, he 
lives a solitary life. It would be vain to expect sym- 
pathy from unconverted heathens. Home and friends 
are thought of as far remote, to remain so, perhaps, 
for ever. Between his daily engagements, commenced 
with difficulty and persevered in with discourage- 
ment, and their anticipated results, innumerable and 
mortifying disappointments intervene. His &ith and 
patience are therefore brought to severe tests. No- 
thing short of a constant recurrence to the promises 
of God's word, and a simple reliance upon the renew- 
ing agency of his Spirit, the principal subject of those 
promises, can sustain the mind under such circum- 

It is matter of devout joy when the gospel is so far 
successful as to induce any to renounce idolatry and 
assume the christian profession ; but the burden of 
a missionary is thenceforward rather augmented than 
relieved. He has then unremittingly to watch the 
renewing process. He has daily to inform the igno- 
rant and excite the torpid mind, before a stranger to 
truth and righteousness, and hitherto unsusceptible of 
any impressions but such as abominable idolatries 
and sensible objects exert upon a depraved, feeble, 
and sensual nature. The errors which beset native 
converts are so numerous and insinuating, and the 
perils to which their principles and character are 
liable so imminent, that the solicitude of a missionary 



on their behalf is more painful than what he feelsr in 
making known the truths of revelation to the un- 
thinking heathen. The wisdom of our blessed Lord 
cannot be too much admired, nor too scrupulously 
imitated, in sending forth his disciples two and two. 
This ought never to be disregarded by missionary 
societies. It is as important to the religious life and 
comfort of a missionary, as it is consonant to his social 
nature. In no case should it be departed from in 
breaking up new ground, and in stations remote from 
European society. The mind of Mr. Chamberlain 
suffered agonies from the desolation he felt in labour- 
ing and suffering alone. Few men, perhaps, were 
ever less dependant upon the social influences than 
was Mr. Carey ; and few men ever had a yoke-fellow 
less in accordance with their own dispositions and 
habits than his was ; yet the society of this christian 
brother was a refreshment to his spirit, exceeded only 
by what he experienced in fellowship with God, and 
in anticipating the success of his labours. But, when 
brethren are unavoidably insulated, they are the more 
entitled to the sympathies of their fellow-christians 
and of ministers at home. Were the members of the 
committees of the various societies under whose aus- 
pices they go forth to cultivate their correspondence, 
it would be a solace to the missionaries, and of no 
small advantage to the public. It is not possible that 
the executive of the different societies should fully 
perform so onerous a duty. The unavoidable secular 
details devolving upon secretaries, in receiving calls, 
arranging for engagements in all parts of the empire. 


preparing abstracts of labour and reports, watching 
the pecuniary interests, and attending public meet- 
ings, render it necessary to confine their foreign 
communications principally to matters of official in- 
terest. But were the diflTerent ministers, each one as 
his convenience and predilections might dictate, to 
select some one missionary as his correspondent, a 
mass of various and interesting intelligence would be 
elicited acceptable to the public mind, the hearts of 
the missionaries would be cheered by such demon- 
strations of brotherly esteem, and a community of 
affection between the labourers in the different por- 
tions of the Lord's vineyard thus secured and main- 
tained with fervour. 

Journal continued. 

*26. Rode to Moypal to-day to visit Mr. Thomas ; 
found him well, and had some comfortable enjoyment 
of his company. We had much conversation, and I 
hope it has been very profitable ; yet I feel distressed 
with the thought that the letters to be sent as speci- 
mens for types will scarcely be ready this season. It 
is a considerable work, and requires much care and 

*27. Returned home to-day. On my return, had 
an opportunity of discoursing with some people upon 
divine things, and of telling them of the danger that 
they were in. Arrived at home very poorly, and 
much tired. 

*28. Very busy all day, and engaged in the concerns 
of the world ; yet not without some desires after God 



and goodness. What a pleasant life must it be to be 
quite devoted to him ! 

* March 1. Felt my mind somewhat set upon the 
things of God, and had some real pleasui*e in the public 
exercises which were engaged in, in my house, this 
day. I felt a concern for the gospel and its spread in 
other parts, and for the churches and ministers of my 
acquaintance. I was in hopes that my last week's 
congregation would have come to-day, but was dis- 
appointed. I went out, however, to a market at about 
two miles' distance, called NuUagunge, and preached 
to the people there, who were very attentive, and pro- 
mised to come for further instruction the day after to- 
morrow. I hope some good may be done soon. 

*8. To-day I preached once, and Mr. Thomas once, 
in our house, to our visitors : hope it was a time of 
some little refreshing to our souls. About the middle 
of the night they left us. 

*9, 10. Much to complain of: such another dead 
soul I think scarcely exists in the world. I can only 
compare myself to one banished from all his friends, 
and wandering in an irksome solitude. 

*12 — 14. Much to do in the world, and almost all 
my time taken up therein. Have had a few serious 
solitary reflections, but want that tenderness and that 
peace of conscience which I have experienced in time 
past. Mine is a lonesome life indeed. O that my 
soul may be quickened in divine things ! 

*16. A miserable day. I did not suspect that my 
soul was so absorbed in the world as I find it to be. If I 
try to pray, something relative to tlie completing of our 


works starts up, and my thoughts are all carnal and 
confused. I have been very unhappy, and would not 
have to manage all the business of so great a concern 
again for another person, for the world; but it is 
my own carnal spirit that is to be blamed ; this is the 
station which God has in great mercy put me into, 
and has thus preserved and provided for my family. 
Moonshi was gone to see a relation for about a fort- 
night, but I went out to preach to the natives. Found 
very few, tried to discourse to them, but my soul was 
overwhelmed with depression, and I left them after 
some time. By the way, I tried to pour out my soul 
in prayer to God, but was ready to sink under its 

* 16 — ^22. Had very little converse with God. Very 
barren and much discouraged. On Saturday, Mr. 
Thomas and his family came to see us ; and on the 
Lord's day Mr. Thomas and I went to LuUa, a village 
about two miles off, where he preached, and had great 
liberty of expression. The people appeared to be 
much impressed with the word of God, and I hope it 
may be of use to them eventually. 

*23 — 29. Nothing important occurred. On Wed- 
nesday Mr. Thomas left us. I trust his visit has been 
of some use to my soul. Spiritual conversation is a 
great and invaluable blessing. Preached on Lord's 
day to a few people at a village near my house. 

*30 — April 6. Had an opportunity or two, which I 
was enabled to embrace, of speaking to some natives 
upon the wickedness of the horrid practice of swing- 
ing, &c. That season is now approaching; and on 


Lord's day I appointed to preach twice to the natives. 
In the morning the congregation was about five hun- 
dred ; and after Moonshi had read a chapter in Mat- 
thew, I endeavoured to preach, and had more en- 
joyment than for some time past. The people, having 
attended with great seriousness, went away shouting, 
* Alla V that is, O Gk)D ! In the evening had about 
four hundred, and was enabled to speak to them of the 
necessity of a sinner's union with Christ. They ap» 
peared serious, and departed shouting as in the 
morning, which is a way that the Mussulmans use to 
invoke the divine Being, Alia being derived from the 
Hebrew El, and the Arabic and Persian word for God. 
This the Mussulmans universally use here. 

* April 6 — 10. Had frequent opportunities of dis- 
coursing with the natives about the horrid self- 
tormenting mode of worship which is practised on the 
8th, 9th, and 10th of this month ; as falling on spikes 
of iron, dancing with threads or bamboos thrust 
through their sides, swinging, &c. This is practised 
on the three last days of their year. But the prin- 
cipal is what they call Churruk Poojah, that is, the 
worship of swinging. Poojah is their word for 
worship, and Poodjah for the object of worship. I 
find that this worship is only practised by the Harry, 
or lowest caste of the Hindus, who are hunters, bird- 
catchers, tanners, shoemakers, &c., and are esteemed 
execrable among the other castes ; but great numbers 
always go to see them. The other modes of self- 
tormenting besides swinging are not practised in this 
part of the country; but on the tenth, that was 


attended to in many places, and the night was spent 
in dancing and mirth. This day I had a serious con* 
versation with a man about his soul. 

*11, 12. On the last of these days preached twice 
to the natives. Had a large assembly in the morn- 
ing, about two hundred, and in the evening about 
five hundred. Moonshi first read to them a part of 
the gospel by Matthew, and I afterwards preached to 
them upon the necessity of repentance and laith, and 
of copying the example of Christ. They heard 
with considerable attention, and I felt some sweet 
freedom in pressing them to come to Christ. After- 
wards had some meditation on the effects of the fear 
of God on my soul, and saw plainly that I was 
restrained firom much evil thereby, not merely as if I 
were hindered from action by bands put upon me, but 
by its operation upon my will, and exciting me to fear 
doing that which God disapproves of. 

*13 — 19. Passed the week in a tolerably calm 
manner. Had a few opportunities of discoursing 
about the things of God. On Lord's day preached 
twice to a pretty large concourse of people, I suppose 
five or six hundred each time. Was very poorly with 
a cold, and dejected, thinking I could say nothing; 
but, contrary to my expectation, I was enabled to pour 
out my soul to God for them, and afterwards for God 
to them. I felt liberty and pleasure, much more than 
I could expect, in speaking a hard language, with 
which my acquaintance must necessarily be slender, 
though I believe I spoke more than half an hour so 
as to be well understood, without any help from 


Moonshi. I have hope that God may at last appear 
and carry on his work in the midst of us. 

*May 9. I have added nothing to these memoirs 
since the 19th of April. Now I observe that for the 
last three sabbaths my soul has been much comforted 
in seeing so large a congregation, and more especially 
as many who are not our own workmen come from the 
parts adjacent, whose attendance must be wholly dis- 
interested. I therefore now rejoice in seeing a regular 
congregation of from two to six hundred people, of 
all descriptions : Mussulmans, Brahmuns, and other 
classes of Hindus, which I look upon as a favourable 
token from God. I this day attempted to preach to 
them more regularly from a passage of the word of 
God, Luke iv. 18: *The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, 
because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to 
the poor,' &c. ; in which I endeavoured to prove the 
miserable state of unconverted men, as spiritually poor ; 
as bound by a sinful disposition and by pernicious 
customs, and false expectations of happiness, from 
false and idolatrous worship ; in which I took occasion 
to observe, that both in the Shastras and Koran there 
were many good observations and rules, which ought 
to be attended to ; but that one thing they could not 
inform us of, viz., how God can forgive sin consist- 
ently with his justice, and save sinners in a way in 
which justice and mercy could harmonize. I told 
them that their books were like a loaf of bread, in 
which was a considerable quantity of good flour, but 
also a little very malignant poison, which made the 
whole so poisonous that whoever^ should eat of it 


would die ; so, I observed, that their writings con- 
tained much good instruction mixed with deadly 
poison. I appealed to them whether any of their 
idols could give them rain, a blessing much wanted 
now, or whether they could do them any service at 
all; when an old Mussulman answered, 'No, they 
have no power at all ;' and in this he included the 
Mussulmans' peers, or spirits of their saints, as well 
as the heathen idols. I observed that the caste was a 
strong chain by which they were bound, and after- 
wards spoke of the suitableness and glory of the 
gospel, which proposed an infinitely great sacrifice for 
infinite guilt, and a free salvation for poor and perish- 
ing sinners. In the afternoon I enlarged upon the 
same subject, felt my own soul warmed with the 
opportunity, and hoped for good. Of late God has 
given me a greater concern for the salvation of the 
heathen, and I have been enabled to make it a more 
importunate request at the throne of grace. 

*' Blessed be God, I have at last received letters and 
other articles irom our friends in England. I rejoice 
to hear of the welfare of Zion. Bless God that the 
Leicester people go on well. O may they increase 
more and more ! Letters from dear brethren Fuller, 
Morris, Pearce, and Rippon ; but why not from 
others? I am grieved for Carleton church. Poor 
brother West ! I am grieved for England. A resi- 
dence there with propriety is extremely difiUcult. 
Bless God we have no such spies or informers here ; 
we are in peace, and sit under our vines and fig-trees. 

*June 14. I have had very sore trials in my own 


femily, from a quarter which I forbear to mention. 
Have greater need for &ith and patience than ever I 
had, and I bless God that I have not been altogether 
without supplies of these graces, though, alas, I have 
much to complain of from within. Mr. Thomas and 
his family spent one Lord's day with us, May 23. 
He was much pleased with our congregation ; and 
we concerted means to get all the old Hindu profes- 
sors together, having it now in our power to furnish 
them with some employment. We spent Wednesday, 
26th, in prayer, and for a convenient place assembled 
in a temple of Seeb, which was near to our house. 
Moonshi was with us, and we all engaged in supplica- 
tion for the revival of godliness in our own souls, and 
the prosperity of the work among the natives. I was 
from that day seized with a dysentery, which con- 
tinued nearly a week with dreadful violence ; but 
then I recovered, through abundant mercy. That 
day of prayer was a good day to our souls. We con- 
certed measures for forming a baptist church, and 
to-morrow morning I am going to Moypal, for the 
purpose of our organizing it. Through divine mercy 
our congregation of natives is very promising: we 
have rather fewer people now, owing to this being 
their seed-time, the rains being just now setting in. 
I hope for and expect the blessing of God among us. 
Though it is painful to preach among careless 
heathens, yet I feel preaching the gospel to be the 
element of my soul. Had much seriousness to-day 
in addressing them from the words of Paul, * Come 
out from among them, and be separate, and touch not 


the unclean thing, and I will receive you;' and I 
thought the people behaved seriously. The transla- 
tion also goes on ; Genesis is finished, and Exodus to 
the 33rd chapter. I have also, for the purpose of 
exercising myself in the language, begun translating 
the gospel by John, which Moonshi afterwards cor- 
rects; and Mr. Thomas has begun the gospel by 
Luke. O Lord, send now prosperity !' 





^ Mudnabattyy March 11, 1795. 
* My dear Sisters, 

* Many changes have taken place with me since I 
left England ; but I find that all have been conducive 
to my good, and I trust will be found so to the pro- 
motion of the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ; 
though I have abundant cause to complain of my 
leanness from day to day, and the exceedingly un- 
grateful returns that I make to God for all his very 
great goodness and bounty towards me. I am sur- 
rounded with favours, nay, they are poured in upon 
me ; yet I find the rebellion of my heart against God 
to be so great as to neglect, nay, forget him, and live 
in that neglect day after day without feeling my soul 
smitten with compunction. I trust that I am not for- 
gotten in the prayers of my friends ; and perhaps it 
is in answer to their requests that the spark of love to 
God is not quite extinguished. 

* The inestimable blessing of christian society is 
enjoyed but scantily here to what it is in England ; 
for though we have very valuable christian friends, 
yet they live twenty or thirty miles distant from us ; 


and as travelling is very difficult here, there being no 
way of travelling but by water, we have the pleasure 
of seeing each other but seldom ; though when we do, 
it makes our meetings much more sweet and agree- 
able than they might be if we met oftener. We have 
in the neighbourhood about fifteen or sixteen serious 
persons, or those I have good hopes of, all Europeans. 

* With the natives I have very large concerns ; 
almost all the farmers for near twenty miles round 
cultivate indigo for us, and the labouring people 
working here to the number of about five hundred, 
so that I have considerable opportunity of publishing 
the gospel to them. I have so much knowledge of 
the language as to be able to preach to them for about 
half an hour, so as to be understood, but am not able 
to vary my subjects much. I tell them of the evil 
and universality of sin, the sins of a natural state, the 
justice of God, the incarnation of Christ, and his 
sufferings in our stead, and of the necessity of con- 
version, holiness, and faith, in order to salvation. 
They hear with attention in general, and some come 
to me for instruction in the things of God. I hope in 
time I may have to rejoice over some who are truly 
converted to God. 

* Poor Peter is removed from us by death. — 

* I have had much better health here than in Eng- 
land ; but was attacked with fever &c. for near two 
months. Last year was a very unhealthy one ; we 
had so many people ill as to be scarcely able, some- 
times, to carry on the works. The quantities of rice 
which grow here are the occasion of this unhealthi- 


ness, for rice grows half up the straw in water, and 
the water is confined in the fields and stagnates there, 
in order that the com may grow. 

* I am, 

* Your affectionate brother, 
' W. Carey.' 

*To THE Society for Spreading the Gospel among 

THE Heathen. 

' Mudnabatty, Aug. 13, 1795. 
'Dear Brethren, 

* An opportunity now presents itself for me to write 
you a few words of my welfare and state ; and by this 
opportunity I send my journal, by which you will 
see a little of the manner of my life. Some things in 
it, as Mr. Thomas's engaging in business, &c., at 
Calcutta, I desire to have for ever suppressed and 
buried in oblivion; as I am convinced that it was 
only occasioned by temporary circumstances, and 
from that time to this the utmost harmony and affec- 
tion has prevailed between us. I think the whole of 
it can only present a melancholy picture of sameness, 
and be tedious as a twice-told tale. 

* I trust we have not been altogether idle, though I 
know not as yet of any success that has attended our 
labours. Moonshi and Mohun Chund are now with 
me ; but I do not see that disinterested zeal which is 
so ornamental to a christian in either of them. Yet 
they have good knowledge of the things of God, con- 
sidering their disadvants^s. With their help we 
have divine worship twice on the Lord's day in 


Bengali^ which is thus conducted: first, Moonshi 
reads a chapter in Bengali; then we sing; afterwards 
I pray, and preach to them in that language. Partly 
from local circumstances, and partly from paucity of 
words, my preaching is very different from what it 
was in England ; hut the guilt and depravity of 
mankind, and the redemption by Christ, with the 
freeness of God's mercy, are the themes I most insist 
upon. I oft;en exhort them in the words of the 
apostle, 2 Cor. vi. 17. 

*The translation of the bible is going on, though 
but slowly, it may be thought. I have got Genesis 
and Exodus nearly ready for the press, and Leviticus 
is begun ; if we are spared, I hope we may be able to 
put Genesis or more to the press by christmas. We 
have for the present given up the idea of getting types 
from England, and as there are types in Bengal, we 
think to print in the ordinary way, though the ex- 
pense is about ten times what it would be in England. 
This will, however, be much more than compensated 
by the reflection, that we have put into the hands 
of many heathens a treasure greater than that of 
diamonds, and, by multiplying copies, made a proba- 
bility of those scriptures being preserved in the 
Bengal tongue. 

^One great difficulty in speaking to the Hindus 
arises from the extreme ignorance of the common 
people, who are not able to understand one of their 
own countrymen who speaks the language well, 
without considerable difficulty. They have a con- 
fined dialect, composed of a very few words, which 


received them. All other publications of any account 
will be great treats to us. 

* All I can say must be about ourselves, and egotism 
is tedious. But I will send you all the news I can. I 
cannot send you any account of sinners flocking to 
Christ, or of any thing encouraging in that respect ; 
but I can send you an account of some things which 
may be viewed as forerunners to that work which God 
will certainly perform. The name of Jesus Christ is 
no longer strange in this neighbourhood. And the 
hymn of Moonshi is well known, especially the chorus, 

O who can save Binnera except the Lord JesuB Christ ? 

* We have divine worship constantly every Lord's 
day, and conduct it in the manner of the English 
churches ; and on the week days, I take opportunities 
of conversing with the natives about eternal things. 

^ The bible has, that part which has been trans- 
lated, been read to several hundreds of natives, and I 
trust will gain ground. 

* But now I must mention some of the difficulties 
under which we labour, particularly myself. The 
language spoken by the natives of this part, though 
Bengali, is yet so different from the language itself, 
that, though I can preach an hour with tolerable free- 
dom, so as that all who speak the language well, or 
can write or read, perfectly understand me, yet the 
poor labouring people can understand but little ; and 
though the language is rich, beautiful, and expressive, 
yet the poor people, whose whole concern has been to 
get a little rice to satisfy their wants, or to cheat their 


oppressive merchants and zemindars, have scarcely a 
word in use about religion. They have no word for 
love, for repent, and a thousand other things; and 
every idea is expressed, either by quaint phrases, or 
tedious circumlocutions : a native who speaks the lan- 
guage well, finds it a year's work to obtain their idiom. 
This sometimes discourages me much ; but, blessed be 
God, I feel a growing desire to be always abounding 
in the work of the Lord, and I know that my labour 
shall not be in vain in the Lord. I am much encou- 
raged by our Lord's expression, * He who reapeth' (in 
the harvest) ^receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit 
unto eternal life.' If I, like David, only am an 
instrument of gathering materials, and another build 
the house, I trust my joy will not be the less. 

^The translation of the bible is going on, and is, to 
me, a very pleasant work : Genesis, and Exodus, and 
Matthew, Mark, part of John, and James, may be 
reckoned ready for the press. I am surprised to find 
that one-third of the words in the Hebrew bible are 
known to Moonshi, and great numbers are in constant 
use in this country, as kophar, a sin-offering. Ko- 
phar means here, the vilest character and actions 
imaginable, and if you mean to affront a Mussulman, 
no word will do it so effectually. It appears to have 
been given by the Arabs to all negroes ; hence Caf- 
fraria, the country of the Caffres. So Hosannah is 
much used in Persian, and is an exclamation of the 
multitude to a great man or king, on his entering 
into any city or place : the populace then cry Asanta, 
that is, the bringer of happiness, or Osianna, viz., 

R 2 


This is the bringer of all good or happiness to us. So 
the word used for the crown of the altar, &c. ("tt) is in 
common use, and the thing too may be seen on most 
of the natives' palanquins. I have, in the translation, 
sounded the Hebrew Jod, and the Greek Iota, like Y, 
and believe them to be the true pronunciation, and by 
this pronunciation many words are familiar to learned 
men here; as Yosuf, Yakoob, Izhak, Mooseh, Kooresh, 
&c. This may appear trifling to you; but when 
translating, I find multitudes of such apparently 
trifling things, which have considerable weight. 
Printing, here, is uncommonly dear ; but if types 
could be got from England, there are natives who 
could do the business of compositors and pressmen, 
and this would be the cheapest way. Mr. Thomas 
has a set of letters fit for types to be founded by, 
written for that purpose by a native who writes an 
excellent hand. I will persuade him to inclose them 
to the society this season : they may then use their 
pleasure about having them made or not. We in- 
tended to have done it at our own expense, but at 
present are not able. 

* Nothing could give me more heartfelt pleasure, I 
believe, than to see my dear brother Pearce at Mud- 
nabatty ; but I am not quite clear that a person of 
your usefulness in England, should quit his station. 
You are certainly qualified by God to fill an important 
post at home ; and the thought is painfiil, of seeing 
you cut off* from all possibility of preaching for two 
years, or more. Besides, preaching among the na- 
tives is very different from preaching among Euro- 


peans: it must consist much in assertion, and, among 
the common people, much proof will be in vain. Your 
method of a warm address to the heart is necessary, 
and almost the whole, in preaching here ; but you 
have other talents, which, perhaps, are not over plen- 
tiful in England. I think persons whose hearts burn 
with love to Christ, if other qualifications for the 
ministry are rather fewer, will equally answer the 
end. I much rejoice to hear of the willingness of the 
two young men at Bristol ; may God confirm their 
hearts ! and if successors to us are sent in time, it will 
be a wise step, as our lives are uncertain, and it will 
,be a great pity for the mission to be vacant two or 
three years, for want of persons acquainted with their 
language and customs.' 

It is well known that the mind of Mr. Pearce was 
zealously inclined to missionary labour. And, consi- 
dering the nature of his complaint, and the intense 
ardour of his desire to proceed to India, it has some- 
times been doubted by those who well knew him, 
whether he acted rightly in relinquishing his pur- 
pose. He besought a number of his brethren to make 
it matter of intercession with God, that he would 
indicate the designs of his providence. After such 
exercise, and the best consideration they could bestow 
upon so solemn a subject, they expressed their opinion 
as adverse to the procedure, and he abided by their 
decision. For these twenty years past, the son of 
Mr. Pearce has been honoured to bear an impor- 
tant and successful part in those labours, from 


which, by an inscrutable providence, the father was 

Letter continued. 

* You think of Africa. I rejoice, and hope you will 
persevere ; and I will give you one or two words of 
advice, if a little experience may entitle me to that 
privilege. When your missionaries leave England, 
they will, of course, be supplied with all proper 
necessaries. If they land at an English factory, they 
may procure most things necessary, if they have 
money ; but it will be to their comfort to set out on a 
low scale of living, and to be determined, previously, 
what course of life to pursue for a livelihood. I still 
think farming preferable to any ; but there are many 
difficulties and disappointments to be overcome, for 
birds, beasts, and insects will combine to destroy all. 
I would advise them to avoid all woody and unfre- 
quented places; they are full of danger; and to 
choose an open, high spot, for their habitation. These 
are very necessary cautions, if the lives and health of 
the missionaries are regarded. I would also advise 
them to avoid sleeping on the ground. If they carry 
out bedsteads and gauze curtains, to prevent the mus- 
quitoes biting them, it will be a good precaution: 
without them, they cannot live long. They will do well, 
to associate, as much as possible, with the natives, and 
to write down every word they can catch, with its 
meaning. But if they have children with them, it is 
by far the readiest way of learning to listen to them, 
for they will catch up every idiom in a little time. 


My children can speak nearly as well as the natives, 
and know many things in Bengali which they do not 
know in English. I should also recommend to your 
consideration, a very large country, perhaps unthought 
of : I mean, Boutan or Thibet. Were two mission- 
aries sent to that country, we should have it in our 
power to afford them much help. We could also, if 
we knew of their coming previously, order matters for 
their settling there ; could assist them with many 
necessaries ; sometimes see them, and keep up a 
regular communication with them once in three 
weeks or a month, at a very small expense, as we are 
within about a hundred miles of the borders of that 
country : I myself have seen the mountains that 
border it. Mr. Thomas and I intend making a jour- 
ney into that country very soon, and have thought of 
securing a place there for some such purpose. I much 
wish the society to turn their thoughts to that part of 
the world. 

* The day I received your letter, I set about com- 
posing a grammar and dictionary of the Bengal 
language, to send to you. Perhaps you may obtain 
* Halhed's Bengal Grammar* in England : it will be 
a great help. There is a dictionary and grammar, of 
Hindosthani, published by a Mr. Gilchrist, a very 
good one, but this will not be very useful for Bengali : 
it is, however, a useful and very excellent work, in 
three volumes, quarto. The best account of Hindu 
mythology extant, and which is pretty exact, is ' Son- 
nerat's Voyage,' undertaken by order of the king of 


* Now, dear brother, adieu ! Mercy and truth be 
with you ! I hope the scarcity of European letters 
will be recompensed to us by a multitude in future. 
I have received no letter from my dear brethren 
Ryland, SutclifT, Blundel, Edmonds, or dear father 
Fawcett, nor from my dear friends at Leicester. I 
rejoice much to hear of their welfare. Tell them, I 
still love them in the Lord. Tell Mr. Cave, I love 
him. My sincere love to Mr. and Mrs. King, Potts, 
Rounds, &c. ; to all the dear ministers, churches, and 
acquaintance in England. I know you pray for us ; 
I trust we do so for you. May God answer all our 
prayers ! 

* I just say we are well, which is a great mercy, as 
this is the breaking up of the rains. 

* The utmost harmony prevails between Mr. Thomas 
and myself; and I trust Mr. Thomas's assistant, a 
Mr. Powel, who is added to us, may be of use to us in 
our undertaking. My assistant is a Portuguese, a 
catholic ; his wife, a coast protestant, and he attend 
the preaching every Lord's day. I hope God may 
work on his heart effectually. Sincere love to you 
and yours accompanies this. 

' I am, affectionately yours, 

*W. Carey.' 

'Mudnabatty, Oct. 5, 1795. 

' My dear Sisters, 


'Yet in all these things I rejoice ; and find comfort 
in God. The work of preaching to the heathen is, to 


me, a very pleasant work ; and translating the bible, 
peculiarly so. But I mourn want of success. How- 
ever, I feel disposed to double my diligence rather 
than to despair. God's promises are true ; and will, 
in his own time, be surely accomplished. 

* Mr. Thomas and I live on the most agreeable 
terms ; and dear Mr. Udney is a steady friend. We 
should have formed a church before now, but a young 
man, who was to have been baptized, was taken ill 
with a dangerous disorder ; and the rains setting in, 
prevented it. I expect now, however, in the space of 
a month, a church will be formed, which, though 
small, will yet be, I trust, as a light shining in a dark 

* Bless God, we abound in every comfort of life, and 
have a good income ; a good brick house, which, 
together with the works which I have had the build- 
ing of here, amount to about five thousand pounds, 
English money. 

* This season has been a bad one, owing to the very 
great overflowings, which are greater than were ever 
known. A small river, which runs by our house, was 
swelled to be three or four miles wide ; and our boats 
went the same way, for ten or twelve miles, which we 
used to go on foot before. But we hope next year 
will be better ; this is all in the hand of God, and he 
does all things well. 

4 am, &c., 

*Wm. Carey.' 



To THE Society. 

* MaMa, Dec. 1795. 

* I can with pleasure inform you of our welfare, and 
that of our children; and further, that a baptist 
church is formed in this distant quarter of the globe. 
Our members are but four in number, viz., Mr. 
Thomas, myself, a Mr. Long, and a Mr. Powel, the 
last of whom accompanied Mrs. Thomas from Eng- 
land. Mr. Long had been baptized by Mr. Thomas 
when he was in India before; and on the first of 
November this year, I baptized Mr. Powel. At this 
place, Malda, we were solemnly united, that day, as 
a church of Christ, and the Lord's supper has since 
been twice administered among us. Mr. Powel is a 
very hopefiil young man, bums with zeal for the con- 
version of the heathen, and I hope will prove a valu- 
able acquisition to the mission. 

* With respect to the heathen, I wish I could write 
more favourably. Our lives, however, are not quite 
spent in idleness, nor our labours quite without efiect. 
I am just returned from a tour through about half the 
district in which my business lies, and the whole of 
which consists of about two hundred villages. In this 
tour I took a boat for my lodging and the convenience 
of cooking my victuals, but performed the journey on 
foot, walking from twelve to twenty miles a day, and 
preaching, or rather conversing, from place to place, 
about the things of the kingdom of God. This plan 
I intend to pursue statiedly, the whole of the dry sea- 
son, though often travelling less journeys. I have 
not yet seen much fruit of my labours. The most I 


can say is of a young man about eighteen years of 
age, a Brahmun, who has appeared very thoughtful 
for some time, and frequently conversed with much 
feeling about his eternal concerns. 1 pray God it 
may end well. His concern has continued now nearly 
three months, and appears rather to increase; his 
name is Cassinath Mookhurgee. Moonshi has been 
gone to visit his &mily for three months, and Mohun 
Chund is now with me. 

* Mr. Thomas and I have also received letters from 
some people at Dinagepore, the capital of the district, 
whom we had never seen, and who had heard of the 
gospel. They wrote requesting part of the transla- 
tion to be sent to them. I will inclose a copy of that 
letter to you. Upon the whole, I trust the prospect 
of the conversion of the heathen is not so gloomy as to 
give room for despondency. The natural obstacles, 
such as ignorance of the language, are in some mea- 
sure surmounted ; and we have the promise of God 
that the moral ones shall also be overcome.' * * * 

Serious demur was felt by the society in England, 
upon their learning that Mr. Carey and his colleague 
had accepted secular employment. Their doubts 
were entertained most conscientiously, and arose from 
a tender solicitude for the welfare of their brethren, 
and the prosperity of their missionary work. They 
feared, lest the time and care such engagements 
might require, and the worldly associations they 
might necessitate, should divert them from their 
appropriate pursuits. But too little attention was 


shown ill this case to the actual circumstances of the 
missionaries ; their pecuniary supplies from England 
had hitherto been so very meagre, and transmitted 
so irregularly, that the missionaries, without having 
recourse to some such means, or a miracle had been 
wrought for them, must have perished for want of 
subsistence. Their employment oflTered itself provi- 
dentially, coming without solicitation on their parts, 
and at the time of the greatest extremity. It was 
also as favourable to their grand object as any 
thing worldly could be, whilst their obtaining it 
opened to them a ready access to Europeans and 
to natives of all classes, which otherwise they 
were very unlikely to realize ; besides which, Mr. 
Carey was more simple and more exalted in his de- 
votion to the mission, than even his most attached 
friends, at that early period of his public career, 
conceived. The little resources he now commanded 
were no otherwise gratifying to him, than as they 
gave him an opportunity of verifying his professed 
renunciation of the world, in all respects but those 
by which he could make it subserve the spiritual and 
everlasting welfare of his fellow-men. 

Yet the scruples of the society, though not called 
for in their immediate reference to Mr. Carey, were 
nevertheless commendatory of their wisdom and 
piety. As a general principle, missionaries cannot 
be too free from secular labours, whatever be their 
nature, and how ample soever their returns. One 
missionary out of twenty may encounter them, and 
reap and apply their results, without prejudice to his 


principles and his spirit; yet in the nineteen instances 
the influence upon both might prove adverse. In 
some missionary stations, indeed, the labours are so 
various, that unless means were originated on the spot, 
or ampler remittances were sent from home than the 
general claims of the heathen would perhaps justify, 
the hands of a missionary must be bound. In India, 
more than the half of all the outlay for schools, 
chapels, and native preachers, has been raised upon 
the spot, either by contributions from the public, or 
from the labours of missionaries. But it would not 
be easy to lay down a universal law for regulating 
the conduct of missionaries and societies in this mat- 
ter. The exclusive devotion to spiritual pursuits 
should be the rule, the assumption of any secular 
vocation, be it what it may, the exception, consented to 
reluctantly, and continued with caution. But much 
more depends upon the character of the men who ai'e 
selected for this work, than upon any rules, however 
judiciously devised, for the government of their con- 
duct. Let them be men of elevated principle, pure 
devotion, and fervent zeal, with preponderating good 
common-sense to preserve them from fruitless airy 
schemes and absurd vagaries; and they may be 
trusted throughout every latitude of the globe, and in 
all vicissitudes : but, if these qualifications be want- 
ing, societies may write volumes of prescriptive rules, 
and then commit them to the flames as soon as 
written, for their property and their hopes will be 
wrecked together. 

254 memoir of dr. carey. 

Journal continued. 
*Jan. 11. 1796. Malda. On my journey hither I 
met a letter from the society, which accompanied the 
Sierra Leone report ; but as Mr. Thomas was with 
me I gave him the letter, and have lost the date. I 
am, from not having it by me, much incapacitated 
for answering it ; and one part, I acknowledge, rather 
surprised me : I mean that respecting our engaging 
in employment for our support. I always understood 
that the society recommended it ; it is true they did 
not specify indigo, business, but the trade in timber 
was recommended, and the cultivation of the ground 
was also looked upon as eligible. But I am astonished 
to find an indigo manufacturer called a merchant, 
which is just like calling a journeyman tailor a mer- 
chant: were we proprietors, the name might be 
proper, but we have only had a promise of a share, 
and whether it will or will not be given we know not, 
nor do we trouble ourselves about it. We receive 
wages adequate to the maintenance of our families ; 
and now our buildings are over, I think no line of life 
could afibrd us more leisure or opportunity for doing 
good. To vindicate my own spirit or conduct, I 
should be very averse ; it is a constant maxim with 
me, that if my conduct will not vindicate itself, it is 
not worth vindicating; but we really thought we 
were acting in conformity with the universal wishes 
of the society. Whether we are indolent or laborious, 
or whether *the spirit of the missionary is swallowed 
up in the pursuits of the merchant,' it becomes not 
me to say, but our labours will speak for us. I only 


say that, after my &mily's obtaining a bare allowance, 
my whole income, and some months much more, 
goes for the purposes of the gospel, in supporting 
persons to assist in the translation of the bible, write 
copies, teach school, and the like. This is to me a 
certain and constant expense of thirty-three rupees 
per month. But this I rejoice in, and would not lose 
the pleasure of it for three hundred per month. I 
only mention it to show that the love of money • has 
not prompted me to pursue the plan that I have 
engaged in. I am indeed poor, and shall always be 
so till the bible is published in Bengali and Hindos- 
thani, and the people want no further instruction. I 
may also just remark, that the whole of our buildings 
gave me more assistance in learning the common 
dialect, than any thing else could have done ; and the 
number of the labourers who were constantly to be 
attended to, could not make le^s than a year's differ- 
ence in that acquisition. Since the acquiring just 
knowledge enough to be barely understood, and some- 
times to have my meaning only guessed at, I have 
felt my heart more and more enlarged, and have 
found it a great pleasure to discourse upon the things 
of the gospel to them ; but I cannot command success. 
* I wish to say something about the manner of my 
preaching, but scarcely know how. As a specimen, 
however, I will just describe one season at a large 
village, about four miles from Mudnabatty, called 
Chinsurah. I went one Lord's day afternoon to this 
place, attended by a few persons from Mudnabatty. 
When I got into the town, I saw an idolatrous temple, 
built very finely with bricks. In order to excite 


attention, I asked what place that was ; they said it 
was Thakoorannee, that is, a Debta. I asked if it 
was alive; they said, yes ; well, said I, I will see her, 
and accordingly went towards the place, when they 
all called out, *No Sir, no, it is only a stone.' I 
however mounted the steps, and began to talk about 
the folly and wickedness of idolatry. A bazar or 
market, near, was very noisy ; I therefore removed to 
a little distance under a tamarind-tree, where we 
began by singing the hymn, *0 who besides can 
deliver.' By this time a pretty large concourse of 
people was assembled, and I began to discourse with 
them upon the things of God. It is obvious that 
giving out a text, and regularly dividing it, could not 
be of any use to those who never heard a word of the 
bible in their lives ; I therefore dwelt upon the worth 
of the soul and its fallen state, the guilt of all men 
who had broken God's righteous law, and the impos- 
sibility of obtaining pardon without a fiill satisfaction 
to divine justice. I then inquired what way of life 
consistent with the justice of God was proposed in 
any of their shastras. They, said I, speak of nine 
incarnations of Vishnu past, and one to come, yet 
not one of them for the salvation of a sinner. They 
were only to preserve a family, kill a giant, make 
war against tyrants, &c. ; all which God could have 
accomplished as well without these incarnations. An 
incarnation of the Deity, said I, is a matter of too 
great importance to take place in so ludicrous* a 

* As a fish ; a wild hog ; a tortoise ; a thing half lion and half man ; a little dwarf, 
who b^ged three steps* space of land to build him a hut, and then became so large 
as to measure earth with one pace and heaven with another, and could not find 
room for the third in the universe. 


manner, and for such mean ends and purposes. The 
Mutchee Obeetar, or fish incarnation, said I, was 
to become the rudder of a boat, and preserve a family 
in a great flood ; and the wild hog incarnation was 
to kill a giant, and draw up the earth out of the sea 
when it was sinking; but this, God who created it 
could have accomplished without any such interpo- 
sition. I then observed how miserable they were, 
whose religion only respected the body, and whose 
shastras could point out no salvation for the sinner, 
I then spoke of the way of life by Christ, his substitu- 
tion in our place, suffering in the sinner's stead, and 
the like. 

* At another place I preached from Christ being a 
blessing, sent to bless in turning every one from his 
iniquities. I observed the superiority of the gospel 
to all other writings, and Christ to all pretended 
saviours in that point ; that believing on Christ was 
universally accompanied with turning from iniquity • 
and that their worship must be false, for they made 
images and ofierings to them, and were abundant in 
their worship, but, said I, there is not a man of you 
yet turned from his iniquity. There are among 
you liars, thieves, whoremongers, and men filled 
with deceit.* And as you were last year so you are 
this, not any more holy ; nor can you ever be so, till 
you throw off* your wicked worship and wicked prac- 
tices, and embrace the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

* These are all sins for whicli the Hindus are notorious ; and there is not a com- 
pany often men, I believe, to be fallen in with, but you might safely say the above 
words to. AU the good that can with justice be said of them is, they are not so 
furious as many other heathens. 



'This is the method of preaching that I use among 
them ; nothing of this kind affronts them ; many wish 
to hear; many, however, abhor the thoughts of the 
gospel. The Brahmuns fear to lose their gain ; the 
higher castes, their honour ; and the poor tremble at 
the vengeance of their debtas. Thus we have been 

* I sometimes preach twice a week, sometimes twice 
a day, as opportunity presents itself ; and the transla- 
tion of the word of God is my every day's work. 

* I must now conclude, having scarcely ever written 
so long a letter in my life, and retaining to this day 
an aversion to writing which always did, and I fear 
always will, attend me. 

* I am glad the mission to Africa is intended. God 
make it prosperous ! Think of Thibet, Pegu, and the 
astonishingly large part of Hindusthan to the west 
and to the north. Thibet is near us ; we could corre- 
spond with a mission at Pegu, or any part of the 
Rohillas country ; Oude, Kashmeer, Khabool, &c., 
though very far from us : but I know your zeal ; may 
God give you resources equal to it ! 

* I long to know more of the state of the churches. 
My accounts in every letter are lamentably deficient. 
I have to write to twenty correspondents ; and though 
this is a country in which scarcely any new scenes 
appear, but all is the same dull round of stupidity 
and superstition from day to ()ay, yet I am expected 
to say much about this wonderful country and people. 
Yet all my friends who live in the midst of bustle say 
nothing almost about it ! I am not concerned about 


politics ; I see the Calcutta papers, and I think that 
as the people of Europe have fallen out, so they must 
fall in. But the religious state of the world is very 
important, and the aspects of the political world 
towards prophecy and the church of God, I wish to 
be more and more acquainted with. 

*With my warmest wishes for your prosperity, as 
individuals, as ministers, as members of the churches, 
and as a society, 

* I remain, very affectionately yours, 

♦W. Carey.' 

About this time the Baptist Missionary Society 
sent two missionaries to Sierra Leone ; but one of them 
falling ill, and being compelled to return home, and 
the other, through some interference in local disputes, 
being advised to leave the settlement, the society 
thenceforward concentrated their strength on the con- 
tinent of India. 

The following extract of a letter from Mr. Thomas, 
it is presumed, will not prove uninteresting. It shows 
how esteem, and even harmony and affection, may 
exist between persons united in the faith of great 
principles, and in the promotion of an important 
work, in connexion with much and even painful 
diversity of individual taste and temperament. 

* You see in Mr. Carey and myself some differences 
in taste, manners, &c.; and there are many differ- 
ences between us which you do not see. Do not be 

8 2 


alarmed, for our very noses are not alike, but our 
hearts are one: we may differ in faces, but not in 
hearts. One heart, one soul, one Lord, one faith, one 
baptism* There may be one Lord, one fedth, and two 
baptisms ; but this is like a house on fire at one comer. 
I admire the grace of God, for knitting together differ- 
ent people like brother Carey and myself; for we never 
differ but we agree to differ, and in things respecting 
which it is no matter whether we differ or not. We 
often fall into one another's opinions, always delighted 
to see each other, and we love each other fervently. 
This information, though you have had it before, I 
consider far from uninteresting. 

* We often lay our heads together, and form large 
plans, for all we produce such little executions ; but we 
have difiiculties you know nothing of. Sore troubles; 
implacable enemies ; jealous eyes over us ; and a 
variety of opinions formed on our conduct and de- 
signs. Some think we intend at bottom to turn this 
part of the world upside down, as missionaries ; others 
think we have quite forsaken the mission, and gone 
after filthy lucre, in the way of Balaam : some think 
us wise, others think us foolish ; some sober, others 
mad : and all these contrary opinions have their use, 
perhaps. On this paragraph, I could fill a ream of 

*I will tell you of one of our diflSculties. The 
people hereabouts speak a mixed language, part 
Persian, part Bengali, and part Hindusthani, or the 
Moor language ; so that we do not understand them, 


nor they us, half so well as though we were nearer 
Calcutta ; but wherever we meet with Brahmuns, the 
case is different. The majority of the people here are 
not Hindus, but Mahommedans. Good night.' 

'Jan. 13, 1796. 

*Grovemment has required of every individual Eu- 
ropean, who is not in the company's service, to give 
in their names, places of abode, time of arrival in this 
country, and occupation; in order, if permitted to 
stay, to enter into covenant, and find two securities 
for the due performance of it, in £2000 each, or in 
some cases, £500 each. What would have become 
of us, by this time, I know not, if we had not been 
engi^ed in the indigo line. This matter is, however, 
reckoned highly improper and oppressive on the part 
of the company, and some persons have refused to 
comply with it altogether; particularly Mr. Fairleigh, 
in Calcutta, a man of very large property, who told 
them they might send him home if they dared. 
But these great words cannot be uttered out of little 
mouths. i 

* If you should, at any time, be a long while with- 
out hearing from us, never suspect us of neglecting to 
write, for in these times many letters fall short of 
their destination ; and it does not appear, by your 
letter, that you have received all the letters we have 
sent you ; and we are sure we have not received all 
you have sent us. I was going to say, I should be 
sorry if the Society had any body belonging to it 


more firmly attached to it, and more concerned for its 
interests, than we are : in a qualified way, you will 
understand me. 

^ I wrote you word that I had sent for a Bootan 
Moonship but he is not yet arrived. The Bootan 
people have no caste ; neither have the Rajemal Hill 
people, which hills are inhabited by a people of a very 
different appearance, habits, language, and religion 
from the Hindus. These hills are situated about 
thirty miles from Malda, to the N. £. of us, and 
Bootan about eighty or a hundred miles to the north- 
ward of us. I wish, with all my soul, that three or 
four young men and their families were settled 
among the Bootan people, and four on Rajemal Hills. 
Dr. Coke talked of sending missionaries there ; and if 
he did, we should be bound to help them all in our 
power. At present, indeed, we have but maintenance 
for ourselves, for the indigo was almost all drowned by 
the flood of last year : otherwise, we had agreed to- 
gether to lay out about £300 of our profits in printing 
the gospel, in such parts as are ready; and other 
large sums we had both appropriated to similar pur- 
poses. Indeed, it is possible that one good season 
would enable me to pay all my debts, and furnish me 
with overplus. When I am out of debt, however, I 
intend to have less to do with indigo than I have now, 
for the sake of the work of the mission. I was obliged 
to borrow £100 last month to send to a lawyer, who 
perhaps had put me in gaol before now, if I had not 
been in my present connexion and circumstances : 


being driven by my creditors, whose patience is worn 
out, he might have done so ; but I must acknowledge 
the great civility the Calcutta lawyers have constantly 
shown me, and civility seems an expression hardly 
good enough for them. I praise God, I am out of 
gaol ; and I should have praised him more, perhaps, if 
I had been in it.' 




To Mr. Fuller. 

^ Mudnahattyy June 17, 1796. 
' My very dear brother, 

* A few days ago I received yours and brother 
Pearce's, of August last, which gave me very great 
pleasure ; and, could I possibly give you reciprocal 
pleasure, by relating the success of the gospel, my 
heart would rejoice ; but, instead of success, we have 
to lament appearances being more against us than 
they were. I have been forced, for the honour of the 
gospel, to discharge the Moonshi, who, though not 
guilty of that want of fidelity which both Mr. Grant 
and Mr. Udney have charged him with, was yet 
guilty of a crime which required this step, con- 
sidering the profession he had made of the gospel. 
The discouragement arising from this circumstance is 
not small, as he is certainly a man of the very best 
natural abilities that I have ever found among the 
natives, and being well acquainted with the phrase- 
ology of scripture, was peculiarly fitted to assist in 


the translation; but I have now no hope of him. The 
translation is going on, though more slowly than 
when he Was here. However, almost all the Penta- 
teuch and the New Testament are now completed. I 
have a young Pundit with me now, who, I hope, will 
prove useful, though I yet see nothing promising with 
respect to the great point of all. 

* You very encouragingly tell us not to faint, if we 
see no fruit yet. I hope and trust we shall not, and 
hope you also will be kept from discouragement on 
our account. I feel very much, lest the friends of 
religion should faint at our want of success ; and, by 
the doubts, &c., which I find have been plentiful, on 
account of our engaging in business, I fear some 
such discouragement has already taken place. I 
hardly think it worth while to notice the slander, that 
we are become slave-drivers ; but observe, that there 
are no slaves allowed in this country. The inhabit- 
ants are as free as in England, for what I see, and are 
paid their full earnings : indeed, were it refused, the 

English laws would oblige to it. But Mr. G 's 

opposition to the work I think abominable : if any 
one wounds Mr. Thomas, he wounds me ; and when 
this man answers every inquiry with ^ I could say — 
but' — or, * I say nothing about Mr. T., because I shall 
be thought prejudiced ;' this is wounding his cha- 
racter deeper by a half-silence than he could possibly 
do by the most direct accusation. The fact is this, as 
can be proved by a long correspondence between him 
and Mr. T., now in preservation, that Mr. T. left a 
much more lucrative employment, and the society of 


his family, at Mr. G.'s desire, to preach the gospel 
among the natives ; who afterwards, because he would 
not conform to his peremptory dictates, in matters 
which he could not conscientiously do, cut off all his 
supplies, and left him to shift for himself in a foreign 
land, and is now, by inuendoes, ruining his character. 
I feel nothing at what he says of my credulity and 
sanguineness. I may have thought better of the 
natives of this country at my first coming than I find 
a more intimate acquaintance with them will warrant, 
and I certainly expected more success than has at- 
tended us at present. But I wrote the warm effusions 
of my own heart at the moment to friends, not dream- 
ing of the severity of criticism being spent upon it ; 
and so I write now, and I believe always shall. I 
make it a point to think well of a person, till I see 
sufficient reason to alter my opinion. I had seen only 
flattering appearances then, and on the basis of those 
appearances I wrote. It does not belong to me to 
vindicate Capt. Christmas. I did not know or inquire 
whether he was a Dane or an Englishman ; but if it 
were as Mr. G. says, I think he took a lawfiil method 
to trade where the English law forbade him to trade as 
an Englishman ; but I believe he had a station in the 
Danish army or navy, prior to his naturalization, and 
was naturalized on that account : but I am not sure. 

^ Mr. T. and I are men, and fallible ; but we can 
only desert the work of preaching the word of life to 
the Hindus with our lives, and are determined, 
through grace, to hold on, though our discourage- 
ments were a thousand times greater than they are. 


We have the same ground of hope with our brethren 
in England, viz., the promise, power, and feithfuhiess 
of God ; for unless his mercy break the heart of stone, 
either in England, India, or Africa, nothing will be 
done effectually ; and he can as easily convert a 
superstitious Brahmun as an Englishman. 

* With respect to printing the bible, I fear that is 
distant enough. As in the forementioned case at 
Day-hotta, so here, we were perhaps too sanguine; 
but, though means have hitherto failed, we are as 
much resolved as ever to give our all to that work. 
But, for the reasons mentioned by brother Pearce, I 
think it will be better for at least £100 per annum 
to be remitted hither by the society, which shall be 
applied to the purposes of printing the bible and edu- 
cating the youth ; and what we do shall be done as a 
contribution to the Society. 

^ I think it very important to send more mission- 
aries hither. We may die soon, and if we have 
no successors in the work, it will be a lamentable 
circumstance, and very much retard the spread 
of the gospel. It is very important to have a 
succession to hold forth the word of life where the 
work is begun. 

' I am obliged to finish, as the post is going ; but 
must say, that the pleasure afforded by the two mis- 
sionaries being sent to Africa is very great; and 
much heightened by the account of the other deno- 
minations of christians uniting in a society to send 
the word of life to the South Seas. Surely God is on 
his way. If success does not immediately attend every 


eflfort, do not be discouraged. God will surely appear, 
and build up Zion ! 

* My kind christian love to all your friends, espe- 
cially those of my more intimate acquaintance, and all 
the ministers of the gospel. Best remembrances to 
Mrs. Fuller. We are well in health, except that my 
poor wife is in a very distressing state of mind : not 
maniacal, it is true, but afflicted with the species of 
insanity described by Dr. Arnold under the name of 
ideal insanity. 

I conclude. 

*Very affectionately yours, 

*W. Carey.' 

To Mr. Fuller. 

'Mudnabatty, Nov, 16, 1796. 
*My very dear brother, 

*I have within a few days received your letters, 
and a P. S. to a letter from our dear brother Pearce. 
From this irregularity in my receiving your letters, 
and my other correspondents* also, you will easily 
account for apparent neglect in answering them. 
Had I received these communications in proper time, 
some answers to your former letters, in vindication 
of ourselves, would have been spared, as I now see 
that the Society have very effectually done what we 
thought was reasonable to be done ; but some letters 
from the Society have been first seen by us in Rip- 
pon's Register. 

* You have heard that Mr. U. has had great losses. 
I will, depending on your not uttering any thing on 


that head, mention some of them, because they are 
connected with our affairs. The house that failed at 
Calcutta, happily did not hurt Mr. U.'s credit, but 
ruined him in his property. It was conducted under 
the firm of his brother and two others, but Mr. U. 
was the supporter of it : all their bills were signed by 
him, and he has had bills returned upon him for pay- 
ment to the amount of nearly £20,000 sterling, on 
account of that house. A ship, the reputed property 
of the house, but really his, and almost wholly laden 
with his property, of a very rich kind, was taken by 
the French; and other particulars have occurred 
which are very calamitous. Previously to this, Mr. U. 
had begun these two indigo works ; and had sent 
natives to choose the places, who, very unhappily, 
chose the most improper that could be thought of, 
owing to their ignorance in agriculture. My place 
cannot be tenable much longer. Moypal may ; but 
owing to large floods which have destroyed the whole 
crop almost every successive year, it follows that the 
whole expense of erecting the works, amounting to 
about £10,000 sterling, is outstanding without any 
adequate returns. We have in consequence only our 
two hundred rupees per month, our commission being 
nothing worth mentioning. All these circumstances 
have much reduced dear Mr. U., and he cannot help 
as formerly. 

'Mr. Thomas is a man of great closet piety, and 
has lately preached much among the natives. I have 
great hope of some people there, and am not without 
hope of one here. Mr. T. is very compassionate to 


the poor; and in instructing those who are inquiring 
he is indefatigable : he has excellent aptness for that 
work, being perhaps one of the most affectionate and 
close exhorters to genuine godliness, and a close walk 
with God, that can be thought of. The natives who 
appear under concern here, are all Mussulmans. I 
went out one Monday morning, when a poor labour- 
ing man, named Sookman, very earnestly desired to 
know *what he must do to be saved.' Two more 
made the same inquiry, adding, ^We heard you 
yesterday, when you, having showed the danger we 
were in of going to hell, inquired * Whither will you 
flee from his spirit ? whither will you flee from his 
presence?' We knew we were unacquainted with 
the way of life, and our peers (canonized saints, long 
since dead) cannot help us; for if the master be 
angry, what can the servant do ? You have told us of 
Jesus Christ, but who is he? How shall we be 
saved V I talked much with them almost every day ; 
but two, whose names were Tuphanee, and Jungloo, 
soon ceased their inquiries. Sookman still gives me 
hope, though it is three months since the inquiry 
began. I wrote this immediately to brother Thomas, 
who informed me that some were also inquiring at 
Moypal. When brother Fountain arrived, I went 
over with him ; and I am sure he saw much more 
encouragement the first sabbath than we had seen 
in three years. Three people there are under very 
hopeful concern indeed ; they are all labourers, Mus- 
sulmans; their names are Yardee, Doorgottea, and 
another whose name I have forgotten. There was 


another named AssamtuIIa, and a blind woman ; but 
these do not appear so hopefiil to me as the others. 
Yardee is a man of good natural abilities, and has a 
great aptness in conveying his ideas, and is a blessing 
to the rest ; the other two have nothing of those fine 
natural abilities that Yardee appears to have, but the 
work seems to be solid. I was in hopes of sending 
you an account of their baptism, but that has not yet 
taken place. I however expect it soon. There is a 
stir at Moypal all around the country, and many 
come to hear the word ; I suppose near a hundred. 
Here it is not so, and poor Sookman stands alone. 

*I must now just tell you my thoughts about the 
mission. Brother Fountain is safely arrived, and 
gives us pleasure ; but our affairs, as a mission, are in 
a delicate situation. I have written what I think of 
brother Thomas's affairs. This place I expect must 
be given up. Mr. U. has not mentioned any thing, 
but I have written to him all that I think about it. 
However, the experience obtained here I look upon 
as the very thing which will tend to support the 
mission. I now know all the methods of agriculture 
that are in use. I know the tricks of the natives, and 
the nature of the lowest rate of housekeeping in this 
country. Having had a monthly allowance, I have 
made all experiments on these heads, which could not 
have been made without ruin, had I not had these 
resources; and I will now propose to you, what I 
would recommend to the Society ; you will find it 
similar to what the Moravians do. Seven or eight 
families can be maintained for nearly the same ex- 


pense as one, if this method be pursued. I then 
earnestly entreat the society to set their faces this way, 
and send out more missionaries. We ought to be 
seven or eight families together ; and it is absolutely 
necessary for the wives of missionaries to be as hearty 
in the work as their husbands. Our families should 
be considered nurseries for the mission ; and among 
us should be a person capable of teaching school, so 
as to educate our children. I recommend all living 
together, in a number of little straw houses, forming 
a line or square, and of having nothing of our own, 
but all the general stock. One or two should be 
selected stewards to preside over all the management, 
which should, with respect to eating, drinking, work- 
ing, worship, learning, preaching, excursions, &c., be 
reduced to fixed rules. Should the above-mentioned 
natives join us, all should be considered equal, and 
all come under the same regulations.* 

In the work of missions, especially in the educa- 
tional department, as much depends upon the endow- 
ments and devotedness of females, as upon those of 
their husbands. The work of female education in 
India is conducted entirely by the wives of mission- 
aries, or by such pious females as are sent out under 
the auspices of different institutions for that purpose. 
A Society is now in operation, consisting of ladies of 
piety and evangelical sentiments, without regard to 
denominational peculiarity, for selecting and afford- 
ing protection, and, if needed, support, to ladies who 
are deemed suitable for the work, and are disposed to 



consecrate their talents for the literary and religious 
improvement of their own sex in China and the East. 
Its designs and its principles well entitle it to the 
approbation and cordial support of the religious 
world. The usages of society in eastern countries 
are such as to bar access to the female population, 
except by their own sex ; and when women are con- 
verted to the faith, their religious principles and 
conduct require a constant vigilance, and wisdom, 
and condescension in their superintendence, different 
from, and far beyond, what men either can or will 

^The utility of this community of goods in the 
beginning of the gospel church here, will be obvious, 
by considering the following things : 1. Our finances 
being small, it will be necessary to live economically; 
but one set of servants will do all the work for the 
whole, if thus organized, when, if otherwise, every 
separate family must have the same number as would 
be necessary for the whole if united : and, if God 
converts the natives, they would in time supersede all 
want of servants, being partakers of the public stock, 
and therefore bound to labour for the public benefit. 
2. Education of our own and converted heathens' 
children is a very important object, and is what 
might, if followed by a divine blessing, train up some 
of them to be useful preachers or other members of 
the mission themselves. 3. The example of such a 
number would be a standing witness of the excellence 
of the gospel, and would contribute very much to the 


furtherance of the cause of Christ. 4. Industry 
being absolutely necessary, every one would have his 
proper work allotted him, and would be employed at 
his post; some cultivating land, some instructing, 
some learning, some preaching, and the women 
superintending the domestic concerns. 

* In order to this, I recommend about one or two 
hundred biggahs to be cultivated for the mission, 
which would produce most of the articles necessary 
for them and their cattle ; that all these people should 
not come at one time, but one or two families in a 
year, or in two years or so. But as brother T., for 
obvious reasons, could not join this family, and for 
others as obvious to me would not, except he had the 
sole direction, in which case all would foil, and as 
there is a far greater probability of his being torn 
from the work than not, we are in immediate want of 
more, say one family more, of missionaries ; and I 
entreat the society to send them, as the only way 
of keeping the mission together : but pray be very 
careful what stamp missionaries' wives are of. 

^Should this place be continued to me, I recom- 
mend the seat of the mission to be here ; and my 
income and utensils will be immediately thrown into 
the common stock. Or any part of Bengal would 
do ; though the north is most agreeable, and will 
produce wheat, a very necessary article : the heat 
also is more moderate. Should we go south, the 
neighbourhood of Nuddea is most eligible ; but I fear 
too near Calcutta. All provisions also are much 
cheaper in the north ; and by keeping a small boat, 


which can be bought for thirty rupees, two persons 
may travel any where at a time. Cultivation, and 
all except superintendence, must be performed by 

^Expense. The number of servants kept would 
fall under two hundred rupees per month, I think 
about a hundred and thirty : and the expenses of 
clothing and articles of furniture would be near one 
hundred for the number mentioned. The table 
might be well supplied for all above mentioned, for 
one hundred rupees at furthest, I think for sixty ; but 
I say the utmost. Now, if eight families were dis- 
tinct, their monthly expenses could not, with the 
utmost frugality, come under one thousand rupees 
per month : the whole of this would only be four 
hundred, and the produce of the land would be to 
lessen even that ; so that we should receive from the 
society for such a number £30 per month, or £360 
per annum, till we were able to say we could do with 
less. It would be a great saving of even this, if the 
society were to send £50 a year of this in woollen 
cloths, light shoes, strong stockings, hats, and garden 
seeds : this £50 would save the mission about £100 
or £150 a year. Having said thus much, I recom- 
mend it to your serious consideration. The calcu- 
lations may all be depended on. 

* Translating the bible. I have, through the good 
hand of my God upon me, now nearly translated all 
the New Testament. I have begun the seventh 
chapter of Revelations, and all the other is translated 
except the Acts of the Apostles, which I left to Mr. 



T. He has not, however, touched it scarcely ; the 
gospel by Luke is all he has done in translating since 
he came into the country. I have a Pundit, who has, 
with me, examined and corrected all the epistles, to 
the second of Peter ; we go through a chapter every 
day. The natives, who can read and write, under- 
stand it perfectly ; and as it is corrected by a learned 
native, the style and syntax cannot be very bad. I 
intend to go through it again, and, as critically as I 
can, compare it with the Greek Testament ; but wish 
to have a Greek Concordance sent by the very next 
conveyance. I expect the New Testament will be 
complete before you receive this, except a very few 
words, which may want altering on a third and fourth 
revisal. I have made much use of Doddridge's Family 
Expositor in the work, and now wish the printing to 
be thought of. It will be at least two years, now, 
before communications, &c., respecting printing, will 
arrive from England ; in which time every correction 
may be certainly put to it. I was in hope of printing 
it at my own expense ; but the unfavourable situation 
of these works for the production of indigo, has kept 
me incapable of doing that. I thought of going to 
Calcutta and ascertaining the expense of printing, 
but cannot go now. Mr. Thomas, however, has 
ascertained that some years ago paper and printing 
here must amount to two anas a sheet, or about four- 
pence English. Owing to the largeness of the tjrpes, 
the number of sheets could not be less than thirty- 
five, or two hundred and eighty pages, quarto. Sup- 
pose ten thousand copies were printed, as they must 


be given away, the expense would be 43,760 rupees, 
or £4,400 sterling, an enormous sum. Now Caslon 
promised to cut founts for five shillings each. If the 
number of characters is six hundred, the punches 
would be cut for £150, and the number of types 
necessary would be bought for half-a-crown per 
pound, amounting to about £500 to print the whole 
bible. Should this plan be eligible, a press must be 
sent out ; and if a serious printer could be found 
willing to engage in the mission, he would be a great 
blessing to it, to superintend, for natives would do 
the work. Paper should also be sent from England, 
it being near two hundred per cent dearer here than 
there. Such a printer I knew at Derby before I left 
England. We can get thirty-two thousand letters 
written for a rupee ; but this is a great expense, and 
the errors that must get into every copy could not 
possibly be all corrected. Mr. T. has had letters 
written near two years for types, by a native, a very 
good writer ; but they require examining, which are 
proper for tjrpes to be cast to. He has not done that 
in all this time, and is so backward, I fear he never 
will. He talks of making all the letters himself, but 
I fear it will never be done. I will try and get those 
written by the native, and send them, if he will part 
with them. 

*Thus I have opened all my mind to you respect- 
ing the mission and all my connections. I only 
entreat you to be careful not to make known some 
circumstances, as they may do much harm, but can- 
not do any good. I was in hope Mr. T. might have 


had a very favourable season or two, which would 
have extricated him ; but I have no hope now : if I 
had, I should not have been so explicit. 

* Should more missionaries come over, it will be 
necessary for the society to devise some means to give 
us leave to use the names of some individuals, as 
bondmen to the company on their account. The 
company sent out orders that all Europeans who are 
not in the company's service shall take out certifi- 
cates as free merchants, or persons permitted to stay 
in India for a certain time. The bonds for the first 
are very great, for the second more moderate ; but I 
cannot specify the particulars. Bondsmen are to be 
creditable people, either in England or here ; and 
the obligation is, that the persons resident in India 
shall not, on any account, become chargeable to the 
company, or on any account sue the company in 
a court of law. I imagine the orders to this purpose 
may be obtained in England, and then you would 
see the whole. Mr. U. and a Mr. Creighton ofiered 
themselves as my securities, and Mr. U. and I are 
offered as security for Mr. T., and Mr. T. and I for 
Mr. Powel. I have now proposed that Mr. Powel 
and I should offer ourselves for brother Fountain. 
The whole is a mere matter of form, and is designed 
to prevent people of desperate fortunes coming to 
India. Numbers have absolutely refused to regard 
the regulations at all; but I think we should study 
peaceableness and obedience to the laws. It will 
therefore be necessary that we should be able to pro- 
pose two respectable names on an emergency, and to 


produce letters authorizing us to do so. Query, also, 
whether it will be better at once to avow our errand, 
or to do as we have hitherto done, that is, appear as 
people of a secular profession ; for it is necessary to 
specify our abode and employment. Though Sir 
John Shore well knows our real business, yet we have 
always been denominated indigo-makers hitherto. 
By-the-bye, I have heard some very favourable 
accounts of Sir John Shore's possessing genuine re- 
ligion in his heart ; he is certainly very friendly to 
Mr. Brown, and Mr. Brown speaks very highly of 

*Mr. Fountain arrived quite unexpectedly, and 
except a hint or two in a letter from England, some 
months before his arrival, we had not heard a syllable 
of his coming out. He therefore arrived at Mudna- 
batty before I knew of his arrival in India, and took 
me quite by surprise. He appears to be a very pro- 
mising person, and I hope his abilities will be good. 
He is learning under my Pundit. I advise him to 
keep only one servant ; and with him, and now and 
then giving a small present to my servants, I think 
he will do very well. On this plan he may do with 
about thirty rupees per month, which will be neces- 
sary for clothing and other small expenses. A single 
person, if he keep no Moonshi, may live for sixty 
rupees per month, and not less; but on this plan 
thirty will do. I wish I could maintain him alto- 
gether, but cannot : I just make both ends meet, and 
bless God I can do that. Servants are the grave of 
money here, and are indispensable : the caste makes 


SO many necessary. Be very careful that the mission- 
aries be charged to say nothing about politics on their 
first arrival, during their stay in Calcutta; and for 
the first three months, is all the danger ; afterwards, 
political fire will go out for want of fuel. I believe 
brother Fountain was pretty watchful there, but some 
expressions uttered here must be buried. We have 
warned and charged him, and I believe he will be 
careful. Thirty pounds, the sum given to Mr. Foun- 
tain, is too little for pocket money on an Indian voy- 
age : if the ship puts in any where, the missionaries 
will be distressed, as stay at any place depends on 
winds, weather, &c., and at all places where ships 
put in, all accommodations are very exorbitant. 
Brother Fountain was obliged to contract debt at 
Calcutta to enable him to get up here. Travelling 
here is amazingly expensive, and a new comer is 
cheated through both ears. Should I have occasion 
to draw on the society on Mr. Fountain's account, it 
shall not exceed the thirty rupees per month, and I 
trust the society will honour the draft, which must be 
on the treasurer. 

* I have now, I believe, said nearly all about our- 
selves. I rejoice to hear of such a spirit of activity 
and holiness prevailing in England : surely God is 
on his way, and great things are on the eve of accom- 
plishment. I am glad at my heart to hear of the 
prosperity of Leicester. Wars may not end yet, per- 
haps, for God has said, *The nation and kingdom 
that will not serve thee shall be utterly destroyed,' 
and perhaps it will be by war. I wish you had sent 


me Edwards's piece (Miscellanies) just published: 
not Edwards of Portsea. I know him, and his piece 
I suppose, cannot be without much self-confidence in 
it. Your piece on socinianism I bless God for, and 
rejoice in its run. I trust it will be productive of 
good. My love to your four friends who sent me the 
magazines ; I do not know them, but this testimony 
of their esteem is so much the greater. I hope you 
will yearly send us a volume of this excellent work. 

*Give my most affectionate regards to all your 
people, especially those with whom I am more imme- 
diately acquainted. Mrs. Fuller, though unknown, 
will accept of my christian respects ; and my love in 
Christ, and every other way, most heartily flows to 

* Yours, very affectionately, 

*W. Carey.' 

*My family are well. I have lost one son, and had 
one son born since here, so that my number is now 
four. My sister is well, and I have heard very 
encouraging accounts of her husband. 

* With regard to myself, I am very low respecting 
the progress of the work of God. Yet we never had 
so much reason for encouragement as we have now ; 
arid I trust we have some general revival in our own 
souls. I love the work, and trust it will triumph. 

* Should you want missionaries, Mr. Yates, of Lei- 
cester, has told me in a letter, that he will come, if it 
can be proved that he can be more useful here than at 
Leicester; which is self-evident, and therefore wants 


no proof. Such men as fanners, gardeners, potters, 
&c., would be the most useful men, if other qualifica- 
tions are not wanting. It will be proper for them to 
have exercised their gifts before their being sent. It 
is also singular that no letter from the Society accom- 
panied brother Fountain. My warmest Christian 
love to all the ministers. I intend to write to as 
many as I can.' 

To Mr. Sutcliff. 

'Mudnabatty, Nov. 22, 1796. 
^My very dear brother, 

* Yours of Jan. 5, reached me very lately, and I am 
sure was a messenger of good to my soul. I am, 
blessed be God, in good health. I have had a very pain- 
ftil abscess in the side of my throat, for which I was 
obliged to undergo a surgical operation ; but it is now 
well. My family are well. I have another son, named 
Jonathan, instead of Peter, who died. Brother Foun- 
tain arrived about a month ago. He came into our 
house, and found me, with my Pundit, poring over 
old Sanscrit words, before I had any intelligence of 
his arrival in the country. 

*We have had great discouragements, especially 
through the fall of poor Ram Ram Boshu, who was 
guilty of adultery, and is gone far from us. Mohun 
Chund was with me ; but I had supported him some 
months, and found that my income would not be suffi- 
cient to continue to do so. My schoolmaster also went 
with Moonshi, so that at once the Moonshi and Mohun 


Chund went away, and the school was broken up. I, 
however, pursued preaching, expounding, and trans* 
lating, and I trust a gleam of light again presents 
itself. A labouring man here, named Sookman, and 
three at Moypal> named Yardee, Doorgotteea, and 
another, whose name I have forgotten, appear to be in 
earnest about eternal things. Two others here began 
to inquire when Sookman did, but soon got cool. I 
am not without hope that some good may be found in 
others at Moypal. At this place, all appear dead and 
discouraging^ except Sookman ; but there is a great 
stir all over the neighbourhood, and many come to 
hear the word. This is, in seme degree, owing to 
Yardee, who is a man of a sweet natural temper, good 
abilities, a readiness to discourse with others, and a 
zeal for Christ. I hope some of them will be soon 
baptized. The officer about whom I wrote, I fear, is 
different from what I and others thought him; his 

name is Capt. . Mr. U. has been in his company 

since I wrote to you ; thinks him a good man, but 
amazingly enthusiastic, and perhaps a little deranged. 
* The translation of the New Testament is nearly 
finished, and once corrected. The eleventh chapter 
of Revelations is done, and the second epistle of Peter 
corrected. Only the other eleven chapters of the Re- 
velation, and the Acts of the Apostles, remain now to 
be translated ; which I hope to get through by the 
end of January. The Old Testament is translated, 
and corrected to Numbers, and some of that trans- 
lated. It is well that Exodus and Leviticus are 
translated, as they are extremely difficult, and 


perhaps no man was so well qualified to do it well 
as the Moonshi who is now gone. 

*I have received Parkhurst's Greek and Hebrew 
Lexicons, and the sermons of the Missionary Society ; 
also M. Home on Missions. I am very much 
obliged indeed by the receipt of them. I will also 
write to the society to pay you for them, as they pro- 
pose to send us assistance. 

* 23. Yesterday I went out to preach to the inhabit- 
ants of a neighbouring village. Found considerable 
pleasure in addressing them from 1 John iii. 8 : * For 
this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he 
might destroy the works of the devil.' The people 
behave well, but constantly use this very dishearten- 
ing observation, *Sir, we hear and understand, but 
nothing stays in our minds;' and their common excuse 
is, * We are poor ignorant creatures, what can we ever 
understand V Nay, they will often say, * We are not 
men, we cannot possibly know any thing ;' and Mr. 
Thomas was one day under the necessity of proving 
his auditors to be human ; for they asserted that they 
were jackals, and not men. These very degrading 
assertions respecting themselves are very common ; 
though certainly used with no other design than to 
excuse their indolence in not examining the differ- 
ence between their own superstition and the gospel, 
or their total neglect of every thing religious. It is 
also very common for them to say, 'We have no God 
but our bellies.* Some dancing Brahmuns came one 
day to me, and I asked them why they pursued so vile 
an employment ; they answered, 'For our bellies.' I 


said, * A hog tears up your fields for his belly, a jackal 
destroys your kids and lambs for his belly, and thieves 
rob only for their belly ; you are therefore only on an 
equality with them/ They assented ; nor was any 
thing I could say sufficiently strong to prove to them 
that any thing else was necessary. Only God can 
break the carnal heart. 

* Mr. Fountain had read my letters about farmers 
in our neighbourhood, and had pleased himself with 
the hope of sitting in a farmer's chimney comer, and 
getting a basin of milk, and such hospitality as may 
be experienced in the house of an English farmer. 
But alas ! he found that our farmers were not distin- 
guishable from other people, and that houses in Ben- 
gal have no chimneys ; that we are never asked to any 
one's house, and if we were, that there is nothing in 
them ; that a farmer's whole stock is a cow or two, 
and three or four half-starved bullocks, and a few 
pigeons; for a Hindu will not touch a fowl^ nor either 
Hindus or Mussulmans a hog, except the lowest class 
of all. A goat or two tied on a bare highway, may 
now and then be seen, but no sheep in a whole 
parish. Thus was he disappointed : he is, however, 
not shaken in mind, and I doubt not will be a 
blessing to us. 

' Blessed, blessed be God, for all that is doing to 
promote the cause of Christ ! Surely, much is to be 
expected. My christian love to all Olney friends. 
My christian love to Mrs. Sutcliff.' 

* I am, very, very affectionately yours, 

' W. Carey.' 


From Mr. Fountain to Mr. Fuller. 

'Mudnabatty, Nov. 8, 1796. 

' After getting a boat at Calcutta, and other neces- 
sary things, I left it on the 24th of September, and 
arrived at Mudnabatty on the 10th of October. Bro- 
ther Carey most kindly received me. When I entered, 
his Pundit stood by him, teaching him Sanscrit. He 
labours in the translation of the scriptures, and has 
nearly finished the New Testament, being somewhere 
about the middle of Revelations. He keeps the grand 
end in view, which first induced him to leave his 
country, and those christian friends he still dearly 
loves. He reads a chapter and expounds, every morn- 
ing, to twelve or sixteen persons. On a Sabbath 
morning, he also expounds, and preaches twice in 
the day besides to forty or fifty persons ; after which, 
he often goes into some village in the evening. In 
the intervals of preaching to the natives, we have 
worship in English. He indeed appears to be the 
character he describes in his publication, where he 
says, * A christian minister is a person who, in 
a peculiar sense, is not his own ; he is the ser- 
vant of God, and therefore ought to be wholly 
devoted to him.' 

* Brother Thomas is also lively in the work, and 
the Lord, we trust, is blessing his labours. Two or 
three of the natives there are under great concern 
about their souls. They meet together every day for 


prayer, and Mr. Thomas daily instructs them in the 
scriptures. He has a very large congregation twice 
on the Sabbath day : he also preaches in the adjacent 
villages two or three times. There is the utmost cor- 
diality, friendship, and union subsisting between him 
and brother Carey. One spirit indeed seems to actu- 
ate both in the concerns of the mission.' 

Mr. Fountain to the Society. 

' Mudnabatty, Nov. 11, 1796. 

* Brother Thomas delights in doing good to the 
bodies and souls of his fellow-men. His medical skill 
is a great blessing to this country.* People come to 
him from thirty or forty miles round, so that there 
are almost always patients at his doors. He does all 
gratis. I have seen some of his remarkable cures. 

* As to brother Carey, his very soul is absorbed in 
the work of the mission. His dear friends in England 
had no ground for their fears, that riches might alien- 
ate his heart from that work. He does not possess 
them. I am persuaded there is not a man who has 
not learned to deny himself but would prefer his situ- 
ation when at Leicester to that in this country. But 
he, like a christian minister, as described in his own 
publication, considers himself as having * solemnly 
undertaken to be always engaged as much as possible 
in the Lord's work, and not to choose his own pleasure 
or employment, or pursue the ministry as a thing 
which is to serve his own ends or interests, or as a 
kind of by-work.' He has told me, that whatever 


his future circumstances may be, he durst not lay by a 
shilling for his children, for his all is devoted to God. 
The utmost harmony and love subsist between him 
and brother Thomas. They are fellow-labourers in 
the gospel of the grace of God.' 

To Mr. Smith. 

December 8. 
'The first Sabbath after ijiy arrival was a very 
affecting one. We spent it at brother Thomas's, who 
had sent for brother Carey to come over and see the 
people there, as he hoped the Lord had begun to work 
upon some of their hearts ; and indeed we yet hope 
that is the case. As I have related the particulars of 
that day to the society, I shall not here repeat them. 
It is impossible to raise an adequate idea in your 
mind of what I felt at seeing near a hundred pec^le 
assembled by sunrise, to whom brethren Thomas and 
Carey both preached. They heard with great atten- 
tion, and assembled more numerous in the afternoon, 
and heard two more sermons. I stayed there near 
three weeks ; a good congregation attends every Sab- 
bath day, though a Sabbath was unknown in this part 
of India till the missionaries came; nor is it now 
regarded, save by a few of our neighbours. There is 
nothing like such an attendance here, as there is at 
Moypaldiggy, though brother Carey preaches twice 
every Sabbath, and reads and expounds every morn- 
ing. In the intervals of preaching to the natives, we 
have worship in English ; at which times we read 


sermonSy except on those Sabbatlis, when we and bro- 
ther Thomas's family meet together ; then we always 
have preaching. Last Sabbath day we all met to- 
gether, and besides preaching to the natives, we each 
of us preached once in English. In the afternoon we 
celebrated the dying love of Jesus, according to his 
own appointment ; and the next day, being the first 
Monday in the month, we remained together, and in 
the evening, united our prayers with those of our dear 
brethren in England, and other parts of the world, for 
the coming of the kingdom of Jesus Christ,' 

* It sha^nt be said that praying breath i 

Was ever spent in vain.' ' 

* I think the society, and all who feel for the 
wretched millions in India, perishing for lack of 
knowledge, can never be sufficiently thankful to God 
that brother Carey so cheerfully embarked in the mis- 
sion. His amazing knowledge of the languages and 
customs of countries ; his assiduity in translating the 
scriptures, his diligence in preaching, his patience 
under trials^ and his perseverence, though without 
apparent success, are admirable. He seems every 
way fitted to lay the foundation of future good in this 
country. Brother Thomas possesses an earnestness 
and plainness of address in preaching, that is equalled 
but by few. But two or three missionaries here can 
do but little ; a request is made for more, and we 
trust they will be sent.' 



Mudnahatty, April \Othj 1796. 

^ My dear sisters, 


^ I know not what to say about the mission. I feel 
as a farmer does about his crop : sometimes I think 
the seed is springing, and thus I hope ; a little time 
blasts all, and my hopes are gone like a cloud. They 
were only weeds which appeared ; or if a little com 
sprung up, it quickly died, being either choked with 
weeds, or parched up by the sun of persecution. Yet 
I still hope in God, and will go forth in his strength, 
and make mention of his righteousness, even of his 

* I preach every day to the natives, and twice on the 
Lord's day constantly, besides other itinerant labours ; 
and I try to speak of Jesus Christ and him crucified, 
and of him alone : but my soul is often much dejected 
to see no fruit. 

*This morning I preached to a number from Eph. 
iii. 19 : * To know the love of Christ, which passeth 
knowledge.* I was much affected ; filled with grief 
4nd anguish of heart ; because I knew they were 
going to idolatrous and Mahommedan feasts immedi- 
ately after, this being the first day of the Hindus' 
year, and the new moon, Ramazon, of the Mahomme- 
dans. They are gone, I suppose, to their abomina- 
tions at this moment ; but I hope to preach to them 
' again in the evening. I spoke of the love of God in 
bearing with his enemies ; in supporting and pro- 


viding for them ; in sending the gospel to them ; and 
in saving many of them from eternal wrath. 

^ The work of translation is going on ; and I hope 
the whole New Testament and the five books of Moses 
may be completed before this reaches you. It is a 
pleasant work, and a rich reward ; and I trust, when- 
ever it is published, it will soon prevail, and put down 
all the shastras of the Hindus. 

^ I remain your affectionate brother, 

'W. Carey.' 

' Tanquam River, Dec. 22, 1796. 

' My dear 8I8TER8, 

* I am now on my journey to Calcutta, to see Mr. 
Short, who is very ill with a consumption, and his 
life despaired of. 

' I have received all your letters, to last April ; and 
while I commiserate you in all your distresses and 
difficulties, I yet praise Grod to find that you are in 
the land of the living ; and I think, while we complain 
of the greatest distresses, we must put all to the score 
of divine mercy, and say, * It is of the Lord's mercies 
that we are not consumed, because his compassions 
feil not.' On this side hell— -door of hope — prapng 
ground ; all these are astonishing expressions, and 
while there is a propriety in employing them, we 
have abundant cause for thankfulness. 

* Were I disposed to complain, I have enough, both 
within and without, to complain about. My heart, is 

u 2 


SO bad, and in some respects worse than that of any 
other person in the world. My coldness in the ways 
of God ; success little ; carnality great ; yet were I 
to do nothing but complain, it would add greatly to 
my criminality. If there are all these pull-backs, and 
so much opposition, what is the inference but this, 
that we ought to use so much the more diligence to 
make our calling and election past all doubt ; and if 
the days are evil, let it be remembered that this is an 
argument for using the more circumspection and care 
that we may redeem the lost and misspent time of our 
past lives. Let me recommend Ps. xxxiii. 1 to you for 
your consideration, and it will appear that it is comely 
to change your voice, and unite with the ransomed of 

the Lord in songs of praise to God and the Lamb. 


* The translation of the scriptures I look upon to be 
one of the greatest desiderata in the world, and it has 
accordingly occupied a considerable part of my time 
and attention ; and through great mercy, the New 
Testament is now so near completion that I hope to 
have the translation and first revision of it finished by 
the end of March. This journey will, it is true, hin- 
der the revision, but will procure me much informa- 
tion respecting it, which may be equally useful to 

the mission. 

* #*#***** 

' Your affectionate brother, 
*W. Carey.' 


* Mudnabattyy December 20, 1796. 



*With respect to myself and all my own affairs, I 
have but little to say. We are all well, through great 
mercy, and in our station at Mudnabatty, where we 
have been now three years and upwards. We have 
four fine children, who are now all well; indeed, 
though we live in one of the wildest parts of the 
country, yet we all enjoy remarkably good health and 

* My work as a missionary is not so successful as I 
wish ; and yet I trust we are neither of us (I or Mr. 
Thomas) without seals to our ministry: though so 
great is the difficulty of losing caste for the Lord 
Jesus, that none have yet avowed his name by an 
open profession, and joining us as a church of Christ. 
We have a church consisting of four members, in full 
communion, and one (Mr. Fountain) at present an 
occasional communicant. I have hope of seven 
natives, and some others appear to be a little upon 
the inquiry. Indeed, I am much encouraged, and 
have no doubt but they will all, in some little time, 
make an open profession, and cast off their old pro- 

' The whole of the New Testament, and part of the 
Old, are translated, except a very few chapters of the 
Acts of the Apostles ; and I have reason to suppose 
that the translation is free from gross errors which 
will at all affect the sense. It is still going on, and 
should my life and health be preserved, I trust it will 


be completed in the space of two more years, that is, 
the whole of the sacred scriptures, which will be a 
blessing that you, who live in a land enlightened 
with the gospel, cannot possibly estimate ; indeed, 
the diflference between a people .who have only the 
common light of the gospel, and one who have not, 
is incredible, were you to witness the foolish fears, 
gross superstition, meanness of mind, and abundance 
of vice, which reign triumphantly in a country 
devoted to the service of Satan, and immersed in the 
awful ignorance of heathenism. 

* Not that the natives of this country are ignorant of 
many useful arts. They are very good book-keepers ; 
many of them speak Persian well ; many others San- 
scrit ; and many are very good workmen at various 
trades and businesses, as weavers, smiths, carpenters, 
bricklayers, and the like ; but I speak of the state of 
their minds and country. Here are no new publica- 
tions, nor have been for hundreds of years ; yet they 
have numbers of books, most however in foreign 
languages, as Arabic, Persian, and Sanscrit, which of 
course are only read by the learned ; and the art of 
printing not being in use, all kinds of books are very 
dear and difficult to be obtained. I have not in all 
this time found one perfect book, though I have 
detached parts of several, and have begun to learn 
the Sanscrit language. 

* We must not expect, I suppose, ever to see each 
other in this world any more. I account this my 
own country now, and have not the least inclination 


to leave it, though repeated experience proves to me 
that I have nothing to expect in it but a bare living. 
Yet even thi^ is as much as I ever did expect, or in- 
deed wish for, except for the sake of being more 
extensively useful. But I am well satisfied, and only 
mention this to rectify a mistaken opinion of our 
having grown rich in India, perhaps priginating from 
my mentioning what might probably be our income. 
We are neither rich, nor in situations equal to what 
mine was at Leicester, considering the great losses 
we have met with from large floods, and the amazing 
expense of servants necessary here. 

^ Your affectionate brother, 

*W. Carey.' 






To Mr. Fuller. 

'Mudnabatty, March 2^, 1797. 
* My very dear brother, 

*I received yours of May 2, 12, 13, 26, Sept. 1, 
and Oct. 11, ult., a few days since, for which I very 
sincerely thank you. The contents are both pleasing 
and painful. It rejoices my heart much to hear of 
our brethren in Scotland having so liberally set them- 
selves to encourage the mission ; and that on two 
accounts, independent of the pecuniary assistance 
which they afford. First, the unequivocal proof that 
it affords of their heartily coinciding with the mission 
plan ; and secondly, the amazing assistance which 
must be derived to the work in answer to their 
prayers. The acquisition of a new multitude of 
helpers, all pouring out their requests to God for suc- 
cess on our undertaking, does not a little encourage 
my heart to proceed in the pleasing work. Want of 
success is very discouraging to me in one point of 
view, as I fear it may operate to the tiring out the 


patience of our numerous and hearty helpers in 
England ; for their hopes, having been very sanguine^ 
and now meeting with so long a disappointment, may 
at last decline, and their hearts be * made sick.' On 
any other account I am not discouraged. I am sure 
the work ©f God must prevail, and I think it cannot 
be long first ; for God having graciously brought the 
gospel here, and excited some to attend to it in a 
hopeful manner, is a kind of pledge to me that he 
will not forsake his work ; and though caste and a 
great number of superstitions are great obstacles, yet 
1 know there are only two real obstacles in any part 
of the earth, viz., a want of the bible, and the depra- 
vity of the human heart. The first of these God has 
begun to remove, and I trust the last will be removed 
soon ; and when the Spirit is poured down from on 
high, all superstitions will give way. Be encouraged, 
therefore, brother, and encourage others, for now *the 
darkness is past' in India, 'and the true light shineth.' 
Perhaps it may be as brother Ryland suggests ; 
general knowledge may first prevail, and pave the 
way for losing caste and joining to the Lord. I thank 
you for your opinion upon and advice about receiv- 
ing the natives while they retain their caste. I have 
since found it to be impracticable, for they would 
undoubtedly be cast out of society, in that case as 
well as the other. Mr. Schwartz's people have all 
lost caste,, who are joined to his church. I have 
enough within myself to discourage me for ever ; but 
1 know the work is God's, and will therefore continue 
to go on in the strength of the Lord, and mention his 


righteousness only. The failure of the African mis- 
sion is a very distressing circumstance, and shows the 
importance of being very carefiil what men are sent 
on a mission. 

* Bless God, we are all as cold as a stone in a 
political sense, except brother Fountain, and I believe 
he is cooling : he also hears perpetual lectures upon 
prudence in that particular. I know not how it may 
fare with him, but the company have rejected his 
application for leave to stay in the country, and have 
ordered him down to Calcutta. Mr. Udney has 
generously proposed to appoint him my assistant, in 
order to prevent his meeting with any disagreeable 
occurrence. Orders are issued for every ship that 
arrives to give in a list of all passengers, without 
which she would not be permitted to land ; and all 
magistrates, and officers of districts, have orders to 
make returns of all Europeans, British subjects not in 
the service of the king or company. Such orders 
must be strictly observed. The magistrate of Dinage- 
pore sent to me, Mr. Thomas, and all others resident 
in his district, to send in our names, abodes, business, 
&c., and we did so. They give out covenants to some 
persons, licensing them to stay in India for a limited 
time. Mr. Fountain applied for these covenants, but, 
not being able to ascertain that he was in any employ- 
ment, was refused ; the covenants are granted to Mr. 
Thomas, myself, and Mr. Powel. I hope Mr. F. 
may obtain them after a time ; but you see by this 
that some worldly employment is necessary to our 
being permitted to remain in this country. 


* Mr. Thomas and myself are just arrived at home 
from an excursion to Bootan, in which we preached 
Christ in many places, where his name was never 
heard before, and were attended to with great ardour. 
The name of our Redeemer has been declared in that 
unknown country, and we have the greatest en- 
couragement to hope a mission may be begun to 
great advantage in those parts. I will relate a little 
of our expedition. We set out from Moypaldiggy on 
the 6th instant, and arrived on the 10th in the Bootan 
country, viz., that part which is below the hills, for 
we did not ascend the mountains, our time not being 
sufficient to permit us to go through all the formali- 
ties required thereto. We went to a place called 
Gopalgunge, and waited on a Bootea officer, called 
the Jinkof ; he received us very kindly, and we pre- 
sented him with a few articles with which he was 
much pleased. Here we found that it would be 
necessary to see some more officers, and to get a 
regular permission to ascend the hills. The greatest 
part of the day we were in his house, which is large 
and made with bamboos and mats, with saul-tree 
pillars, and has an upper floor, on which he lives* 
made with split bamboos. He made us a present of 
some pieces of bacon about a foot long, but which 
were so stale as to be smelt at a great distance. After 
that, he treated us with tea, which they call runga. 
The teapot is a large bamboo, with a hole perforated 
through one of its knots on the inside, which is the 
spout ; the tea is made into cakes with some compo- 
sition, and is, when used, mixed with boiling water. 


ghee,* and salt. We tried in vain to swallow it, 
though the Bootea drank very copiously of it. His 
kindness, however, was very conspicuous, and he 
drank our rum more than we wished him. The 
Booteas are greatly addicted to drinking spirits, and 
pride themselves in drinking much, though drunken- 
ness is reckoned a shame among them. However, all 
will intoxicate themselves if they can get English 
spirits ; they are taught to drink spirits as soon as 
they can talk ; and in all their houses you see large 
pitchers (Culsees) about as large as a small bucket, 
full of Bengal arrack, which they drink as we should 
water. They are very stout, robust people, and with 
respect to dress, colour, and appearance, are like an 
amazing stout, athletic English waggoner, much 
weather-beaten. They have no stockings, but their 
dress is like a waggoner's frock, except the higher 
ranks, who have a garment much like an English 
gentleman's morning gown, of blue, red, or green 
stuff, with large figures wrought in it, like diaper. 
The women are tolerably white, their dress a petticoat, 
and a cloth which is so fastened from the shoulders to 
the waist as to appear like a monstrous pouch over 
the breasts, in which they keep every portable article, 
as in a pocket. Their hair is parted on the top of 
their head, and we saw no covering for the head of 
the females, though the men in office had different 
coverings for the head. 

* From Gopalgunge we went to Bote Haut (the 

* Ghee is butter melted down and then preserved for use, and is much used m 
all parts of Bengal. 


natives call themselves Botes, but the Hindus call 
them Booteas), to see the Soobah, who is the greatest 
officer, that is, a kind of viceroy below the hills. A 
letter having been sent to him from the Jinkof, he 
sent two horses to attend us, and the Jinkof himself 
went with us. The procession was the most comical 
and singular that could be imagined, yet strongly 
proved their great attention to us. We were preceded 
by a band of Bengal music, if such it can be called ; 
we were six horsemen, and servants, people to carry 
our baggage, tents, &c. (which, in travelling by land 
in this country, must be carried on men's shoulders), 
and spectators. We had near a hundred attendants 
on foot. On one horse was the Jinkof, led by two 
men, notwithstanding which he was sometimes first, 
sometimes last, and sometimes turning round, his 
horse being ungovernable : every mile or two he was 
stopping to drink spirits. A Hindu on another horse 
was much like him, except drinking ; and we had 
enough to do to keep our horses out of their way, to 
effect which, we were always wheeling to the right or 
left. At our approaching the town, a number of 
females met us, and made their salam,* after which 
they ran before the horses, and all the inhabitants of 
the place, I should suppose two or three thousand, all 
Hindus, joined the procession. 

* We went in this manner to the Soobah's house, 
who receiv,ed us with great politeness, made us pre- 
sents of silk, viz., a white scarf, in the name of the 

* Salam, the common way of bowing in India, [>erfonn(Kl by putting the right 
haad to the bead, and gently bowing. 


Grand Lama, a red one, in his own name, and another 
red one, in a friend's name. After receiving the pre- 
sents, we ascended the ladder to his house, which was 
like the Jinkof 's, but much larger, and more elegant ; 
it had four rooms on the upper floor, which were 
entirely covered with mats. At the further end of 
the principal room was the seat of the Soobah, raised 
about two feet from the floor, and covered with red 
cloth. Thin gauze curtains were hung round it, and 
on this we were seated by the Soobah. On two sides 
of the same room were seats for the servants, raised 
about six inches from the floor, and, like the Soobah's, 
made with planks of saul timber, but covered with 
sackcloth. A window, of about a foot deep, made of 
lattice-work, ran throughout the two sides on which 
the servants' seats were placed, those only being the 
outward walls ; and a curtain of white cotton cloth was 
placed just above the window. On this curtain were 
hung shields and helmets ; and under it, matchlocks, 
bows, and arrows. The under part of the house serves 
for a stable, &;c. 

^ The genuine politeness and gentleman-like beha- 
viour of the Soobah exceeded every thing that can be 
imagined, and his gene]H>sity was astonishing. He 
insisted on supplying all our people with every thing 
they wanted ; and if we did but cast our eyes to any 
object in the room, he immediately presented us with 
one of the same sort. Indeed he seemed to interpret 
our looks before we were aware ; and in this manner 
he presented each of us that night with a sword, 
shield, helmet, and cup, made of a very light beau- 


tiful wood, and used by all the Booteas for drinking 
in. We admiring the wood, he gave us a large log of 
it; which appears to be like fir, with a very dark 
beautiful grain : it is full of a resin or turpentine, and 
bums like a candle if cut into thin pieces, and serves 
for that use. In eating, the Soobah imitated our 
manners so quickly and exactly, that though he had 
never seen a European before, yet he appeared as 
free as if he had spent his life with them. We ate 
his food, though I confess the thoughts of the Jinkof 's 
bacon made me eat rather sparingly. We had much 
talk about Bootan, and about the gospel ; and the 
appellation of Lama was given to us, which appears to 
mean teacher, and which title is emphatic^ly given 
to the Grand Lama. 

* We found that he had determined to give all the 
country a testimony of his friendship for us in a public 
manner ; and the next day was fixed on to perform 
the .ceremony in our tent, on the market-place. Ac- 
cordingly we got instructed in the necessary etiquette ; 
and informed him that we were only coming a short 
journey to see the country, were not provided with 
English cloth, &c. for presents. The time being 
come, we were waited on by the Soobah, followed 
by all his servants, both Booteas and Hindus. Being 
seated, we exchanged each five rupees and five pieces 
of betel, in the sight of the whole town ; and having 
chewed betel for the first time in our lives, we em- 
braced three times in the eastern manner, and then 
shook hands in the English manner ; afiter which, he 
made us a present of a piece of rich debang, wrought 



with gold, each a Bootan blanket, and the tail of an 
animal called the cheer cow, but we could not ascer- 
tain what animal it was. The Soobah says it is kept 
tame, is as large as a buffalo, and lives only on the tops 
of the highest mountains, which are covered with snow. 
The tail is as bushy as a horse's, and is used in the 
Hindu worship. 

* When the ceremony was over, we were conducted 
to the Soobah's house, and found there another officer, 
I believe the Vakeel, or attorney of the court below 
the hills. This man was just the reverse of all we 
had seen. He had been to Calcutta, and was a man 
of great consequence in his own eyes. He sat on the 
Soobah's seat like a statue, and never rose when we 
went in, which the Soobah, a much greater man, 
always had done. When we sat down, he began a 
long discourse with the others in the Bootan language, 
which, as we did not understand, we also talked to 
^each other in English. All this time a servant, by his 
orders, was poking a lighted torch just in our faces, 
that he might stare at us. Mr. T. ordered it away. 
He then asked how many servants we kept. Mr. T. 
told him if he would go to our houses, he might 
satisfy himself about that. He then inquired if we 
had a tent : we answered in the affirmative. All this 
was to see whether we were great men or not. We 
treated him with as little ceremony as he did us, and 
after exchanging a few angry words with the Soobah, 
he took an abrupt leave. The Soobah was then trans- 
ported with rage, and threatened him dreadfully ; tore 
off his upper garment, seized a cresse (a kind of dag- 


ger), struck it into the table, beat his breast, and 
threatened to go after and kill him. We tried to 
appease him, and were successful ; but declined going 
up the hills, as we found it was necessary to wait for 
an order from Pargong, the seat of Pelen Rajah, who 
is a kind of minister of state to the Deb Rajah ; or 
perhaps to have waited till an answer had been 
returned from the Deb Rajah himself, whose palace, 
if we were not misinformed, is at Tassasooden. Our 
people were much afraid ; for though the Hindus had, 
till now, expressed the greatest confidence in the gen- 
tleness of the Booteas, they now began to propagate a 
great number of bloody tales, and nothing was heard 
but the insincerity [of the Booteas. We were not 
quite so timid, though we were not without our cogi- 
tations. We, however, laughed at the people, and 
told them to run away for their lives, if any danger 
appeared ; and we then ordered that no gun should be 
loaded (we had taken a gun or two for fear of wild 
elephants, &c.), and no additional care whatsoever 
manifested, though we were certain the people would 
not sleep much that night. We then committed our- 
selves to God in prayer, and slept till morning. 

^ In the morning, the Soobah came with his usual 
friendship, and brought more presents, which we 
received, and took our leave. He sent us away with 
every honour he could heap upon us ; as a band of 
music before us, guides to show us the way, &c. ; in 
short, the whole of his conduct towards us was un- 
variedly as generous, polite, and friendly as I have 
ever witnessed. I suppose the unhappy quarrel above 



mentioned arose from the Vakeel thinking himself a 
great man, and somewhat slighted in not having any 
present from us : but in truth we had nothing to 
present. The Soobah is to pay us a visit in a little 
time, which I hope to improve for the great end of 
settling a mission in that country. 

*So great a contrast I have never before seen 
between two neighbouring nations, as the Booteas 
and Hindus. The latter are small, puny, fearful 
people ; the former, athletic and fearless. They 
have a great curiosity : we gave them several 
articles, as a looking-glass, and a pocket compass, 
which were examined in every point of view. They 
have a written language, and, I am informed, many 
books (I suppose religious) written in it. The names 
of the letters are the same as the Bengali language, 
with a few exceptions, and are written in the same 
order, with only this difference, that the Bengali has 
five letters in a series, or line of the alphabet, but the 
Bootea only four. I intend to inclose a part of a letter 
which accidentally fell into my hands there : it is im- 
perfect, one end being torn, yet is a fine specimen of 
their writing. I think the accent of the Bootea lan- 
guage not much unlike that of the French ; but more 
acquaintance with it may alter my mind in that par- 
ticular. I am to be furnished with a Bootea Moonshi, 
and Mr. T. with another. 

* Dr. Ryland inquires whether Bootan and Thibet 
are the same country ; and in your circular letter you 
speak of it as on the borders of Thibet. Mr. Thomas 
thinks that Bootea is a province of Thibet ; but I have 


not found that the people of Bootan know the name of 
Thibet, nor can I say any thing certain about it. 
Bootan is a very large country, subject to the Deb 
Rajah. The Lama Gooroo, as they call him, is, I 
think, only considered as a representative of God ; 
and they have his image in their houses, about the 
size of a large man's thumb. The Soobah said there 
was a greater object of worship, who could only be 
seen by the mind.' 

^ March 25. I this day received yours of June 21, 
and one from brother Ryland, with additions by your- 
self, of June 13, which contain Mr. 's animadver- 
sions, and inquiries by brother Ryland ; to all which 
I shall now reply, lest I should foi^et it afterwards. 
And it may be proper to say th^t I do write things as 

they strike me at the time, as Mr. says ; yet I 

shall be able to prove that I am right in most of those 
instances mentioned by him. I cannot then justiiy 
my style, or accuracy of pointing, and phraseology ; I 
have always written as fast and much as I could, but 
have seldom revised my letters ; always trusting to 
the prudence and judgment of my friends, to extract, 
to correct the style, &c. I shall now reply particularly 

to Mr. 's animadversions, and to brother Ryland's 

remarks, as follows :' 

' I have been with the printer, at Calcutta, to con- 
sult him about the expense of printing the New Tes- 
tament, which is now translated, and may be got ready 
for the press in a little time. It has undergone one 



correction, but must undergo several more. I employ 
a Pundit merely for this purpose, with whom I go 
through the whole in as exact a manner as I can. He 
judges of the style and syntax, and I of the faithful- 
ness of the translation. I have, however, translated 
several chapters together, which have not required 
any alteration in the syntax whatever : yet I always 
submit this article entirely to his judgment. I can 
also, by hearing him read, judge whether he under- 
stands his subject, by his accenting his reading pro- 
perly, and laying the emphasis on the right words. 
If he fails in this, I immediately suspect the trans- 
lation ; though it is not an easy matter for an ordinary 
reader to lay the emphasis properly in reading Ben- 
gali, in which there is no pointing at all. The mode 
of printing, i.e., whether a printing press, &c., shall be 
sent from England, or whether it shall be printed 
here, or whether it shall be printed at all, now rests 
with the society. 

*To say anything of my own personal exercises, 
would only be filling up paper with a long tedious 
tale about myself : I therefore decline it, and only say 
that I have daily cause to complain, yet complain in 
reality but little, and am what I have been for many 
years, that poor sluggish, phlegmatic creature, who 
needs all the advantages of godly society to set the 
springs in motion ; yet have but little of that. Bro- 
ther F. is a great advantage ; but we can scarcely 
vary conversation so much with one person as to keep 
up its zest. 

* I labour on the word ; and public exercises are 


pleasant to my soul, though I want that aptness to 
converse closely about the things of God, which is so 
conspicuous in brother Thomas. The accounts of 
Yardee, Dooi^ottea, Sookman, and another, which 1 
before wrote, I trust will give some pleasure to the 
society, and the numerous friends of Christ in En- 
gland, and will show that their prayers have not been 
in vain, while it affords a new encouragement to us. 
One of these persons has, however, entirely deserted 
us, viz., the man whose name I had forgotten. I have 
great reason to hope that the others are really con- 
verted to Christ : they speak in a savoury manner 
about the things of God, and grow in knowledge, 
and, I trust, in grace. So great an opposition to 
their baptism has been stirred up, that I am not 
sure when we may have the happiness to receive them 
as members of our communion ; but I hope it will be 
the case before a very long time has elapsed. 

* Brother T. labours with greater and greater vigour 
in preaching the word, and^ appears alive. I have 
much pleasure in preaching, expounding, and trans- 
lating. O that God would graciously grant us some 
more evident success ! Brother Fountain is making 
very considerable progress in the language : the cli- 
mate suits him very well at present, and I hope will 
do ; though it is the rainy season that tries European 
constitutions, which begins about the tenth of June. 
He is alive in the things of God, and helps us much. 

^I have many anxieties still about the mission, as 
you will see by the variety of objects I have proposed. 


or rather hinted, respecting the seat of the mission, and 
the steps to be taken to avoid our being ousted by the 
company. It is true the company have given cove- 
nants to Mr. T., Mr. Powel, and myself, which will 
secure us for five years ; but their being refiised to 
brother Fountain causes sorrow and anxiety, though 
I think they will never meddle with him. I have 
thought of the borders of Bootan, as commanding 
Hindusthan, Bootan, and Assam, at once, and being 
out of the company's dominions ; but permission to 
settle there must be first obtained. Nor do I know 
that we should be more secure there ; for the company 
can negociate with any other power, and might be 
provoked to do it if they found us evading them. If 
we, who are permitted to reside in India, get permis- 
sion from the board of trade at Calcutta to carry on 
any business, that business might include all ftiture 
missionaries, who, if they could certify their being' 
employed in any business, would not, in probability, 
be refiised covenants, as brother F. was, only on 
account of not being able to say he was in employ- 
ment. But, in this case, the mission would not be 
avowed to government ; though it might be pursued 
equally as if it were, and worldly business might be 
carried on upon as small a scale as we could wish, 
merely for the maintenance of the missionaries. 
There is a passage in Mr. Home's Letters, whii^h is to 
this import : 'Thank God, we can assert the rights of 
Englishmen in preaching the gospel at Calcutta.' 
Query, can Europeans settle at Calcutta and its 


en\drons for ten miles round, without the consent 
of the Company ? If so, our difficulties would be 
at an end. 

' That a considerable number of additional mission- 
aries are necessary, I am fully persuaded ; and that, 
if something like what I have proposed in my last 
letter could be done, it would be an incalculable ad- 
vantage to the undertaking. This mission should be 
strengthened as much as possible, as its situation is 
such as may put it in our power, eventually, to spread 
the gospel through the greatest part of Asia, and 
almost all the necessary languages may be learned 

^ I hope the African mission may teach us more and 
more; though we have always made it a point to 
avoid every word or action, that looks like intermed- 
dling with politics. We have no disposition to it ; 
and if we were at all dissatisfied, which we are not, 
yet it is a point of conscience with me, to be submis- 
sive to the powers that are, for the time being ; so 
that let my opinions about the best mode of govern- 
ment be what they might, yet the bible teaches me to 
act as a peaceful subject under that government 
which is established where Providence has placed or 
ever may place my lot; provided that government 
does not interfere in religious matters, or attempt to 
constrain my conscience : in that case, I think it my 
duty peaceably to obey God rather than men, and 
abide by all consequences. My paper is at an end. 
A number of people are just come in. The post is 
going off, and I add no more ; only request you to 


remember my warmest love to the society, to all 
ministers, especially my acquaintance, and to all, 
either in your own or any other church, with whom I 
am acquainted. 

* I am, dear brother, 

* Affectionately yours, 

*W. Carey.' 

To Mr. Fuller. 

'Mudnabatty, June 22, 1797. 
' My very dear brother, 

* I have yours of August 9, 16, which informs me 
that the seeds, &c. were shipped. I have received 
those seeds and other articles in tolerable preserva- 
tion, and shall find them a very useful article. An 
acquaintance which I have formed with Dr. Roxburg, 
superintendent of the company's botanic garden, and 
whose wife is daughter of a missionary on the coast, 
may be of future use to the mission, and make that 
investment of vegetables more valuable. 

* Mr. Fountain had agreed to take thirty rupees per 
month for his support, for which I have drawn on the 
treasurer two bills in triplicate, one payable to Mr. B. 
Powell or order, the other to George Udney, Esq. or 
order. But soon after this, I received yours of Au- 
gust 9, 16, 1796, agreeing to give him the amount of 
the seeds, &c. As he wishes to give some encourage- 
ment to the school, by rewards to the children, &c., I 
have agreed that he shall receive from me to the 
amount of £50 sterling, the sum which Maddock has 


agreed to receive : in which case the amount of the 
two bills drawn on the treasurer will be received by 
me, and I shall be responsible to the society for it ; it 
may therefore be accounted as a part of my intended 
allowance, or applied to any other purpose the society 
may think proper to direct. You some time ago 
mentioned a wish to contribute regularly to our assist- 
ance, but have sent no account to what amount, except 
for 1795. I having drawn on the society, it may 
raise some jealousy in Mr. Thomas's mind, if they do 
not make him an allowance, or otherwise^ say what he 
is to expect ; though I think I may venture to say 
that if you would determine to pay his allowance to 
his creditors in England, on his account, it might 
tend more to the advantage of him, and also to the 
honour of the mission, than any other method. 

* Thus much I have said respecting the regulation 
of whatever is sent in future ; my thoughts respect- 
ing the carrying on of the mission, I have formerly 
written to you; and I am more and more convinced, 
that more persons are absolutely necessary to the work 
of the mission being carried on with any degree of 
spirit. Whether the company will or will not molest 
us, must be left to His care who holds the seven stars 
in his right hand, and without whose permissiop a 
sparrow does not fall to the ground ; but that no 
human means may be wanting, having now entered 
into covenants with the company, I have it now in my 
power to engage in any line of business, either nomi- 
nal (that is, I can take a dozen acres of land, and 
cultivate a rood of sugar canes, and be called a sugar 


manufacturer, or any other business^ for it is absolutely 
necessary to be nominally in some employment, if not 
really) or actual, which last I think will be necessary 
to a certain degree for our support, after the example 
of the Moravians ; and in that case whoever comes 
may be denominated assistants to Mr. Thomas and 
myself on their first arrival. And as we are now per- 
mitted by the company to live in the country and 
trade therein, and mutual covenants for that purpose 
being signed, we may, with boldness, pursue any line 
of conduct that may be proper ; not to mention that I 
have reason to believe that we are respected by the 
magistrates, &c. of the district, who perfectly under* 
stand our errand : indeed the judge of Dinagepore* 
expressed very great approbation of the translating of 
the bible ; and has shown us several acts of kindness, 
which may be serviceable to the mission in future. 

' I think the aspect of the mission not quite so cloudy 
as it was some time ago. Mr. Fountain is a great 
assistance ; and I may say, for the purpose of quieting 
all your fears, that I think you need not be under any 
apprehension on account of his political fire : there is 
but little fuel for it here, and it is much suppressed. 
The persons I mentioned in my letters of January last 
still stand, but do not appear so lively as they did 
then. The heat, and also the coming on of the rains, 
which are just setting in, prevent much going out to 
preach at present ; but our congregation at home is 
larger. We have also, just now (about a month ago), 
set up a school again ; the former having been discon- 

* ' Do not, on any account* print any thing in which officers (ciril) are parties." 


tinued from Ram Boshoo's defection. We have now 
thirteen scholars, and others doubtless will soon come 
in. They write part of the scripture for their exer- 
cises, and learn common arithmetic. I mean to 
introduce some other branches of useful knowledge, 
of which the Hindus are yet ignorant. 

* A gentleman at Dinagepore, whose name is Fer- 
nandez, bom at Macao, in China, of Portuguese or 
Italian parents, I am not sure which, has heard us 
preach ; since which time he has shown great regard 
to us, and is now erecting a brick house at Dinage- 
pore for the preaching of the gospel, to either natives 
or English, entirely at his own expense. He writes 
that it will be finished in about a month, when he 
intends to have it opened with prayer and preaching. 
This is the more remarkable as he was intended to be 
a popish priest himself; but, he says, being shocked 
at the worship of images, he began to examine, and 
the more he examined the more he was inclined to 
protestant principles, and so gradually relinquished 
the church of Rome. I cannot say that there is suffi- 
cient proof of his being a converted man ; yet he is 
very attentive, and more tender in his mind than al- 
most any other with whom I am acquainted, and I 
hope that God may carry on his work in his heart; 
He often talks to the natives, and being of a commu- 
nicative disposition, he has much contributed to pre- 
possess the Hindus there with favourable sentiments 
of the gospel. 

* I am very much obliged to you for the American 
magazines. There are some things rather wide in 


them, but others very much please me, particularly 
those signed O. Pray do you know who O. is? The 
piece on * Slander,' in No. III., I think, goes to the 
subversion of church discipline, and seems extrava- 
gant. Simon and Peter, in No. L, will not bear the 
test of scripture. If a heathen can worship the sun 
with a holy mind, it will follow that he may worship 
an image with a mind as pure, and may as easily 
attribute all the perfections of Deity to one as to the 
other. But, query, whether it be not as difficult, or 
rather as impossible, to believe in reality that a 
created being possesses divine perfections, as it is to 
worship God in spirit and in truth, if our ideas of 
him are carnal and false. Yet, as the magazine opens 
a door for free discussion, I think it a good under- 
taking, and hope it will answer valuable ends. I 
wish you would send us a few more of your own Cir- 
cular Letters; we are now three persons in number, 
and we have many opportunities of putting such a 
publication into other people's hands ; and some peo- 
ple must have one, even if we go without ourselves : 
indeed, I am at this time without the letters for 1794, 
1795, and 1796. If the association is so very poor 
that it cannot afford us a dozen of letters, do charge 
the amount to me : I will repay it. 

* July 4. I have not been able to add any thing 
for several days past, but I now resume the pen. 

* It may not be disagreeable to you to have an ac- 
count of a conversation which I had a little time ago 
with a Brahmun, as it will show how uniform the 
carnal mind is in its opposition to God, and that the 


very arguments used in England to oppose the 
gospel are also used in Bengal. 

* I was pressing upon him the necessity of believing 
in Christ for salvation, when he asked how it was that 
the worship of idols had been followed from the 
beginning, and how it was that, according to the 
scripture itself, the worship of the Debtas* was pro- 
fessed through the whole world, except one small 
nation, from the beginning. And, says he, 'if the 
gospel be the way of life, how is it that we never 
heard of it before V I answered, * God formerly suf- 
fered all nations to walk in their own ways, but now 
CQmmandeth all men every where to repent.' * In- 
deed,' said he, ' I think God ought to repent for not 
sending the gospel sooner to us.' I then tried to con- 
vince him that God had never done injustice to men, 
and that it was his settled purpose finally to overcome 
all the power and craft of the devil. To this I added, 
suppose a kingdom had been long overrun by the 
enemies of its true king, and he, though possessed of 
sufficient power to conquer them, should yet suffer 
them to prevail, and establish themselves as much as 
they could desire, would not the valour and wisdom 
of that king be far more conspicuous in exterminating 
them, than it would have been if he had opposed them 
at first, and prevented their entering the country? 

« ( 

Idola, or sapposed powerful intelligences, inferior to God, and represented 
by images. They seem to answer exactly to the Greek word Aan/tiwn* ; and the 
character of these supposed intelligences is well described according to the 
Hindu notion in Parkhurst's Greek Lexicon, under the above word. The 
Hindus, however, divide them into two kinds, viz., Debta, or Soar ; and Do^tyo, 
or Asoor ; the first signifying the good or benign, the last, the bad or malignant 


Thus, by the diffusion of gospel light, the wisdom, 
power, and grace of Grod will be much more con- 
spicuous in overcoming such deep-rooted idolatries, 
and in destroying all that darkness and vice which 
have so universally prevailed in this country, than 
they would have been if all had not been suffered to 
walk in their own ways for so many ages past. 

'Jan. 1, '1798. The ships having been dispatched 
before I had finished this, and before I saw the news- 
papers, it has lain unfinished till now. I shall add 
a little more, and send it by the present ships. 

* Since the above date, a letter-foundry has been 
set up at Calcutta for the country languages; and I 
think it will be cheaper and better to furnish our- 
selves with letters, for printing the bible in this 
country, than to have them cast in Europe. I have 
also been talking with Mr. Udney about setting up a 
printing-press at Mudnabatty, which he highly ap- 
proves of, and I believe will contribute liberally 
towards it. Mr. Powel will be able to construct a 
press, and workmen may be obtained from Calcutta. 
I shall therefore immediately set about it; but ready 
money will be required : with Mr. Udney's assistance, 
however, I hope to get through that difficulty. It 
will, however, be absolutely necessary for you to ap- 
point a banking-house in London, on which we may 
be authorized to draw to a certain amount yearly, and 
also what may be necessary to set up this great work 
at first. I should recommend the house of Raiches 
and Co., that being the house with which Mr. 
Udney's business is carried on; and it will conse- 


quaitly be easier to get money for bills drawn on 
that than on any other house. 

* Mr. Udney strongly recommends the printing of 
the Persian Pentateuch and Gospels in the Polyglott ; 
and as multitudes of the highei* classes of people 
in India are well acquainted with that language, I 
think it may be of great advantage. Mr. Udney, 
who well understands the Persian, says the transla- 
tion is just, and is setting some Mussulmans to 
transcribe it for the press. By setting up a press we 
shall be able to publish many little things in Ben- 
gali, which we can circulate through the country, 
though all must be given away at the beginning. 

* For want of keeping copies of my letters, I have 
really forgotten what I wrote respecting our allow- 
ance, to which yours of December, 1796, was an 
answer. I have, therefore, now begun to keep copies 
of my letters, which will, in future, prevent such mis- 
takes. I shall, however, now inclose a copy of my 
account with the society. I also think that, excepting 
a few articles of apparel, such as a piece of light 
fine cloth for coats, a piece of velveteen, or such 
like, for waistcoats, &c., with trimmings, which 
might be sent yearly, it would be better to draw as 
above mentioned, for our allowance, than to send 
goods, which are often sold for less than prime cost. 
I should also like to have about £10 a year put into 
the hand of some friend in London, to be laid out ac- 
cording to my order, in a few trifling articles which 
I may want ; and I think Mr. Benjamin Powell, 
of St. John*8-street, would very properly and care- 


fully execute any such orders, and he would ship 
them with any other articles which he may have to 
send to his son at Moypal. I shall, in that case, give 
him orders. Whatever he has sent has arrived much 
quicker and better than the goods sent by the society. 
* Jan. 9. I have been going to and fro ever since 
the last date, when I was at Malda. Yesterday I re- 
turned from Dinagepore, distant from Malda sixty- 
four miles, where I preached to the Bengal natives, 
and also to the European inhabitants, who all at- 
tended except two persons. This also being the time 
of the assizes, the judge of the circuit attended the 
word. The congregation consisted of Mr. Rock, the 
judge of the circuit; Mr. Parr, judge of the district; 
Mr. Cunninghame, registrar of the court; our good 
friend, Mr. Fernandez; and Mr. Powel, who accom- 
panied me. Also, from Rungpore, Dr. Todd, Mr. 
Marsh, and Mr. Long; Mrs. R<x;k, Mrs. Todd, and 
Mrs. Bird, the collector's wife. The three judges, 
viz., Messrs. Rock, Parr, and Cunninghame, also 
attended the Bengali preaching. I afterwards dined 
with them at Mr. Parr's, where we had much talk 
about the gospel, and particularly about the mission. 
Either your Periodical Accounts, or Rippon's Re- 
gister, I am not sure which, are come to India; so 
that our errand is well known to all. Mr. Colbrook, 
nephew to Mr. Dundas, M. P., had them sent out to 
him, and has lent them abroad ; and Lady Elgin sent 
them to the Hon. Mr, Bruce, who lent them to Mr. 

*Thus you see I have discouragements. Mr. Long 


we have been obliged to exclude from our church for 
dishonesty. Mr. Thomas is gone far away ; and my do- 
mestic troubles are sometimes almost too heavy for me. 
I am distressed, yet supported, and I trust not totally 
dead in the things of God. I do a little, and I wish 
to do more ; but the whole weight lies on me. Bro- 
ther Fountain is diligent, has good preaching abilities, 
and is a great encouragement to me, though he can- 
not speak the language so as to be understood in 
preaching. Mr. Powel is a good man, and gives me 
great pleasure ; but he is not professedly a missionary, 
and it is doubtful to me whether he has abilities to 
speak in public : he .is, however, very useful in other 
respects, and is now going to undertake the making 
of our printing-press. The prospect among the 
natives is more encouraging. Our school prospers, 
and I trust there is some revival among the religious 
Europeans in this neighbourhood. I have written to 
Mr. Schwartz, at Tanjore, but have no answer yet : 
he is further from us than Rome is from you. 

* I intended giving you some account of the natural 
productions of this country ; but at present must con- 
clude with only mentioning a few, and those of the 
vegetable kind, for I have not had sufficient leisure to 
examine animals properly. I am, however, preparing 
accounts of them, which I hope to send to you. 

^The fruits of India, though so much famed in 
Europe, will be found fer short of those in Europe, 
both in quality and flavour, except a very few.' 

*W. Carey.' 


To Mr. Sutcliff. 

^ Mvdnabatty, Jan. 16, 1798. 
*My dear brother, 

*I have yours of February 7, 1797, which is the 
only one of your favours which remains unanswered. 
I now sit down to answer it, and must say that, though 
shorty yet it contains multum in parvo, and has been a 
cordial to my heart. 

*You are among the number of my dear friends, 
whose names I often mention in my poor prayers to 
God, and, give me leave to say, one to whom my heart 
is truly attached in the gospel, f. rejoice to hear of 
your health, of your marriage, of your people, and of 
your happiness with them. They are a people whom 
I love, so far as I know them. The account of deaths, 
revivals, and other changes in your parts, is to me 
peculiarly interesting; and I trust, upon the whole, 
there appears a degree of melioration in mundane 
affairs so far as they relate to the church of Christ. 

*I am fully convinced of what you say respecting 
the propriety of keeping two journals ; but owing to 
my numerous avocations, which engross all my time, 
I have long since dropped the practice of keeping any 
journal at all. I might plead my great disinclination 
to writing as an excuse, but I am ashamed to do it ; 
though that undoubtedly has its bad effect. Yet if 
you consider my situation, you will say that I have 
my hands full of labour ; and yet I am scarcely per- 
ceived among the millions of Bengal. The translat- 
ing the scripture, and correcting former translations, 


constantly occupies all my candle-light, and often all 
my afternoons. This you will easily believe when 
you consider the difficulty of translating into a foreign 
language, and the labour of collating my translation 
with all the versions I have ; as also the writing the 
whole with my own hand in the Bengal character, 
which is considerable labour, notwithstanding I write 
it nearly as quick as I do English. I have had no 
assistance from Mr. Thomas in this work, except his 
old copies of Matthew and Mark, James, and part of 
Luke ; all which were so very imperfect and incor- 
rect, that, setting aside the labour of writing, it would 
have been as easy to have translated the whole myself. 
At this time the Pentateuch, the New Testament, 
and eighty-five of the Psalms are done, and I hope in 
the course of this year to finish all, except the histori- 
cal books from Joshua to Job. Besides this^ I am 
learning the Sunscrit language, which, with only 
the helps to be procured here, is perhaps the hardest 
language in the world. To accomplish this, I have 
nearly translated the Sunscrit grammar and diction- 
ary into English, and have made considerable pro- 
gress in compiling a dictionary, Sunscrit, including 
Bengali and English. 

^ I also maintain the worship of God, and expound 
in Bengali every morning ; when about twenty peo- 
ple attend, and we sing Bengali hymns, which I have 
composed, I suppose in the style of Sternhold and 
Hopkins ; but I did what I was able to do, and hope 
it may be attended with a blessing. When at home 
I constantly preach to them twice on the Sabbath. 1 



now preach at Dinagepore once a month, the particu- 
lars of which brother Fuller will infonn you of. 

*I have written to Mr. Schwartz, but have not his 
answer yet. You know that those good men are sup- 
ported by the English society for promoting reli- 
gious knowledge, and that their accounts are printed. 
I rejoice much at the missionary spirit which is lately 
gone forth. Surely it is the prelude to the universal 
spread of the gospel ! I also see in the Calcutta 
papers that the pope was dying, the cardinals fled, 
and priests marrying, last June. I hope it was true ; 
and also that the old gentleman is dead and buried, 
and that no more of his seed or sort may any more 
exist in the earth. Your account of the German Mo- 
ravian brethren's afiectionate regard towards me is 
very pleasing. I am not much moved with what 
men in general say of me ; yet I cannot be insensible 
to the regards of men eminent for godliness. 

* What you hint respecting the natural history or 
other particulars of Bengal, I have adopted some time 
ago, and have separate books for every distinct class, 
as birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, &c. I intend, how- 
ever, to trouble you a little from time to time with 
some account of their mythology and religion : and 
as the worship of the sun was performed in my sight 
last Lord's day, I shall begin with that ; especially 
as I have not seen it noted by any writer on India. 1 
preached on the spot to them, just in front of a long 
row of ofierings in the evening. 

* The sun, called Soorjyo, or Deebahar, is supposed 
to be the governor of all bodily diseases, and is there- 


fore worshipped, to avert his anger, and to prevent 
diseases. Some valetudinarians worship him every 
Sunday, by fasting and offerings ; but he is annually 
worshipped the first Sunday in the month of May, 
which was last Lord*s day, Jan. 14. The name of 
this worship is Dhomma Bhau, or Soorjya Bhau. In 
these parts (for the manner, I am informed, is different 
in some circumstances, in different places) women 
appear to be the principal actors in the worship, 
though none are excluded, and even Mussulmans 
have so far Hinduized as to join in the idolatry. It 
was thus conducted. At the dawn of the morning a 
great number of offerings were carried into the open 
field, and placed in a row. The offerings which I 
saw consisted of fruits, sweetmeats, pigeons, and kids ; 
and I suppose other things, as deer, buffaloes, &c., 
might be offered. By each person's offering is placed 
a small pitcher-like pot, containing about a pint and a 
half of water. A device, made of a water-plant, a 
species of phylanthus, made to represent the sun, is 
placed on the edge of the pot, as people in England 
place flowers. The pot, with all its appendages, 
represents the sun, perhaps as the vivifier of nature. 

By each offering also is placed a what shall I 

call it ? — an incense altar, or censer. It resembles a 
chafing dish, is made of copper, and stands on a 
pedestal about a foot long. It is called a dhomachee. 
It contains coals of fire, and has a kind of incense 
from time to time thrown into it, principally the 
pitch of the saul tree, called here dhoona. By each 
offering also stands a lamp^ which is kept burning all 


day ; and the women who offer take their station by 
their offerings. At sun-rise, they walk four times 
round the whole row of offerings, with the smoking 
dhoonachee placed on their heads, and then resume 
their stations again, where they continue in an erect 
posture, fasting the whole day, occasionally throwing 
a little dhoona into the doonachee. Towards evening, 
the Brahmun who attends the ceremony throws the 
pigeons up into the air, which, being young, cannot 
fly far^ and are scrambled for and carried away by 
any one who gets them, for the purpose of eating. 
The Brahmun also perforates the ears of the kids with 
a pack-needle ; after which, the first who touches them 
gets them. About sun-set, the offerers again take up 
the smoking dhoonachees, and make three more cir- 
cuits round the row of offerings, making the whole 
number seven times in the day. I have not learned 
the reason of this number. After this, each one takes 
his or her offering home, and eats it, the worship 
being ended. Then the lamps are extinguished. I 
had some of these things presented to me ; but in 
order to bear a testimony against the idolatry, I not 
only refiised them, but others also brought on purpose 
for me by one present, telling them that it was a very 
wicked thing to eat things sacrificed to idols, which 
are God's enemies. I preached to them from Rev. i. 
16 : * His countenance was as the sun shining in his 
strength,' and told them of the glories of the Lord of 
the sun, as Creator, Governor, and Saviour. I had a 
rich Fakir Mussulman come in the morning to hear 
me ; he came from a distance. I had much talk with 


him afterwards, in the hearing of the people, who 
were so credulous as to believe that he had actually, 
that morning, turned a pot of water into milk. I 
asked him to dine with me (this no native would do 
on any account), and observed to the people, that 
if he could change water into milk, he could change 
pork into mutton : pork being never eaten by Mus- 

* Thus I have given you a short account of this 
remarkable worship. They have a book of directions 
for the performance of it, which I am trying to get. 
If I succeed, I may in a future letter send you a trans- 
lation of its contents. 

^You inquire after the officer I mentioned: his 
name is Frole. Mr. Udney, who has since dined 
with him, thinks him enthusiastically insane. He is 
gone to England. The missionary's son I never saw: 
he scon left Malda. I have seen his daughter, who is 
the vife of Dr. Roxburg, the superintendent of the 
comj^ny's botanic garden, and my intimate friend. I 
leant no particulars from her. 

* We have a prospect of soon setting up a printing- 
presj at Mudnabatty. A letter-foundry is set up at 
Calcutta for country characters. Mr. Powel is 
mating a press. Mr. Udney will advance ready 
moiey on the credit of bills on the society, and I 
beleve will contribute generously. Our friend Fer- 
naidez sets his hand to the work. I wish the society 
w<iuld present us with a fount of English letter, and 
seme Greek and Hebrew. Arabic we shall get here. 
I hope soon to get the bible published. 


* My christian love to the Rev. Mr. Home, and to 
all your friends, and to all the ministers or others 
who care for us. Brother Fountain is well, and joins 
in love. We are all well. I have four sons. Brother 
Thomas went to Calcutta some time ago ; then con- 
cluded to practise surgery there ; to-day writes me 
that he is coming back.' 

* Indeed I am, 

* Very affectionately yours, 
* W. Carey.' 

To THE Baptist Society. 

* Hoogly River J near Flossy, Jan. 10, 1799. 
* Dear and honoured brethren, 

* I am now on a journey to Calcutta ; and whan I 
tell you that the continual motion of the boat I am in, 
occasioned by the oars, shakes me all the time I vrite, 
you will excuse the shortness of my letter, f et I 
must embrace this opportunity of writing, because 
the ships are imder dispatch, and I shall scarcely 
arrive time enough to send this by them. 

* I am sensible of the honour you have done n.e by 
appointing me your treasurer in India ; and accord- 
ingly I send enclosed the accounts of the societr in 
this country, brought up to the first instant, by 
which you will understand the whole of our temporal 

1. The success we meet with in preaching the gos- 
pel. This, we must confess and lament, is very 'ar 
short of what we wish, and I fear very short of wlat 


you expect. Yet our state is not desperate. The 
object of our mission is better known than it was, both 
to the natives and to Europeans ; and though I can- 
not positively speak of conversions, yet we have a few 
concerning whom appearances are so hopeful, and so 
long continued, that should they fail, the disappoint- 
ment would be very great indeed. We preach to 
the natives once every day, when we are at home, 
and twice on Lord's days ; also once a month at 
Dinagepore, and once a month at Malda ; besides 
our preaching to Europeans. Brother Thomas is now 
at Nuddea, and has written me word that he has great 
hopes concerning several persons there, and expects to 
baptize one Brahmun, Raji Krishnu, if not more, on 
the 29th instant, when I hope also to be with him. 

* Our sphere of action among Europeans is also very 
considerably enlarged the past year ; for we preach to 
a congregation of Europeans at Malda, and to another 
at Dinagepore, each once a month, and I trust not 
without success : but time must determine whether 
our hopes are well founded or not, though I can 
scarcely doubt. Brother Fountain frequently preaches 
in English and in Bengali, at home, where the people, 
being accustomed to him, can understand him much 
better than they can at other places. He is a 
good map, and greatly desires the salvation of the 

* 2. Translating and publishing the scriptures. 
This is an object which has been always very near 
my heart. I have now finished the Pentateuch, 
Psalms, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, 


part of Daniel, and the New Testament, except 
Matthew, Mark, and James, which were formerly 
translated by brother Thomas ; and brother Fountain 
is translating from Joshua onwards. He has got 
through Judges and Ruth, except the correcting, 
which is reserved for me to do. 

*We thought of publishing the New Testament 
alone, and have received advice from brother Fuller, 
that the society had agreed to print ten thousand 
copies, and afterwards that they had agreed to print 
two thousand, and are sending paper for that purpose. 
I wish paper had been sent for the ten thousand, 
because I hope to be able to print an impression of 
one or two thousand copies of the whole scriptures by 
the beginning of next year, and am, for that purpose, 
setting up a press at Mudnabatty. I some time ago 
saw a printing-press advertised for sale in one of the 
Calcutta papers. This I considered as an opportunity 
not to be neglected, and accordingly made a purchase 
of it for four hundred rupees, and it is set up at my 
house. A friend has since made a present of it to the 
society, as you will see by the inclosed accounts. I 
am now going to Calcutta, to bespeak types, and to 
engage workmen ; and the same friend has generously 
engaged to advance money for this purpose, on the 
credit of the society, and which, at the lowest compu- 
tation, will amount to £2000 sterling, to strike off one 
thousand copies, and pay for press, types, paper, and 
workmanship. I am not without hopes of getting a 
good subscription towards it; but I fear to set it on 
foot till the printing-house is complete, lest some un- 


foreseen accident should put it out of my power to 
accomplish it. The society must be ready to pay bills 
to the amount of at least £2000 sterling, whenever I 
shall find occasion to draw upon them^ though the 
whole will not be drawn at one time. 

* 3. The school. This now consists of nearly forty 
scholars, and has till now been wholly supported by 
brother Fountain and myself. The school would have 
been much larger, had we been able to have borne the 
expense ; but, as among the scholars there are several 
orphans whom we wholly maintain, we could not pru- 
dently venture on any further expense. A subscrip- 
tion, however, which was made at Malda on the first 
instant, after I had preached a sermon on the occasion, 
will enable us to support it on an enlarged scale 
during the present year; and if the society would 
allow a sum yearly for the same purpose, I think the 
money would not be expended in vain. The boys 
have hitherto learned to read and write, especially 
parts of the scriptures, and to keep accounts. We 
may now be able to introduce some other useful 
branches of knowledge among them. Our friend 
Fernandez, who, with a Mr. Xavier, accompanies me 
to Calcutta in the same budgerow or boat, intends to 
set up a school on our plan at his own expense, at 
Dinagepore. I trust these schools may tend to pro- 
mote curiosity and inquisitiveness among the rising 
generation ; qualities which are seldom found in the 
natives of Bengal. I now mention our wants. 

1. We want more missionaries ; men of mild tem- 
pers, good sense, genuine love to our Lord, and zeal 


for his glory. Brother Pearce wrote to me, wishing 
me to advise how they should be sent out. There are 
no difficulties here, except at their first landing, and 
1 know of no serious ones then. But I advise that 
they come out cabin passengers, in a foreign ship; 
and immediately on their landing at Calcutta, to pro- 
cure a boat, and a servant who understands English, 
and, having purchased a few necessary articles for the 
journey, such as bread, wine, biscuits, beds, mosquito 
curtains, &c., to proceed immediately to Mudnabatty, 
without saying any thing to any person about why 
they came into the country. They will get all neces- 
saries in one day, and must be very careful not to put 
any confidence in their servant, who will infallibly 
cheat them. They should send a letter up to me the 
moment they land (by post), and I would take care for 
them. Every difficulty with government will be got 
through afterwards, if they behave peaceably and 
well. Missionaries ought to follow some secular 
employ, both for their own support, and also for the 
following reason : The governor-general in council 
annually issues an order to the magistrate of every 
district to make a return of all Europeans in his dis- 
trict, not in the service of the king or the company, 
specifying their names, time of arrival, ship in which 
they came, employment, &c. Was any one on this 
occasion to avow himself to be a missionary, govern- 
ment must come to a point whether they would permit 
persons to remain in the country who were avowed 
missionaries. But we have no need to conceal our 
real work at any other time, or on any other occasion; 


and were I to be in company with Lord Momington, 
I should not hesitate to tell him that I am a mission- 
ary ; though I should not profess myself so to be to 
the governor-general in council, unless I was driven 
to it to preserve an unblemished conscience. 

* 2. I submit it to the consideration of the society, 
whether we should not be furnished with medicines 
gratis. No medicines will be sold by us, yet the cost 
of them enters very deeply into our allowance. The 
whole supply sent in the Earl Howe, amounting to 
£35, besides charges amounting to thirty per cent,, 
falls on me ; but the whole will either be adminis- 
tered to sick poor, or given to any neighbour who is 
in want, or used in our own families. Neighbouring 
gentlemen have often supplied us. Indeed, consi- 
dering the distance we are from medical assistance, 
the great expensiveness of it, far beyond our ability, 
and the number of wretched, afflicted objects whom 
we continually see, and who continually apply for 
help, we ought never to sell a pennyworth. Brother 
Thomas has been the instrument of saving numbers 
of lives. His house is constantly surrounded with 
the afflicted; and the cures wrought by him would 
have gained any physician or surgeon in Europe the 
most extensive reputation. We ought to be furnished 
yearly with at least half a hundred weight of Jesuit's 
bark. Other medicines we have plenty of for some 
time to come. 

' But I finish, by expressing our hope that the society 
will not be discouraged by our want of success. 
Consider, brethren, that that depends on the divine 


blessing. My — I may say our, for were brethren 
Fountain and Thomas with me, they would join me 
in — love to you all, to all our beloved brethren in the 
ministry, and to all the churches ; also to our Scotch 
brethren who have shown themselves so ready to 
assist you ; and believe me to be your affectionate 
brother in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, 

' W. Carey.' 

To THE Baptist Society. 

'Mudnabatty, April 1, 1799. 
'Dear brethren, 

* By the last newspaper, I see that there are two 

ships under dispatch for Europe. I therefore stop 
translating a day, to get time to write a letter or two. 

* I wrote to you, date Jan. 10, current, on my jour- 
ney to Calcutta, and now inform you, that I fully suc- 
ceeded in accomplishing the end of my journey thither, 
which was to get types cast for printing the bible. 
The types are now casting. A gentleman in this 
neighbourhood has already advanced two thousand 
four hundred rupees, for the expense ; and I have 
drawn a set of bills in triplicate, dated March 19th, 
current, on Mr. Thomas King, of Birmingham, for 
the amount, in favour of George Udney, Esq., at two 
shillings and sixpence per rupee, viz. £300 sterling, 
which I hope will be duly honoured. I shall have 
occasion to draw for £200 more to finish the fiimiture 
of the printing-house, besides what I shall want for 
workmen, paper, &c. ; which, I suppose, will make the 


whole expense about £2000, or sixteen thousand 
rupees. The whole Bible and New Testament will be 
printed in four volumes, octavo ; and if I can perform 
it for the sum I have mentioned, it will be the cheap- 
est work that was ever published in India by one half. 
I propose to print one thousand copies, for it will not 
be in our power to buy more paper, unless the society 
should anticipate our wants. Of this, however, if five 
hundred copies can be disposed of at thirty-two rupees 
each, it will pay the whole expense ; and we shall 
have five hundred copies to give away. I think this 
may probably be done. 

* You, my dear friends, must expect nothing but 
what relates to the immediate business of the mission, 
in so short a letter as I must be forced to write at this 
time. The translation is going on. There remains to 
be done now from 1 Samuel to Job, which brother 
Fountain is hard at work on, only I shall correct the 
copy, and Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, The Song of 
Songs^ Zechariah, and Malachi, which I shall trans- 
late. We now have the end of this part of our labour 
in view, and feel much animated thereby, and induced 
to labour with more diligence. Our friends in En- 
gland, however, must be contented to receive fewer 
letters till this important work is finished. 

^ Our school is considerably increased, and there is 
a pleasing improvement among the children. We 
are enabled this year to carry it on upon a rather 
enlarged scale, by a voluntary contribution thereto, 
made amongst a circle of our friends in this neigh- 


* Of our labours in preaching I wish to say nothings 
till I can say, without a doubt, that we have wrought 
some deliverance in the earth. We preach at Malda 
and Dinagepore regularly once a month, and at home 
as we have been accustomed to do. Appearances are 
much as when I wrote to you before. 

* Brother Thomas is somewhere in the neighbour- 
hood of Calcutta with his family. Brother Fountain 
is with me, and is indefatigable in his attention 
to improvement: he improves much in the language. 

* A Mr. Forsyth is lately arrived in this country, I 
suppose from the London Missionary Society; but it 
is uncertain, as he has brought no letter to any 
one that I know of. I was several times in his 
company, and think him a valuable man. He is 
at Calcutta. 

*A Calcutta paper also mentions that all the 
missionaries are come from Otaheite, and the neigh- 
bouring islands to New Holland. This is a singular 
providence, but the ways of God are inscrutable. 

* You, as a body, are not forgotten by us in our 
addresses at the throne of grace. We also have con- 
fidence that we are not forgotten by you. Brethren, 
pray for us. 

* Thus I have written a mere letter of news. I hope 
the society will not be discouraged by the little posi- 
tive success that has hitherto attended our labours ; but 
rather consider it as a call to persevere, to double 
exertions, and to send out more missionaries. God 
may refuse to succeed our attempts, and yet may 
greatly bless those of others. At any rate, Hindusthan 


must be among the all nations that shall call Him 

* I am, dear brethren, 

* Most affectionately yours, 
*W. Carey.' 

To Mr. Fuller. 

' Mudnabatty, Jtdy 17, 1799. 
^ My very dear brother, 

* I have received yours of April 27 and August 
22, 1798, also one from the society, dated Sept. 20, 
and a letter from Mr. Ward, written at a meeting of 
ministers, at Kettering, date Oct. 22. All these letters 
have given us much pleasure, particularly the two last 
mentioned, which acquaint us with the probability of 
our being soon joined by other missionaries. I do not 
know of any ships being likely to sail soon, but begin 
to write, that I may be ready when a dispatch takes 

'The success of the gospel, and, among other things, 
the hitherto unextinguishable missionary flame in 
England and all the western world, give us no little 
encouragement, and animate our hearts. I wish we 
could warm yours with good tidings in return. 

* Yours of Aug. 22 demands a reply to several 
things which I shall first attend to, and afterwards 
conclude with what respects ourselves. 

' I am very sorry that you were so much hurt by 
brother F.'s letter ; and once for all I think I may 
assure you that you have nothing to fear from him. 


He is not without sentiments upon the head you men- 
tion, and sometimes defends them perhaps further than 
might be wished, though I have not seen him forward 
in obtruding conversation on that subject. It is true 
he now and then throws out an idea rather jocose to 
an intimate friend, on particular occasions, without 
intention of giving the least offence. I think your 
fears arose from the best of principles, but also think 
they were carried to excess on this occasion, and also 
that your observations thereon were too strong. The 
miscarriage of the African mission is a sufficient apo- 
logy for the greatest jealousy, yet I wish you to be 
tender. You were near killing him. Be assured, 
however, that he is a good man, and fear not to place 
a proper confidence in him. 

^ The visit which you propose for us to make to the 
governor-general. Lord Momington, though proposed 
in the utmost simplicity of your heart, yet excited a 
little risibility in us. I wish I could make you 
understand a little about legal settlements, &c. ; but 
you must first drop your English ideas, and get Indian 
ones. No such thing as a legal settlement, in the En- 
glish sense, can ever be made here ; because a general 
law has passed, prohibiting Europeans from settling in 
this country. This general law cannot be reversed, un- 
less by the English p ^t. All Europeans, therefore, 

only reside here by connivance, and some are per- 
mitted to stay in the country for a term of years, the 
company having covenanted to protect such persons 
while they observe the laws. Once a year the ma- 
gistrate of every district has orders to make a return 


to government of all persons (Europeans) in his dis- 
trict, with their employment, and whether they have 
executed covenants or not. 

^ Were a person on this occasion to return his name 
as a missionary, it would be putting government to 
the proof, and obliging them to come to a point on 
the subject whether missionaries should be allowed to 
settle in the country, as such, or not ; and there can- 
not be much doubt but it would be negatived. But 
when a person returns his name as a manufacturer, 
no suspicion can arise, if his conduct be good in other 
respects ; and it would be more proper for new persons 
to appear as assistants to those in covenant with go- 
vernment than otherwise. 

* I would not, however, have you suppose that we 
are obliged to conceal ourselves, or our work : no such 
thing. We preach before m^strates and judges; 
and were I to be in the company of Lord Momington, 
I should not hesitate to declare myself a missionary 
to the heathen, though I would not on any account 
return myself as such to the governor-general in 

* You should also know that Europeans are not per- 
mitted to purchase or occupy more than fifty biggahs 
of land, or about twenty acres ; so that all business is 
carried on by purchasing the produce of the soil of 
the natives; and whoever engages in any business 
must acquaint the board of trade therewith ; so that 
such a settlement as you propose for us to make is 
impossible. I am, however, doing what will approxi- 

z 2 


mate as near to it as circumstances admit, if the society 
approve of the plan. 

* A little time ago I took a small indigo work near 
this place, on my own account. I took it of Mr. Ud- 
ney, at the rate it stood at in his books, viz., with a 
debt of three thousand rupees lying on it. It was an 
appendage to Mudnabatty, but too distant to be of 
any use, unless detached. My reasons were these : I 
have long thought that Mudnabatty must be evacu- 
ated, and have been expecting it every year ; in that 
case it would be an asylum for my family. If I 
should (contrary to all expectation) remain here, it 
would be a situation for my sons, in the neighbour- 
hood, who are now large lads, and must be brought 
up to business. Or, if more missionaries should 
arrive, it might be converted into a missionary set- 

* Since this, I learn by yours of Sept. 20, 1798, 
that more missionaries are coming out, and am there- 
fore ready to give up the place for a settlement ; and 
have done so, provisionally, till I hear from the society 
on that head. 

* Sept. 28. Since writing the above, the indigo 
works at Mudnabatty are actually given up ; and my 
allowance from that place ceases on the 31st of Decem* 
ber. The indigo was almost totally destroyed by an 
inundation, which came on just after sowing the seed. 
I think Mr. U. is perfectly right in the step he has 
taken : the place was absolutely unfit for the purpose 
which it was designed for. His loss is great : I am 


truly sorry for him. Our difficulties also will not be 
small ; but I am not discouraged. If we are all of 
one heart, and God grant his blessing, all will be 

* We are now necessitated to settle at Kidderpore 
(the name of the place I have taken), where I am 
erecting houses and other buildings, in expectation 
that our brethren. Ward and Brunsden, are not far 
off. You are informed that a debt of five thousand 
rupees to Mr. U. lies on the place ; to pay which, he 
is to receive the indigo made at the works till the 
whole is paid off. I have also nearly expended the 
little money I had saved upon the concern, and must 
expend the whole. Brother Fountain and myself 
have consulted on our situation, and think it neces- 
sary that we should draw on the society for £200 
sterling, to erect dwelling-houses for four families, 
and other conveniences; and that the allowance which 
the society make the missionaries be appropriated to 
forming a common table (a small reserve excepted), 
the debt on the works, and necessary outlay, to be 
repaid by the concern. We must endure much, 
struggle hard, and perhaps be obliged to draw an 
additional £100 from the society, till this end is 
accomplished: but I see no other way to preserve 
the existence of the mission. 

'Kidderpore is only twelve miles from Mudna- 
batty. Look in RunneU's chart. No. 9, for Tanquam 
river, on which you will see a place called Pattergotta 
(it ought to have been Pathurghatta, from pathur, a 
stone, and ghatta, a way, or wharf, it being the ruins 


of a very ancient stone bridge). Just on the top of 
the last t in gotta is the situation of Kidderpore. 
Your letters may be directed to us, as they always 
have been, at Malda, or at Dinagepore : we shall be 
sure to get them. 

* Before this time I think you must be tired with 
reading such a letter as this, about nothing but things 
temporal. I much wish I could say any thing calcu- 
lated to gratify the friends of vital godliness; but 
respecting myself I have nothing interesting to say ; 
and if I had, it appears foreign to the design of a mis- 
sion for the missionaries to be always speaking of 
their own experiences. I keep several journals, it is 
true, relating to things private and public, respecting 
the mission, articles of curiosity and science; but they 
are sometimes continued and sometimes discontinued: 
besides, most things contained in them are of too ge- 
neral or trivial a nature to send to England, and I 
imagine could have no effect, except to mock the 
expectations of our numerous friends, who are waiting 
to hear of the conversion of the heathen and overthrow 
of Satan's kingdom. 

* I therefore only observe, respecting myself, that I 
have much proof of the vileness of my heart, much 
more than I thought of till lately : and, indeed, I often 
fear that instead of being instrumental in the conver- 
sion of the heathen, I may some time dishonour the 
cause in which I am engaged. I have hitherto had 
much experience of the daily supports of a gracious 
God ; but I am conscious that if those supports were 
intermitted but for a little time, my sinful dispositions 


would infallibly predominate. At present I am kept, 
but am not one of those who are strong, and do 

^ I have often thought that a spirit of observation is 
necessary in order to our doing or communicating 
much good ; and were it not for a very phlegmatic 
habit, I think my soul would be richer. I however 
appear to myself to have lost much of my capacity for 
making observations, improvements, fee., or of re- 
taining what I attend to closely. For instance, I have 
been near three years learning the Sunscrit language, 
yet know very little of it. This is only a specimen of 
what I feel myself to be in every respect. I try to 
observe, to imprint what I see and hear on my me- 
mory, and to feel my heart properly affected with the 
circumstances ; yet my soul is impoverished, and I 
have something of a lethargic disease cleaving to my 
body. I feel no pain, or decay of strength, but an 
abundant inclination to sleep, attended with a great 
sense of weariness, even when I have not walked a 
mile. I know that this country requires more sleep 
than a colder one ; and a sleep in the afternoon, espe- 
cially in the hot season, relieves me more than any 
thing. Indeed, without it I could not do anything. 
My inertness of mind may be in some measure owing 
thereto, though many other causes contribute to it. 
Perhaps my sinful propensity to ease and negligence, 
added to sameness of society and employment, and 
the few opportunities I have of varied religious dis- 
course, may act powerfully to the injury of my soul. 

* At no time have the affairs of the mission appeared 


more gloomy, in point of success, than at the present. 
Yardee has not only left Christ, but seems to have 
forgot the very things about which he so pleasingly 
conversed. Sookman sometimes talks about religion ; 
but after so many disappointments, I almost fear to 
hope. Hurry Charon appears in a more promising 
situation than any other. It is, however, with diffi- 
culty that we can converse with him, because his 
pronunciation is very mumbling and indistinct. He 
is a very poor man, involved in worldly difficulties, 
which depress him much, and yet he walks consis- 
tently. No one has appeared to be awakened this 
year, or even to have been stirred in the least degree. 

^The school is promising, and God has provided 
means to carry it on another year. Mr. Parr, of Di- 
nagepore, a gentleman I have often mentioned, sent 
me a note a little time ago, informing me that it was 
the wish of the gentlemen there to contribute to the 
support of our school, and desiring me to preach a 
sermon and make a collection for that purpose, the 
next time I went to that place. This I did on the 15th 
instant. I preached from Luke vi. 36: * Be merciful, 
as your Father is merciftiL' The collection amounted 
to two hundred and thirty-four rupees, or about thirty 
pounds. Blessed be God, another school is also set up 
in that town in imitation of ours, which I hope may 
be useftil. 

^The translation is nearly finished. I am now 
about the twelfth chapter of 1 Chronicles, which is 
the last book I expect to translate. Brother Fountain 
has got 2 Kings and 2 Chronicles to go through. 


when the whole will be completed. Brother Foun- 
tain's part of the translation is Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 
1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, and 2 Chronicles ; 
brother Thomas's, Matthew, Mark (ii. — ^x.), Luke, and 
James. All the rest is mine, as also the correction 
of the whole. 

^This work has been long in hand, yet has engrossed 
very much of our time : when it is finished, we shall 
be more at leisure for itinerant labours. I had a letter, 
a month ago or more, informing me that the types 
and furniture for printing would be finished in about 
eight days ; so that I conclude they are coming up 
by this time ; but at any rate, brother Fountain, who 
is going to Calcutta, to meet our brethre;n. Ward and 
Brunsdon, and a female companion for himself, will 
bring them up. 

^ Though we have had no success among the hea- 
then orMahommedans this year, yet we have reason to 
rejoice in the conversion of Mr. Cunninghame, regis- 
trar of the court, and assistant to the judge at Dinage- 
pore. I look upon this as the greatest event that has 
occurred since our coming to this country. He has a 
soul &r above the common size. His coolness and 
consistency are very great, and his understanding 
commands respect from all. 

^ Oct. 16. On looking back, I see that it is now 
twelve months since I wrote to you before. I am 
ashamed, and can make no better excuse than that I 
frequently intended it, and indeed began this long ago, 
as you will see. I have, however, had more engage- 
ments, and tdT less leisure, this year, than ever I 


had before. And now, the affairs of the mission press 
harder than ever, as we are just removing and erecting 
new houses for ourselves to live in. The whole of the 
management of these temporal concerns has hitherto 
fallen on me. I have to find money, and to lay it out, 
which require much attention and care. 

* If our brethren arrive as expected, we must erect 
four dwelling-houses, a house for worship and social 
concerns, and another for printing. We have laid the 
expense of these buildings at two hundred pounds 
sterling, for which we must draw on the society ; also 
for the expenses of a pundit and a writer, whom I have 
hitherto kept at my own expense, amounting to about 
eighteen rupees, or forty-five shillings, per month. I 
have expended my own money on Kidderpore, and my 
salary from Mr. U. is ceasing, which obliges us to this 
step. The two servants mentioned are absolutely 
necessary to the translation, therefore they cannot be 
discharged. Brother F. and myself have consulted 
about our situation, and have concluded that it is 
absolutely necessary to draw for the expense of erect- 
ing our habitations, and desirable that the settlement 
should clear its own debt by its produce. If the 
mission can but be established, I am content. 

* I would communicate something on the natural 
history of the country, in addition to what I have 
before written ; but no part of that pleasing study is 
so ^miliar to me as the vegetable world. This, how- 
ever, may not much entertain others ; I shall therefore 
say something of the quadrupeds.' 


* Oct. 27. The brethren and sisters all arrived safe, 
on the 12th instant. We received a letter from them 
only to-day, it having lain twelve days on the road. 
They are well ; but I can add no more about them till 
I know more. Brother Fountain sets off to-morrow 
morning to meet them. I hope very soon to write 
again, but send this by him. My second son is now 
dangerously ill with a fever: it appears uncertain 
whether he will recover. 

* My christian love to all the churches and minis- 
ters, and such in your church whom I have often 
expressed by name. 

4 am, 

* Very affectionately yours, 
*W. Carby.^ 




Several incidents at this time produce a perfectly 
new epoch in Mr. Carey's missionary life. The dis- 
trict in which he resided had, indeed, nothing to 
recommend it as the permanent seat of an important 
mission* It was no place of public resort ; and had 
no celebrity attached to it, either religious, literary, or 
commercial. Nothing could have been more deci- 
sively providential than were the circumstances which 
led Mr. C. thither. His residence there had also an- 
swered some important ends. His object had become 
known, and his character appreciated, throughout a 
respectable circle of European observers, whose esteem 
he had conciliated, whose liberality in the cause of the 
gospel now began to evince itself, and whose respect 


and fervent attachment he continued to enjoy, unim- 
paired, to the close of life. Here, too, he had, by the 
most sedulous industry, prepared himself for future 
ahd far more eminent service. Here the mission to 
India was well cradled ; but to mature its strength 
and to put forth its energies, it must be translated to 
another and more favourable region. 

The indigo works which Mr. Udney erected at 
Moypaldiggy and Mudnabatty, the superintendence 
of which had furnished support to Mr. Carey and his 
colleague in the time of their extremity, had entirely 
failed ; and the successive and severe losses which 
their benevolent friend had experienced determined 
him to break them up. Mr; Carey had commenced 
in the same line for himself at Kidderpoor, about ten 
miles distant, at considerable outlay, and without any 
advantage to his circumstances, but rather to their 
detriment. His way was hedged in, and his temporal 
resources, there is reason to fear, were fast drying up. 

At this time, in the close of 1799, four new mis- 
sionaries arrived from England. The harsh and 
jealous policy of the honourable company forbad their 
settling in the British dominions. About fourteen 
miles up the country, on the western bank of the 
Hoogly, was a small Danish settlement. Thither 
they fled, to seek the patronage which their own 
countrymen sternly withheld. The governor of this 
station had enjoyed the instructions of the celebrated 
missionary Schwartz. He gladly received them, and 
never withdrew from them the shield of his protection 
in any one of the many trying vicissitudes which sub- 


sequently befell them. The conduct of the British 
authorities in India, upon the subject of religion, was 
strangely anomalous and absurd ; arising partly from 
ignorance of the true genius of Christianity, and the 
legitimate means of diffusing it ; and partly from a 
profane indifference to the spiritual welfare of the 
millions they governed, and a repugnance and hos* 
tility to whatever might seem only to interfere with 
their own secular ambition and cupidity. It is matter 
as undeniable as justly to be deplored, that no class of 
persons are to be found less acquainted with the nature 
and design of Christianity, than are professedly 
christian legislators and christian rulers. How 
diould it be otherwise, while so few among them ever 
give it an hour of their serious attention ? Is it to be 
supposed that their spirits should be found in affinity 
with principles they never study, and to the majesty 
of which they never design to bow ? And yet, they 
hesitate not to make laws, and to interpose their au- 
thority, to regulate the faith and to control the religious 
profession and conduct of mankind. What, then, have 
professedly christian legislators nothing to do, — ^no 
function to discharge, with respect to the religion they 
profess ? Yes, two things : one in common witii all 
other men, which is, to become religious ; and another 
connected with their office, that is, to afford equal 
protection to all who are so; that they may safely 
profess and freely promulge what they believe. 

It is the bane of rulers, and the calamity of those 
whom they govern, that they never view Christianity, 
any more than they do other systems of religion, but 


in combination with legislative authority, and as con- 
stituting national distinction. It is therefore difficult, 
with them, to dissociate its promulgation from reasons 
of state and measures of coercion. Some such ideas 
seem to be the legitimate result of all human establish- 
ments of religion. For, whether we view them in 
their principles, or trace them in their practical details, 
in all countries, and through every generation, it is 
almost impossible to conceive of them, but as preju- 
dicing some important truth, violating some attribute 
of our intellectual, moral, and accountable nature^ and 
incurring some spiritual detriment, or inflicting some 
social wrong. Gentlemen, therefore, who constitute 
the presiding authorities abroad, though of the esta- 
blishment of their country, yet resolving all religions, 
of whatever denomination, into a matter of mere expe- 
diency, and ynth the page of history open to them, it 
is no wonder if their apprehensions should be some- 
what wakeful. 

When, many years ago, an interference on the part 
of government was sought to be averted, it was said, 
by his excellency the governor-general of India, * Do 
you not think. Dr. Carey, it would be wrong to force 
the Hindus to become christians?' ^ My lord,' it was 
replied, ^ the thing is impossible ; we may indeed 
force men to be hypocrites ; but no power on earth 
can force men to become christians !' 

But it is one thing for governors to exert a direct 
authority for the forcible establishment of Christi- 
anity ; and quite another, to thwart and formally to 
obstruct those who, by rational methods, seek to 


diffuse it. The missionaries desired nothing beyond 
simple pennission to preach the gospel. But this was 
denied them ; and for many years they continued to 
be watched narrowly, to be viewed with suspicion ; 
and were sometimes threatened with an arrest of their 
labours, and an expulsion from the country. The 
period now under review was one of great and exten- 
sive darkness and demoralization. Whilst the govern- 
ment frowned upon christian efforts, it did but 
sympathize with the spirit and echo the tone of 
European society throughout the whole extent of the 
Indian empire. By the almost total absence of an 
evangelical ministry, and, in many remote stations, 
the total destitution of all means whatever of reli- 
gious improvement, there was nothing to restrain the 
exorbitancy of human passions, or prevent renun- 
ciation of principle. The Sabbath was imiversally 
desecrated ; the primary law of social existence, the 
safeguard of virtue, was despised; and concubinage, 
with its concomitant abominations, was awfully com- 
mon. A practical assimilation to heathenism soon 
obliterated the influence and almost the recollection 
of a nominally christian education ; and ^ the filthi- 
ness of the flesh' made way for * the filthiness of the 
spirit,' and, by their mutual corroboration, both 
became fearfully rancorous. Men feared to read 
their bible, because it denounced their crimes and 
awakened their punishments. The next thing was, to 
hope the bible they had neglected was not true ; then 
to feign to think it false ; and soon, being able to 
believe the lie which depravity had led them to foi^e. 


they openly impugned and denounced it. Hence 
Hinduism was ^ a most beautiful religion/ Mahom- 
medanism had but little in it objectionable ; but 
Christianity was as revolting to the prevailing habits 
and tastes of that day as was its Holy Founder to that 
of the generation who witnessed his incarnation and 
ministry, and in whose esteem he was ^ without form 
and comeliness/ Englishmen were literally a * bye- 
word and a proverb' among the heathen, who used 
sarcastically to remark, that English people were dis- 
tinguished from all others; for, whereas all people 
performed some religious offices, and had some god 
whom they acknowledged, the English neglected all, 
and were atheists. 

So anomalous was the conduct of government, that 
whilst it prescribed the simple unaided dissemination 
of the gospel, it not only protected idolatry, but con- 
descended to regulate its rites, and even to profit by 
some of its practices. Witness its interest in the 
temple of Juggunnath and the pilgrim tax. What 
was worse, if indeed worse could be, their judicial 
agents were compelled to sign and issue the order by 
virtue of which widows were burned upon the funeral 
pile, and thus to become accessory to deeds of blood. 
To the praise of some benevolent individuals in this 
country, especially to John Poynder, Esq., and Mr. 
James Peggs, general baptist missionary, whose pa- 
tient assiduity in collecting all available information 
upon the subject, and plying the proper authorities 
and the public mind with every argument which 
humanity and the gospel could suggest, yielded to 

2 a 



no discouragements, until the suttee flames were 
quenched. And they might as easily have been 
quenched twenty years before, for any valid reason 
that existed to the contrary. * How awful a thing it 
is,' said a missionary one day to his Pundit, *that you 
Hindus should bum the living with the dead !' * Do 
you think so V was the reply. ' Why then do not you 
English put a stop to it? you are now the lords of the 
soil/ * Why we fear, lest we should hurt your pre- 
judices.' * Indeed !' he answered, * and do you not 
think our prejudices are as much hurt by paying you 
taxes, as they would be by keeping our daughters 
alive ?' No terms of eulogy can equal the merits of 
Lord Wm. Bentinck, late governor-general of India, 
whose enlightened and intrepid policy enabled him to 
effect the abolition of this right with so much judg- 
ment and promptitude. A petition was afterwards 
forwarded from some devotees of the Hindu supersti- 
tion to the king in council, for its restitution ; but, 
happy for the interests of humanity, and for the Bri- 
tish name, it was disallowed. Lamentable to say, 
this petition found very respectable professional talents 
to urge its prayer. What would have been the feelings 
of those who employed such talents in such a cause if 
their advocacy had succeeded ! 

The religious reader can be no stranger to the name 
of Wm. Cuninghame, Esq., of Lainshaw, author of a 
work on prophecy. He was, at the time to which this 
part of our memoir refers, filling a judicial situation 
at Dinagepore, whither Mr. Carey and his fellow- 
labourer, Mr. Fountain, had often gone, by invitation. 


to preach. He had benefited by their ministry, and 
now, hearing they were in straitened circumstances, 
he communicated to their necessities, and in a manner 
so truly courteous, and simply pious, that one knows 
not whether more to admire in him the perfect gen- 
tleman, or the humble, genuine christian. His letters, 
whilst they are very brief, manifest so benign a spirit, 
and show so clearly the high estimation in which Mr. 
Carey and his companion were holden, and cast, at 
the same time, so much light upon their present cir- 
cumstances, that they cannot be omitted, without pre- 
judice to the narrative, and injustice to the parties. 


* Dear sir, 

* Though your man is not yet come for the paper, I 
sit down to write you a few lines in expectation of his 

* I am sorry, on Mr. Carey's account, as well as 
yours, that you are to be deprived of that support 
which you have hitherto derived from Malda, and that, 
in consequence thereof, your condition is likely to be 
uncomfortable : it will be peculiarly hard on Mr. Carey 
with so large a family. 

* Though, in oflTering you or Mr. Carey any small 
assistance which it may be in my power to aflford youj 
I am sensible that I may subject myself to the impu- 
tation of intrusion ; yet, as I think the ideas generally 
received on this subject false^ and that there can be 
no real indelicacy in such an offer, when made in an 

2 a2 


unreserved way, I shall, without scruple, do that 
which I consider as a duty, the more especially, as I 
have so frequently benefited by the ministry both of 
Mr. C. and yourself. 

^ If, then, the small sum of two hundred rupees can 
be of any service to Mr. C. or you, till you receive 
more substantial supplies from England, I shall be 
most happy to pay that sum immediately to any 
person whom you may send to receive it ; and I shall 
consider myself as obliged to you for making use of 
my offer, only regretting that it is so unworthy your 

* If this letter should give you any offence, I beg 
that you will consider it as quite unintended on my 
part, and that, in writing it, I only perform what I 
consider to be my duty. In such a case let this note 
be burnt, and let it be considered as never having 
been written. 

* I am, dear sir, 

Yours sincerely, 



^ Dinagepore, August 3U<, 1799. 
^Dear sirs, 

* Had I not been convinced that you came to this 
country for far nobler purposes than the acquisition 
of wealth, it is probable that I should not have made 
you the offer which I did ; for I may truly say, that 


I have been influenced as much by the consideration 
of the work in which you are engaged as by other 

*I thank you for so readily accepting the small 
assistance I tendered you; and I hope that on all 
future occasions, when exposed to inconvenience from 
the same cause, you will accept any assistance I may 
be able to afford you. 

* By the bearer I have the pleasure to send you 
twelve and a half gold mohurs, which is, I believe, 
equal to the sum of two hundred rupees. 

* Wishing you every happiness and success in your 

* I remain, dear sir, 

* Yours, most sincerely, 


The newly arrived missionaries not being allowed 
by the government to join their brethren up the 
country, no course seemed open to the latter but 
the breaking up of the new undertaking at Kidderpore, 
and removing to Serampore. The difficulty in the 
way of this conclusion arose from the recent and 
necessary outlay of property, which had absorbed all, 
and more than all, Mr. Carey's little accumulations at 
Mudnabatty. But the success of the attempt, if per- 
severed in, was very problematical ; for if, with all the 
advantages of abundant capital at command, the owner 
was compelled to break up that establishment ; and if 
the superintendent, with two hundred rupees per 
month, could save but little from his stipend, it is im- 


probable he could realize any ultimate advantage from 
a small factory, having to borrow part of the capital 
required for its working, and being dependant exclu- 
sively upon its proceeds for his subsistence. It was 
wise in Mr. Carey, therefore, to relinquish it. In doing 
so, he made a present, but in all probability prevented 
a future sacrifice more heavy, and escaped the morti- 
fication and inconvenience which secular disappoint- 
ments infallibly procure. Mr. Carey was always 
known to be eminently diligent, persevering, and 
undeviatingly punctual in all his worldly engs^e- 
ments ; and yet nothing worldly ever prospered in his 
hand. His first business at Hackleton hardly saved 
him from starvation ; a second attempt in the same 
line, and keeping school in addition, when at Moulton, 
served him as ill a turn ; for both would, sometimes, 
not fiimish him with animal food for a month together. 
And, last of all, the indigo business, though called to 
it most opportunely, and deriving from it for a season 
the supply of his daily necessities, yet at length 
proves a failure, and, if he had not escaped from it, 
might at no distant period have involved him in 

The facts which concurred in calling Mr. C. from 
his rustic retreat, and which settled him in the vicinity 
of the Indian metropolis, with the important conse- 
quences issuing from the event, may be gathered from 
the ensuing letters. The two first are from the hands 
of Messrs. Fountain and Brunsdon, brethren ardently 
devoted to the work of the Lord, tenderly beloved, 
and who gave promise of extensive usefulness; but 


whom a mysterious providence removed from the 
vineyard,— the one after very few years' labour, the 
other just as he had entered it. 

From Mr. Fountain to Mr. Fuller. 

' Moheepaly September 5, 1799. 
* My very and ever dear brother, 

* Though most of your letters, like those of other 
ministers, are addressed to my colleague, I cannot 
cease to think of you, to love you, or to write to you. 
If, indeed, communication with me is not desirable, 
do but mention it, and I have done. The last dawk 
brought seven letters for brother Carey ; for me not 
one ! Think how many I have written to you, and 
have received but two in return ! I have also received 
two from brother Pearce. To brethren Ryland, Blun- 
dell, Sutcliff, Hogg, Morris, Rippon, Sec., I have 
written, but none of them all have deigned to give 
me an answer. I know the labours of these dear 
brethren are great, and they may all have corre- 
spondents more worthy of their notice than I. But 
after all, I think it hard that not one of them, in the 
long space of three years, should devote a single hour 
to convey intelligence, instruction, or comfort to the 
least of their brethren, labouring in a heathen country, 
so far removed from all he once held dear. 

' Ten days ago I closed a letter to brother Pearce. 
Since then, nothing has transpired respecting our- 
selves ; but every thing that concerns the public 
cause in which we are engaged must, and ought to 


be, far more interesting to you than any thing that 
merely affects us as individuals. When we die, that 
shall live. When we, resting from our labours, shall 
sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in our 
Father's heavenly kingdom, myriads and millions of 
gentile sinners shall come from the east, as well as 
from other quarters of the world, to share our bliss, 
augment our joy, and join the everlasting song of 
praise to Him through whose name remission of sins 
was preached to them. Wishing, my dear brother, 
to excite your gratitude to God, who shows us at least 
some tokens for good, I cannot refrain from acquaint- 
ing you thereof. 

' You will remember we have often mentioned our 
dear Cuninghame, as a hopeful character. In my last 
to Pearce, I spoke of him as one growing in grace, 
and in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ : the 
two letters of his which I have now the pleasure to 
inclose, appear to us as good and indubitable proofe 
of it. He knows not how to compliment. The first 
was written in consequence of hearing that Mudna* 
batty factory was broken up, and our support from 
thence cut off. After receiving it, and reading it with 
tears of sacred joy, I sent for brother Carey. We 
wrote to him jointly as follows : 

* * Moyheepal, August 29, 1799. 
* * Very dear sir, 

* * Like him who before us was a missionary to the 
heathen, we can say, with sincerity, * We have coveted 
no man's silver, or gold, or apparel.' We came not 


to seek wealth, but to win souls to Christ. We bless 
God that hitherto he hath provided for us beyond our 
expectations when we left England. Our salaries you 
have undoubtedly learned from the periodical accounts 
of the society, which have to the present been suffi* 
cient for us, with the assistance of Mudnabatty. In 
this time of straitness, we cordially thank you for 
your kind offer of two hundred rupees, which we shall 
be glad to receive by the bearer of this. We look 
upon it as an expression of your love, not only to us, 
but to Christ ; at the same time assuring you that all 
the wealth of India would not have given us so much 
satisfaction as to hear that our ministry has been 
beneficial to your soul. 

* * We are, 

* * Very affectionately yours, 
(Signed) * * Wm. Carey. 

* * J. Fountain.' ' 

^ His second letter, as you will see, accompanied his 
pecuniary donation. 

* Next morning, just as brother Carey was leaving 
me, a note was brought in from Mr. Parr, the judge, 
written in the name of the gentlemen there, requesting 
that a charity sermon might be preached the next time 
we go to Dinagepore Mercy upon mercy ! Praise 
ye the Lord ! This latter instance of favour seems to 
have originated with our very hopeful young friend, 
Webb, whom I mentioned in my letter to brother 
Pearce. The last time he was with me, he inquired 
pretty much respecting the school, and how we sup- 


ported it. I told him, the first year we bore the 
expense of it ourselves ; but that, last Christmas, we 
had a charity sermon at M alda, when our friends there 
made a collection for the present year. He said, he 
wished he had known of it, and desired that in future 
he might have the pleasure of subscribing too. I sup- 
pose his mentioning this among the gentlemen gave 
rise to the judge's letter. On the third Sabbath of 
the month the requested sermon will be preached* 

* Surely, brother Fuller, these prospects must cheer 
your hearts in England, as well as ours in India. The 
Lord, perhaps, may work in a way we have not thought 
of. We have been praying, and longing, and labour- 
ing for Mussulman conversions, but perhaps we may 
see some of the first among our own countrymen. 
We continue to grow in favour with all who know us. 
If you knew how many Europeans had heard the gos- 
pel from our lips, who never would have heard it had 
we not come, you would be far from thinking the 
society^s money thrown away. Military officers, 
judges, collectors, &c., have repeatedly joined us in 
worship, both at Malda and Dinagepore. When our 
brethren arrive, I hope we shall preach oftener at both 
places, and perhaps at others where now we cannot 
go. If the Lord should turn the hearts of these great 
men towards himself, or to favour his cause, I have 
no doubt but some stable plan will, in a few years, 
be adopted for the dissemination of christian know- 
ledge, without any expense from England. After 
this, the Spirit from on high may be poured down, 
and men every where cast away their idols to serve 


the living God. O my brother, tell it to your 
churches, tell it to the society, tell it to the whole 
christian world, that their prayers are not in vain. 
Lately they have been praying with importunity for 
Bengal : Jehovah hath heard ; and answers, ' For the 
oppression of the poor, for the sighing of the needy, 
now will I arise ; I will set him in safety from him 
that puffeth at him/ 

* I am, my very dear brother, 

* Affectionately yours, 

*J. Fountain.' 

Mr. Brunsdon to Mr. Sutcuff. 

Extract from a journal. 

* 1799. Lord's day, Oct. 6th. This was a strange 
Sabbath day. The noise and confusion were so great 
that we could not attend to divine worship. About 
mid-day, a pilot of superior rank came on board and 
took charge of us, and sent the other on board his 
vessel. In the afternoon we came to anchor in the 
mouth of the Hoogly river, almost stunned with the 
bawling of the pilot, and the boatswain's whistle. 

* Nothing particular occurred going up the river. 
The captain sent as soon as he could to Calcutta to a 
friend of his to inquire for Thomas. We found he 
was not there : we therefore determined to go directly 
to Serampore. Accordingly we left the ship, Satur- 
day evening, the 12th, a little below Calcutta, and 
proceeded up the river in two vessels. We arrived at 


Myer's tavem, Serampore, early on Lord's day morn- 
ing. We found the inn-keeper a civil man. Here 
again we found it impossible to have divine service. 
The hardened state of the inhabitants of this town 
is truly astonishing. Openly to play at billiards 
is as common on this day here, as to go to church 
is in England. 

* Monday, 14th. We waited on the governor. We 
found him very friendly, and disposed to do us all the 
service he could, which will extend no fiirther than 
his own territory. To-day our hearts were gladdened 
by the arrival of our brother Forsyth, sent out by the 
missionary society. He appears to be a solid good man, 
disposed to give us all the advice and information he 
can, and would be happy to render us any service in 
his power. His visit was quite unexpected, as we had 
forgotten that any information had been given us that 
there was such a person in India. He resides at Cal- 
cutta chiefly, and preaches to a number of Europeans 
in a room there. In the evening our captain arrived : 
he informed us that his ship was forbidden an entry 
at the custom-house, unless he would find us, and we 
should either obtain permission to live in the country, 
or give security for our going back as soon as conve- 
nient. We were alarmed at the intelligence, not so 
much on our own account as on the captain's. If not 
admitted to trade, his loss would be very great, while 
we were entirely safe here, as much out of their power 
as in England, with all the support we could desire 
from the governor. We laid it in prayer before our 
God, and retired to rest. On Tuesday, we waited on 


the governor again. He advised us to go to Calcutta 
and state our case to the governor, and he had, no 
doubt of our succeeding, with the interest of a few 
friends : if not, we should have his protection if we 
would remain at Serampore. Brother Ward and my- 
self went with the captain to Calcutta. We took your 
address with us, intending to show that part of it which 
related to politics. We waited on Mr. Poignard : he 
expected Mr. Brenard on the morrow, whose expe- 
rience was greater than his own, and to whom we had 
a letter from Mr. Short. 

* Wednesday, 16th. We went on board the ship. 
The captain informed us Mr. Frances had made 
interest and got the ship entered. He assured them 
our coming out was no secret in England, that we had 
regularly passed the customs, &c., and offered to show 
correspondence between Mr Fuller and himself. The 
police-officers required our attendance there to-day; 
but this we did not think well to comply with. We 
sent word we would remain at Serampore, till our 
friend from the country arrived. We found all this 
arose from misrepresentation. It was published in 
the papers that we were popish missionaries, and 
therefore it was supposed our view was to propagate 
French principles. The captain waited on Brown : he 
was much surprised to find whom we were sent out by, 
and promised to do every thing in his power, at the 
same time advising us to remain at Serampore, from 
whence we might travel and preach the gospel all 
through India. 

* In the afternoon, we returned to our friends. They 


had taken a house, and moved into it ; rent, thirty-two 
rupee sa month. Here we wait the coming of our dear 
brother Carey.' 

* N. B. When you send out other missionaries, do 
not tell one what you think of the others : the conse- 
quences of this might have been bad; but the Lord 
helped us, and all is peace and harmony.' 

Mr. Brunsdon to Mr. Sutcuff. 

^ Serampore, Dec. 5, 1799. 
* Very dear sir, 

'Our blessed Lord says, *In the world ye shall have 
tribulation, but in me ye shall have peace ;' and the 
latter is infinitely more than a counterbalance for 
the former. This is true as it respects all God's 
children, but not alike in all. If you have tribu- 
lation, we are ready to think we have it sevenfold : 
yet we can join with the apostle in saying, * We are 
troubled on every side, yet not distressed ; perplexed, 
but not in despair,' &c. 

' Our heavenly Father hath been pleased to afflict 
us, and to weaken us, and reduce us, that we may not 
glory in the flesh, but in himself. He has been pleased 
to call home to himself our very dear brother Grant : 
he died the 31st of October, after a few days' illness. 
I have written to the Doctor most of the particulars 
of this truly mournful event, and shall not repeat them 
here. We buried him on the following day, in the 
Danish burying-ground in this place. 


* You will not wonder to see Serampore at the head 
of our letters, after what we wrote to you in our last. 
When unjust suspicions are raised in the jealous mind, 
they are not easily removed. We find every attempt 
to go up the country would only irritate government, 
and expose us to its censure ; and more, we have it 
from good authority that the governor-general in 
council said that he would send either of us on 
board ship that should be found in the company's 

*We received a letter from brother Carey, Nov. 
23rd, saying that they had heard we had arrived, and 
were afraid they should miss us on the river, or brother 
F. would have come down, but that now he would set 
off immediately ; that Mr. U. had given up the works 
at Mudnabatty, and was coming to Calcutta; and that 
they had taken land at Kidderpore for the seat of the 
mission, and were beginning to build. Brother C. 
wrote at the same time to Dr. Roxburg; but all in 
vain. The fact is, the government will not suffer us 
to set up a press and colonize in their dominions. 
This governor Bie plainly told brother M. and me a 
few days since ; at the same time, he told us it would 
meet with every encouragement and support here; 
and that, if we opened a subscription toward printing 
the bible, we should get a very considerable sum. 
He asked us if we would print any thing else besides 
the bible. 

* Brother Fountain arrived on Saturday, the 9th of 
November, and was married at Calcutta the Tuesday 


following, by Mr. Buchanan, assistant chaplain. 
Brethren Ward and Fountain set off for Mudnabatty 
on the 14th, to consult with brothA Carey, and, if 
possible, to bring him to Serampore. We have 
received a letter from brother Carey since these 
brethren left us, a part of which I copy.' 

* * I am really incapable of giving advice in the very 
important things you mention, but shall just state a 
few particulars. 

* * 1. I shall be free from Mudnabatty on the 31st of 
December; so that then no connexion with Mr. Udney 
can be any hinderance to my joining you. 

* * 2. With you at Serampore, we may be unmo- 
lested by government, if not protected : here we could 
only live by connivance. 

* * 3. No obstruction will lie in the way of setting 
up the press at Serampore : here there may. 

* * 4. In that part of the country there are at least 
ten inhabitants to one here. 

* ' 6. Other missionaries may join us there. All 
this is for settling at Serampore. On the other hand : 

* * 1 . I have engaged in a concern which is designed 
for the use of the mission, which involved me in debt 
three thousand rupees, about two thousand of which 
will be paid off in a few days ; and then I am one 
thousand nipees in debt, and deserting the place. 

* * 2. When I have paid that, I have not a rupee to 
subsist on, except by anticipating a year's allowance. 

* * 3. An allowance like mine of £100 from the 


society, amounts to only sixty-six rupees per month. 
At Serampore, house-rent alone will come to thirty or 
forty. If so, ho# can we subsist on the rest ? 

* * 4. Here our church is formed, and God has given 
us two Europeans as our hire. A considerable num- 
ber of the natives also have some light, though the 
conversion of any is uncertain. 

* * 6. I am now at a great expense erecting houses 
and conveniences, planting a garden, &c. ; which, 
with the three thousand rupees, will be entirely lost. 

* * There are many other considerations which would 
weigh much with me, were not the case so urgent as 
it is. Should you, however, think it best for us to 
remove to you, I will do it.' ' 

* Thus for brother Carey. To this I can add nothing 
how, till we hear from them. 

' We have had several letters from brother Thomas 
since we have been here, and expect he will be down 
in a few weeks. He is at Soorool, in the district of 
Beerbhoom : I believe he superintends a sugar manu- 
factory. He expresses a great deal of love to us, and 
to the cause of Christ. If he had but prudence equal 
to his zeal and ability, what a useful missionary he 
would be ! I am grieved at the accounts I have heard : 
but as I know but little, I will say less. 

* I wish we may be able to subsist somehow, with- 
out engaging in the affairs of this world. There will 
be no good done if our whole hearts, and souls, and 
time, and talents, are not employed in the mission. 



As the work is not ours, but God's, we hope he will 
direct us in all our ways to his glory. 

* Dec. 13. Yesterday we received a letter from 
Mudnabatty, in which brother Carey says he is 
preparing his stuff for removing, but not as one going 
into captivity. We expect them all at Serampore in 
about a month. This was none of our contrivance ; 
we did not think of it when we left England : the Lord 
orders all things after the counsel of his own will. 
But though things are as it were turned upside down, 
we are not discouraged. He surely would not have 
induced Governor Bie to have shown us so much 
kindness, if he did not design to bless this country 
with his truth. Why were we not permitted to go up 
the country and set up the press, and then have been 
in the power of the governor of Bengal, who would 
inevitably have sent us home ? Governor Bie con- 
stantly attends divine worship, and his attention to 
the truth is serious : we cannot but hope the Lord will 
bless it to his soul. He is a man of unblemished cha- 
racter, open and familiar in conversation, and of sound 
judgment and penetration. This flourishing settle- 
ment has entirely risen under his care. He appears 
old, I suppose more than sixty, having been in India 
more than forty years. He has long wanted a church 
here, and has gotten a large svbscription towards 
building it. Who can tell what God will do here ? 

* We sent accounts of the voyage, &c. to England 
about six weeks ago, which we hope you will receive 
in due time. A letter from brother Carey to Mr. 


Fuller, and one from brother Fountain to you, were 
sent by the Alligator packet, a fortnight ago. We 
hope some of the society will correspond with our 
dear captain. I know not how to speak with sufficient 
respect and esteem of him. He has lent us one thou- 
sand rupees for the use of the mission, without interest. 
He said he had about £100 he did not immediately 
want, and he would leave it, for fear we should be 
short before we could have remittances from England; 
and some time, when convenient, the society or we are 
to refund him. He wishes to become a subscriber, if he 
knew how to send his subscription. He is not certain 
but he may be in London again next summer, or 
rather winter, and make another voyage to India : if 
so, he will send you timely notice. His address is 
Capt. Benjamin Wickes, sen.^ Philadelphia. 

^ I am, dear sir, 

* Your unworthy servant, for Christ's sake, 

' D. Brunsdon.' 





Mr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

'Moypal, Dec. 21, 1799. 


* I am now at this place, on my way to Dinagepore, 
whither I am going, in company with brethren Ward 
and Powel, to pay my last visit before I leave this 
part of the country. 

* The occasion of our going from hence you have 
already heard, viz., government having refiised to 
permit our brethren to come up to us to this part of 
the country. The death of our dear brother Grant 
you have also been informed of, I suppose, by others 
of our brethren. It is my intention to write more 
largely before the ships go; but lest I should not 


have time, or they should sail sooner than ordinary, I 
write this just to inform you of our situation. 

* Brother Ward and myself, yesternight, made a 
calculation of our probable expenses for one year. 

* I think that we probably may bring them within 
six or six hundred and fifty pounds per annum, but 
certainly cannot live upon less, even if we can live for 
less than the £810. At Serampore, the place to which 
we are going, every thing is dearer than here by 
nearly one half ; and we must pay more attention to 
the article of clothing than we should do here. Powel, 
who is very economical, thinks that we cannot do for 
less than the £810, which is only 405 rupees a year, 
or 32-12 rupees each per month ; accounting two 
children equal to one grown person, and laying the 
whole at sixteen persons: my two eldest sons are 
counted as full grown. If we should have rent to 
pay, that alone would amount to one hundred and 
eighty rupees more a month, at the least calculation, 
or two thousand one hundred and sixty, viz., £270 a 
year. We have, therefore, agreed to purchase land of 
the Danish government, and erect eight bungalows or 
straw houses : this will cost near three thousand 
rupees, a sum very little more than one year's mode- 
rate rent in houses. Besides this, there is the loss on 
Klidderpore, amounting to about £500, of which I 
shall send particulars. 

* We are affrighted at all this expense, and fear 
that you will be so too; yet it cannot be lessened. We 
have thought that it would be the best thing you can 
do to send the whole of your funds, which you say 


amounts to £3000, to this country, and lend it to 
government on interest at twelve per cent. This 
would be a regular fiind of £360 a year, without any 
of the difficulties and uncertainties attending drawing 
on persons in England. We propose to teach a school, 
which, together with the profits of our press, may 
amount to two hundred rupees a month, or more : but 
this is uncertain. I believe we all ' have a mind to 
work ;' and every one will do his utmost to take all 
the burden he can from the society : but you must be 
apprised of our true situation. 

* Perhaps you may start at the proposal of investing 
your money in the company's hands, lest they should 
become bankrupts, or be dissolved by any means : to 
this I can only say, that in that case the government 
of England would, in all probability, become respon- 
sible for their debts. You might also fear that it 
would be taking the reins too much out of the 
society's hands, and that however well you may be 
satisfied at present with the conduct of the mission- 
aries, some unhappy circumstance may arise which 
may cause you to repent of putting the purse in the 
hands of the missionaries. This, however, would not 
be the case. The treasurer in India is not the mission- 
aries' but the society's treasurer, and, consequently, 
must be responsible to them. 

' Should you approve of this step, the money must 
be sent out to this country in hard cash, viz., dollars, 
on which also we should have a gain. This would be 
a great saving to the society, furnish a permanent 
fund, and render the Indian mission much lighter to 


you, and much more pleasant to us. We have got 
now press, types, and English paper, all paid for; and 
a printer. The types were got for fifteen hundred 
rupees less llian the estimate, so that what I have 
drawn for that purpose has paid for them. The 
whole bible is translated, except 2 Kings and 2 
Chronicles, which brother Fountain is doing. I am 
preparing the copy for the press ; and unless forbidden 
by the society, we mean to print one thousand copies 
of the whole, instead of two thousand of the New Tes^* 
tament. We shall want a little more paper, which we 
may get here : so that we shall not want very much 
more money to print the whole, say four thousand 
rupees, or £500, more than we have. If so, the whole 
expense will only be 

£300 drawn 
300 paper 
500 more 


^ It is impossible to be exact, but I think we shall 
not want more ; and as we expect to sell some copies, 
that will be lessened. 

* My paper is gone. Farewell : may the Lord bless 
you. My love to all ministers and friends. We are 
well; set off, pack and package, for Serampore, on 
Wednesday next. Intend to visit these parts at least 
once a year. Hurry Charon and Sookman express a 
real attachment to the gospel. The proposal about 
investing your money in the government fiinds in 


this country is brother Ward's: I think it a very good 
one. It will also give us respectability in their eyes. 

^ I am, 

* Very affectionately yours, 
*W. Carey.' 

* Powel and brother Ward join in love.' 

* I have no copy of this.' 

* Mudnabattyy Nov. 30, 1799. 


* I have long, very long been designing to write to 
you, and should have done so before now, had not this 
very unsettled state of the mission prevented it ; and 
even now I am not perfectly certain how or where 
we shall be. 

* Owing to repeated loss by floods, the works at 
Mudnabatty are now given up: in consequence of 
which I had prepared to go to another place which I 
had bought for myself ; I however gave it up to the 
mission on hearing that more missionaries were ex- 
pected out; and had begun to erect buildings, &c., 
at a pretty large expense, and also to remove ' from 
Mudnabatty to that place. On the 13th Oct. they 
arrived, all safe and well ; and we expected them up 
here by the 5th Nov. ; but how uncertain are all our 
prospects ! Government refused to let the captain 
have a cargo, unless he produced them all at the 
police-office, to enter into agreement to return to 
Europe as soon as convenient, or get the company's 
leave to reside in the country. No sooner did we 
hear this news than brother Fountain set out for 


Calcutta. In a few days, however, and before he 
could arrive, it had pleased the Lord to remove 
brother Grant, one of the missionaries, by death, after 
about ten days' illness. This was a heavy stroke in 
the midst of all our other perplexities; but I was 
enabled to see that all is done in infinite wisdom* 
He has left a widow and two children. 

On their first arrival they went to Serampore, a 
Danish settlement, where the English government 
cannot touch them; and the governor has shown 
them the utmost attention and kindness ; he also has 
promised to protect us and to give us passports at any 
time to any part of the country, and to indent us for 
Danish subjects ; and even says he will build a 
church at the place, if we will settle there. On this 
I have resolved to give up our other plan, and to 
remove with my family to that place as soon as 
possible ; this appearing to me to be the spot that 
Providence is pointing out for our residence. 

Dec. 12th. This day Mr. Fountain, with a quantity 
of my ftimiture and the efiects of the society, is gone 
to Serampore. Brother Ward is with me, where he 
will stay till I go down, which I expect will be at the 
end of the month. May the blessing of our God 
attend us, and his grace make our labours useful ! 

* The past year has been a year of labour, disap- 
pointment, and perplexity. My mind has been 
almost absorbed in the temporal concerns of the 
.mission ; and but little fruit has appeared to en* 
courage our labours in the gospel. Among the 
Europeans, however, God has given us some success. 


I think I can speak with confidence of a young 
gentleman of the first abilities, who was deisticallj 
inclined before we came to these parts, and indeed 
till last year. He gives good evidence of a work of 
grace on his heart, and indeed several of the gen- 
tlemen at Dinagepore are much altered for the better 
in their conduct. Among the natives things rather 
go backwards than forwards; yet I indulge a hope 
that we have not laboured altogether in vain; and 
we are quitting this part of the country with the best 
wishes of the inhabitants. 

^ Serampore, Jan. 14th, 1800. I, with my family, 
have left Mudnabatty in consequence of government 
refusing to permit our brethren to go up thither. 
Kidderpore is also given up on the same accoimt, at a 
very heavy loss. We arrived at this place on Friday 
last, and are settling under the Danish government. 
The governor protects us, and is very kind to us. 
As we are going to Calcutta to-morrow morning, I 
sit up very late to finish this, that I may send it by 
this dispatch. 

* Such a scene of wandering up and down and 
perplexity as we have had, may, I trust, sufficiently 
apologize for my not filling my paper, and for my 
writing to so few friends. But we have been so 
unsettled that I could not think of writing, when 
every week, and almost every day, seemed likely to 
produce some changes or other. We are going to 
purchase a house if we can, rent being very high 
here. Brother Grant's death was a most distressing 
event ; otherwise we are all well. We have almost 


all things common. All are desirous to labour in the 
mission. This part of the country is much more 
populous than Mudnabatty ; and as the providence of 
God has evidently brought us hither, I trust he will 
bless our labours. Be assured of my love. 

^ Your affectionate brother, 

'W. Carey.' 

'Serampore, Oct. 11, 1800. 

' My dear SI8TERS, 

* It is now near twelve months since I received 
a letter from you, and it is a long time since I wrote 
also, which was owing to the very unsettled state in 
which we were all the season for writing. I wrote 
several letters last year to different persons, but 
almost every letter contradicted the preceding, owing 
to the rapid succession of unexpected changes in our 
circumstances: which, though very painful at that 
time, were certainly accomplished by the God who 
has a tender concern for the mission, and has con- 
tinually watched over it till now; and, indeed, in 
circumstances in which it was impossible for us to 
know what would be the consequence of our doing 
this or that. He has directed our way in a very 
singular manner. The consequence is, that we are 
now at Serampore, a settlement belonging to Den- 
mark, about fourteen miles from Calcutta, where 
we have purchased a house for the mission, and now 
live together a happy family, in the most populous 
part of the country. 

* Had we staid at Mudnabatty, or its vicinity, it is a 


great wonder whether we could have set up our 
press ; government would have suspected us, though 
without any reason to do so ; and would, in all 
probability have prevented us from printing; the 
difficulty of procuring proper materials would also 
have been almost insuperable As it is, though the 
first removal was attended with pecuniary loss, yet 
the advantage upon the whole has far balanced it. 
We have printed several small pieces, which have 
been dispersed ; we have circulated several copies of 
Matthew's gospel, I suppose near three hundred. We 
have printed the New Testament, as far as the Acts 
of the Apostles, and it will be wholly printed before 
this reaches you, unless some unforeseen obstruction 
lie in the way; 

* I have, however, the melancholy news of brother 
Fountain's death to write. He died at Dinagepore, at 
the house of our dear friend Fernandez, on the 20th of 
August last. His death was brought on by a dysen- 
tery, which he had laboured under for about three 
months. Sister Fountain was with him. He died 
with that trust in Christ, and bore his affliction with 
that calmness, that left a very strong impression on 
the minds of those who saw him. 

* I am, very affectionately, 

* Your brother, 

* W. Carey.' 


Mr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

* Serampore^ Jan. 1 7, 1 800. 
* My DEAR brother, 

* Some time ago I began a letter to you, in which 
I intended to describe some of the manufactures of 
the Hindus ; but a variety of very perplexing cir- 
cumstances have turned up, which have prevented me 
from making such minute inquiries as are necessary 
to give you a just idea of them. I must therefore 
leave that subject till I have a little more leisure ; 
and, before the ships sail, shall give you a brief ac- 
count of our present situation, and the very remarkable 
leadings of Divine Providence with respect to us. 

* The last year was very calamitous, the early floods 
destroying all the crop of indigo at Mudnabatty; 
which determined Mr. U. to give up the place at the 
end of the year. I had agreed with him, in May, to 
purchase a part of that concern, at about six coss'* 
distance, with an encumbrance of 3000 rupees on 
it ; and, when I received accounts of the expected 
coming of the missionaries, I agreed to give it up 
to the mission, as a place for our settlement, and 
had begun to erect houses for their accommodation. 
On the 13th of October they arrived, and soon got 
up to this place (Serampore), on their journey to 
Mudnabatty. Government, however, refused to per- 
mit the captain to trade, unless he would produce the 

* A C0S8 is two milM. 


passengers at the police-office, to enter into agreement 
to return to Europe, or get the company's leave to 
reside in the country. Their arrival had been pub- 
lished in the Calcutta Gazette, and either, by a mis- 
take of the printer, or by design, they had been 
denominated papist missionaries. I wrote to some 
gentlemen of my acquaintance to interest themselves 
in the business, which they very kindly did, but in 
vain. The report o{ papist missionaries made govern- 
ment fear that they were French missionaries, as I 
heard this week. A standing rule of government was 
therefore enforced in this instance, to our great dis- 
tress at that time, and also to the great temporal loss 
of either me, or the society, in giving up the first 
designed settlement : though, perhaps, it may event- 
ually turn out for the furtherance of the gospel. 

^ About seventeen days after the arrival of our 
brethren, viz. Oct. 31, it pleased our wise Lord to 
remove our dear brother Grant from us, by death, 
after an illness of ten days. This was a very afflicting 
providence to us; but no doubt it was done in infinite 
wisdom. Sister Grant and her two children are well. 
Brother Marshman also, from whom I have great 
expectations. He is very diligent and very prudent. 
Brother Brunsdon I have not yet seen. He and his 
wife went up to Beerbhoom, to see brother Thomas, 
on aecount of the ill health of Mrs. B. 1 have heard 
an excellent account of him. Brother Ward will, I 
trust, be a very great acquisition to us : he possesses 
an active mind. I believe all our brethren have a 


great share of prudence, and I am sure their hearts 
are much in the work. 

^ Serampore, the place at which we are, is a hand- 
some town belonging to the Danes. It stands on the 
banks of the Hoogly river, about seven coss from 
Calcutta, northward. This is the city of refuge for 
all who are in debt and afraid of their creditors, on 
which account a degree of disgrace is attached to an 
inhabitant thereof. And, indeed, the natives appear 
to me to be some of the vilest of the vile. There are 
also many native Portuguese, who are fiiU as bad. 
Europeans are so transitory in their abode here that 
little can be said about them. The most respectable 
are the Danes : the governor, Colonel Bie, has been 
peculiarly attentive to us. 

* We have a prospect of a tolerably good congre- 
gation of Europeans. I counted about thirty persons 
last Lord's day, among whom was the officer I once 
mentioned to brother Sutcliff as a second Colonel 
Gardiner. He is stationed at Barrackpore, which is 
on the opposite side of the river, just facing this town. 
He has constantly attended, and generally brings 
over some other officers with him. I have had several 
conferences with the natives, the particulars of which 
brother Ward is writing to brother Fuller. As every 
thing, being new, strikes him more forcibly, I think 
he will be more particular than I should have been. 
I therefore shall not say any thing more respect- 
ing them. 

* Indeed, I have such a press of labour, till we are 


quite settled, that I cannot add much more. I still 
hope well of Hurry Charon and Sookman; though 
they are now as sheep without a shepherd. God has 

also this year converted Mr. *, a young man of 

Scotch extraction, possessed of such depth of thought 
and mature judgment, that when he speaks no one 
answers again. Give my love to all your friends, 
especially to the dear students and ministers in your 
connexion. I rejoice to hear of them. My christian 
love to Mrs. Ryland. 

* I am, 
* Very affectionately yours, 

* W. Carey.' 

The foregoing was copied by Dr. Ryland to his 
friend Mr. Sutcliff, and the following, it is presumed, 
was a postscript to the same letter, as it also is in 
Dr. Ryland's hand-writing, and without a separate 

* Carey says, I shudder at the heavy expenses to 
which we shall necessarily subject our brethren in 
England, and can only say that they are unavoidable. 
Though I did to the best of my knowledge, and 
indeed acted originally for myself, in the purchase of 
Kidderpore ; yet should the society think me to blame, 
1 am willing to sink my own money which I have laid 
out, and which was all I had in the world ; but this is 

• Major Prowle. 


gone, and the place will require near three thousand 
rupees more to clear it. Though it would have suited 
me on account of its nearness to Mudnabatty, yet it 
would never be saleable to any body else, and the vats 
for manu&cturing are not erected. There is only the 
place, and an unsaleable crop on the ground. I 
believe it would have answered our purpose, could 
we have all settled there ; but Providence forbade it. 

* The very heavy rent we should have to pay here 
made it desirable to purchase a house, which we have 
done : but this is an additional expense of six thou- 
sand rupees. The purchase will require so much of 
our money as to reduce us to very great distress, 
unless the society send us out a sum immediately. 
We need three thousand rupees for Kidderpore debt ; 
six thousand for our house at Serampore ; four thou* 
sand for printing the bible ; which makes thirteen 
thousand rupees, or £1625 sterling, besides our sup- 
port, which I think cannot come under £750 a year. 
We intend to teach a school, and employ our press, 
which we hope may bring us in £250 per annum. 
We have thought, and in this we are joined by those 
in the country who wish well to our undertaking, 
that it will be well if the society can agree to send all 
their money that comes to this country in dollars, and 
put it in the company's funds, where it will produce 
twelve per cent, interest. If you had £5000 to send 
into the country, it would clear off our incumbrances. 
If you send £5000, therefore, we should have, after 
clearing these expenses, a remainder of £3,325, which, 
if by the sale of the bible, or any other means, we 

2 c 


could make up £4000, would produce us £480 per 
annum. Sending dollars also would be attended with 
a good profit. For the difference between sending 
£5000 in dollars, at four shillings and sixpence each, 
and drawing for that amount, will be £926, at only 
two rupees for a dollar : but, as we sell one hundred 
dollars for two hundred and eight rupees, the gain 
may be fairly estimated at £1000. So that £5000, 
sent out in dollars, would pay off every incumbrance, 
print the bible, purchase a good house and garden for 
the mission, in a situation where we shall be always 
safe, and to which more missionaries may be sent, 
without fear ; and also raise a fiind for the main- 
tenance of the mission, of nearly or quite £500 per 
annum. This would make it comfortable both to us 
and to you. For the mission would then be established 
without any more labour of begging, and we should 
have a fund to resort to, without the very precarious 
expedient of trading, viz., having goods from England, 
or of drawing on England, and without any danger of 
loss. Our success may be long delayed, though all 
our brethren are very hearty in their work ; and it is 
impossible to say that the public mind will not be 
tired out, if hope be delayed much longer. Those also 
who have hitherto been pillars to this work, may soon 
be cut off by death, and the work might then fall to 
the ground ; but in case of our having such funds in 
this country, the mission would be established. I 
have written thus to you and to several others, lest 
any of the letters should miscarry, and because we all 
think this plan so important. Money also is so scarce 


here, that hardly any one will advance it for the best 
bills on Europe. 

^ I need not say any more. Do not print the names 
of Europeans. I was sorry to see that you printed 
that Dr. Roxburg had named the saul tree by my 
name. As he is in the habit of publishing his draw* 
ings of plants, it would have looked better if it had 
been mentioned first by him. I think Marshman to 
be one of the best men you could have chosen. I 
heartily love him ; so, indeed, I do them all. They 
are men of God.' 

Messrs. Carey, Fountain, Marshman, and Ward 

TO THE Society. 

* Serampore, Jan. 25th, 1800. 
* Dear brethren, 

* Our brethren and sisters all arrived in health and 
safety at this place, on the 13th of October last, and 
intended to have proceeded immediately to Mudna- 
batty ; but government refused trade to the captain, 
unless he produced them at the police-office, to enter 
into agreement to return to England, or procure the 
company's leave to reside in this country ; in conse- 
quence of which, they all stopped here, the governor, 
CoL Bie, paying them the utmost attention, and 
promising them his protection, and passports to any 
part of the country, whenever they wished to travel, 
for the sake of preaching the word. They, however, 
conformably to their original destination, wished to 
go up the country ; and all the interest we could 



procure was used for that purpose, but in vain. 
Every one, also, who advised at all, advised them to 
settle here, under the Danish government. 

* On the 30th of October, it pleased the Lord to 
remove our dear brother Grant from us by death, 
after an illness of seven days. A heavy affliction 
this; but we know it was an act of the infinitely 
wise God. 

* Previously to this, viz., in May last, brother Carey 
had purchased a small place which was an appendage 
to Mudnabatty indigo works. There was an incum- 
brance on it when bought, of three thousand rupees ; 
but it being well situated, he took it for his own chil- 
dren. On receiving brother Fuller's letter dated , 

intimating that more missionaries were coming out, 
and directing to form a settlement for them, he deter- 
mined to give up this place to the mission. Culti- 
vation, expenses of buildings, and preparations for 
erecting houses, had amounted to about one thousand 
rupees more ; but there were some returns, and he 
thinks, had the place been kept, it might have been 

* But when the brethren were prevented going 
thither, and the inviting circumstances of this plac6 
were made known to him, he plainly saw it the will 
of God that the mission should be removed hither. 
The heavy debt contracted, the opening prospect at 
Dinagepore, the seed sown in the neighbourhood of 
Mudnabatty, the school, &c., were, indeed, heavy 
burdens on his mind ; but the hope of being able, at 
some time, to liquidate the debt, the populousness of 


Serampore and its vicinity, the protection and atten- 
tion of the governor, the certainty of using our press 
without molestation, and the necessity of our living 
altogether, preponderated in his mind. In conse- 
quence of which, he and his family, with brother 
Fountain, are come down to this place. 

* On a very attentive survey of the expenses we 
must be at, merely to preserve existence, we are con- 
vinced that it is impossible to live for less than £500 
a year, even if we have no rent to pay ; but here, the 
rent of houses is a very heavy article, and would 
amount to nearly one hundred and twenty rupees per 
month for us all. We have, therefore, on mature 
deliberation, determined to purchase a house. Ac- 
cordingly, we have purchased a large one, with nearly 
two acres of land, for six thousand rupees ; the hall of 
which is large enough for a commodious chapel. 
Here, with very little additional expense, there will 
be room for all our families, and from hence may the 
gospel issue, and pervade all India. We have paid 
down two thousand rupees of the purchase money, 
out of the money brought out in dollars : for the other 
four thousand, we are to pay twelve per cent, interest, 
till we can get money from you to discharge it. On 
account of this, and the many extraordinary expenses 
which our being so long unsettled has occasioned, we 
shall inevitably be reduced to great straits before the 
end of the year, especially as we find it almost im- 
possible to take up any money for bills on England. 
Money is inconceivably scarce here: the company 
take up all they can get, at twelve per cent. ; in con- 


sequence of which, every one who has money in 
England is getting it out in dollars to invest it in the 
company's fiinds. 

* We all, and indeed every one else, particularly 
Mr, Udney, think you would do well to send out all 
your money in dollars, and invest it in the company's 
funds. The interest of £3000, with what we might 
be able to bring in ourselves, would, we hope, be suffi- 
cient for our support, and would have the advantage 
of being on the spot, so that we should be in no dan* 
ger of being reduced to those extremities we otherwise, 
in all probability, shall be. You now get only a small 
interest for it ; but here the interest would be twelve 
per cent. ; and future collections might be applied to 
enlai^ng this, or forming a new mission. 

* At any rate, however, a pretty large and imme- 
diate assistance is necessary, that we may pay our 
debts and exist. We intend to teach a school, and 
make what we can of our press. 

^ The paper is all arrived, and the press, with the 
types, &c., complete. The bible is wholly translated, 
except a few chapters, so that we intend to begin 
printing immediately, first the New and then the Old 
Testament. We love our work, and will do all we 
can to lighten your expenses. 

* We are, dear brethren, 

Most cordially yours in the gospel, 
•W. Carey. 
*J. Fountain. 
^JosH. Marshman. 
^W. Ward.' 


Mr. Caret to Mr. Fuller. 

' Seramporej February 5, 1800. 
^Dear brother, 

* Every day is so productive of something new in 
our situation, that what we wrote ten days ago as a 
representation of our circumstances would not be so 
now. We are all of us, however, aUve^ except brother 
Grant, and are well. 

' The last year has been a most remarkable one for 
changes in our circumstances; some afflicting, but 
the greatest part encouraging ; and I trust the whole 
will eventually turn out for the benefit of the mission. 
Our removal from Mudnabatty to this place is among 
the most remarkable of those providences which have 
occurred, and was at first so afflicting to my mind 
that I scarcely ever remember to have felt more on 
any occasion whatever : it was, however, so clearly 
the leading of Divine Providence, that no one of us 
can entertain the shadow of a doubt respecting it. 
I was, and am still, much distressed on account of the 
heavy expenses and losses incurred by this provi- 
dence. But we could not oppose the resolutions of 
government; nor would it have been advisable to 
have been separated ; the setting up of the press would 
have been useless at Mudnabatty, without brother 
Ward, and perhaps might have been ruined, if it had 

been attempted. At this place, we are settled out of 
the company's dominions, and under the government 
of a power very friendly to us and our designs. Here 


is a more populous neighbourhood ; we can work our 
press without fear, and pursue our work with security. 
People also hear us with considerable attention, and 
in considerable numbers; so that we are not dis- 
couraged, but trust that our Lord will appear, at 
length, and set up himself over this part of the 

* I have been much distressed because of the great 
expense to which we shall necessarily subject our dear 
brethren in England, especially as it will so far exceed 
their calculation. Yet I really think it to be impossible 
to pay more attention to economy than we do, for all 
our brethren and sisters are of one heart in this 
respect. We have bought a house for six thousand 
rupees, which is not more than the amount of about 
four years* rent for houses. Our regular expenses, 
including servants for the printing, will be four hun- 
dred rupees per month, or four thousand eight 
hundred a year. To answer this we have given notes 
to several persons on the house of Pinhorn, Weston, 
and Co. But the precise sum will be ascertained 
to-morrow. We have, in drawing so great sums, 
exceeded the powers given us ; but I trust we shall 
be excused when you are informed that we had tried 
every quarter we could think of to negociate bills, 
for the last three months, but to no purpose : it 
therefore was necessary to draw to the greatest extent 
that we could procure cash for, that we may not be 
involved in distress for want of money. Perhaps we 
may not be able to negociate another bill these many 
months ; but should an opportunity present itself, it 


would be highly imprudent not to embrace it. We 
wrote to you, to brother Ryland, and to the society, 
requesting you to place your money in the company's 
funds in this country. I again recommend it very 
earnestly to your consideration, on the following 
accounts : 

* 1. I fear dear brother Pearce is dead. You, bro- 
ther Ryland, and a few of the most active to provide 
funds for the mission may also soon die ; and the work 
may fall through for want of active persons who will 
feel interested in it as you do.* 

* 2. The public mind may tire soon, especially if 
success is much longer delayed. In that case the 
mission must be broken up for want of funds to 
support it, and then all that is done will be lost.f 

* Now, if you can send out all your funds to this 
country, say £5000, it would pay all our debts and be 
a fund for our support. Nay, I cannot say that 
£4000 might not suffice ; for the difference between 
drawing for £4000 at two shillings and eightpence 
per rupee, the present rate of exchange, and receiving 
that sum in dollars, will be at least £700 sterling ; so 
that, now we have paid for the house, we should be 
nearly able to put out the £4000 after our debts were 
paid, which would be £480 per annum, without 
touching the principal ; which, with our school and 
the profits of our printing-press, would, I trust, be 

* Dr. Ryland has written here : ' This hardly corresponds with Carey's 
usual faith.' 

t He also writes here : ' Quite as much room to say, if the company's fund 
fails, who shall take up the mission again 1* 


sufficient for us. I think this would establish the 
mission, so far as pecuniary help would be requisite ; 
and you might then turn your thoughts to a new 
mission, or to the enlargement of this, as it might 
appear eligible. 

^ I have written so much about our temporal con- 
cerns in all my letters, because I fear some of them 
may miscarry, and also because I much wish to see 
this mission settled on a permanent foundation. The 
situation we are in is eligible, and you may send 
missionaries here without fear ; so that if what I have 
mentioned can be accomplished, this mission may be 
reckoned an established one. We can also itinerate 
from this place to any part of India without fear, the 
governor having promised to furnish us with pass- 
ports at any time. 

* Our brethren, who have written to many of the 
ministers, will furnish you with news respecting our 
labours, I suppose pretty copiously. They can do it 
with a better grace than I can ; and every thing, 
being in a manner new to them, may be expected to 
strike them more forcibly than it does me. We have 
lately had frequent conversations with the Hindus ; 
nay, we are seldom many days without something of 
this sort. I believe brother Ward has given accounts 
of several. 

* You will, no doubt, wish to know my opinion of 
the missionaries, and I give it with great pleasure. 
Brother Brunsdon I have not yet seen ; he went with 
brother Thomas to Beerbhoom some time ago, on 
account of Mrs. B/s ill health, and they are not yet 


returned, though I hear her health is much restored : 
all concur in the highest encomiums on him and her. 
Brother Ward is the very man we wanted : he enters 
into the work with his whole soul. I have much 
pleasure in him, and expect much from him. Bro- 
ther Marshman is a prodigy of diligence and prudence, 
as is also his wife in the latter: learning the language 
is mere play to him ; he has already acquired as much 
as I did in double the time. I believe all their hearts 
are entirely set on their work. Brother Brunsdon 
writes that brother Thomas preaches very frequently 
in the district of Beerbhoom, and is much followed ; 
and, indeed, after all the very distressing disappoint- 
ments which we have met with, I entertain a hope 
that the day is not far distant, when light will most 
powerfully break forth, and spread over this very dark 
part of the earth. 

* I received another letter, in December, from 
Mr. Gericke, which I intended to transcribe for you ; 
but this paper will not hold it, and I intend to write 
to dear brother Pearce in a day or two, when I shall 
send it to him. Lest he should be no more, I shall 
send my letter to the care of Mr. King. I however 
hope he still lives ; his monthly correspondence has 
filled me with gratitude, love, and genuine delight. 
I love him more and more. I hope he still lives to 
declare the works of the Lord. 

^ I am deeply in debt to you, and shall, I fear, prove 
insolvent. You have written me six or seven letters, 
which I received last year, and I have not written 


more than three to you in return, and those all about 
our temporal concerns. I am ashamed ; but what can 
I do more now? I will endeavour to be more regular 
and more interesting, when we have gotten through all 
our hurry of settling, which I hope will not be long. 

* Give my warmest christian love to all your friends. 
Remember me to all the ministers. I have received 
many letters by the missionaries; I will try to reply to 
as many as I can. Brother Marshman has had a son 
bom since he has been here. My christian love to 
Mrs. F. Is your book published ? Pray send a few 
copies of it. 

^ I am, indeed I am, 

* Affectionately yours, 
*W. Carey.' 

* I have no copy of this.' 




The short period to which the ensuing chapter 
relates is the only one in the labours of forty years in 
which we are permitted to view Mr. Carey in the 
simple character of a missionary. Hitherto he has 
prosecuted his spiritual designs in combination with 
unavoidable secular pursuits ; and in a short time 
his advancing reputation as an oriental scholar, and 
his ardent desire to translate the holy scriptures into 
the languages of India, with other concurring cir^ 
cumstances favourable to that great enterprise, will 
separate him to objects mainly literary and bib- 
lical. The compiler, therefore, has very slightly 
abridged the letters of Mr. Carey written at this 
juncture, as they present him to us in a light different 
from any in which we shall hereafter contemplate 


him. The two first documents bear the joint sig- 
natures of himself and his associated brethren ; but, 
as he was the individual of principal interest in the 
circle, and as the circumstances detailed were impor- 
tant, not only to the establishment of the Serampore 
station, but to the introduction of Mr. Carey to his 
grand and final pursuits, it was felt that nothing 
could be withholden without incurring some prejudice 
to the integrity or interest of the narrative. 

Trials also are related of peculiar severity, such as 
the demise of Mr. Fountain, and the mental affliction 
of Mrs. Carey and Mr. Thomas. The contents of the 
chapter need not to be anticipated, nor any reflections 
upon them premised, in this place. The documents 
themselves supply a complete history of the epoch to 
which they relate, whilst the providential occurrences 
they record are too obvious to escape the attention of 
the christian reader, and their character too clearly 
marked not to awaken the right emotions. 

Carey, Fountain, Marshman, and Ward to the 


' Serampore, Feb. 5, 1800. 
^Dear brethren, 

*We have already, by several private and one 
public letter, acquainted you with the reasons of our 
removal here; but, lest the last mentioned should 
miscarry, we will briefly recapitulate. 

*Our brethren, on their arrival at Serampore, 
thought of nothing but proceeding to Mudnabatty ; 


but Providence very evidently forbade them, and, by a 
number of circumstances, quite unthought of before, 
determined this as the spot on which the seat of the 
mission was to be fixed, there being evidently no 
security for the press anywhere else, nor indeed for 
the missionaries themselves, with their increasing 
and, to some connected with government, alarming 

* Brother Carey, who had taken Kidderpore with a 
considerable incumbrance on it, in full confidence 
of making it the seat of the mission, received this 
intimation of the divine will with surprise and 
astonishment. Much he weighed all circumstances, 
and tried all his interest to obtain the necessary 
permission for his brethren to join him ; but in vain. 
Dire necessity overcame every consideration, and 
determined him to give up Kidderpore, with all the 
accumulated expense of it, and, as his brethren were 
completely prevented from removing to him, to go 
and joi9 himself to them. Accordingly, Jan. 10th, 
he and his &mily removed to Serampore; and we 
now form one family, united, not more by necessity 
and obligation, than by mutual inclination. 

* Being now become a pretty large number, we 
were involved in a degree of perplexity respecting 
a habitation. Ten grown people and nine children 
were not likely to be comfortable in an ordinary house 
in this torrid clime. Besides, a printing-room, and a 
chapel for the reception of a small European con- 
gregation, were also found indispensably necessary ; 
and to rent houses sufficient for these purposes, could 


they have been procured, would have been an 
enormous expense. We therefore resolved to follow 
the advice of Governor Bie, and purchase one. One 
quickly presented itself, with about two acres of 
ground, quite large enough, with its out-houses, to 
answer all these purposes, the hall of which the 
governor had purposed before to convert into a 
Danish church. We agreed for six thousand rupees 
(the house with a little alteration will be worth twelve 
hundred rupees per annum to us) ; to liquidate which 
we wished to negociate bills on London; but, on 
attempting this, we found ourselves placed in the 
situation of beggars : none wished to send money to 
England, but all to get their property from thence, to 
place it in the company's funds, where they get 
twelve per cent. We accordingly met from some a 
disdainfiil repulse, and from others a very cool recep- 
tion. You may well suppose our minds in this 
situation were not a little agitated. However, in a 
few days the Lord relieved us from our perplexity. 
A Captain Passmore, who was taking passengers lo 
England, wished to get bills on London : he applied 
to Mr. Udney, who very kindly referred him to us. 
We gave him bills for £600, on Weston and Co., 
Southwark, for which we obtained four thousand five 
hundred rupees, exchange being two shillings and 
eightpence per rupee. At the same time brother 
Forsyth had recommended another person to us, a 
Mr. Dickson, who wanted to send almost £200 to 
England. By both these sums we are enabled to pay 
for the house, and with what we have remaining of 


the stock we brought with us we shall have about two 
thousand rupees left to subsist on, which we hope will 
last us through the month of July next ; and then we 
shall be reduced to the same difficulty as before : and 
should we not be able to negociate bills, which we 
are by no means certain of, we must be obliged to 
borrow a few rupees of some friend or other, if we 
can. On account of these circumstances, we again 
entreat you to send out, as quickly as possible, as 
much money as you can raise, in dollars, and invest 
it in the company's funds. Could you send out 
£4000, the interest of that sum would render us 
independent of any person here. Indeed, so dis- 
agreeable is it to people here to negociate bills for 
you, that they shun such a one, as people in England 
would a perpetual borrower. Surely we need say no 
more to you on a subject more painful to us to 
mention than it can be to any of you to have it 

'We account it a most sacred duty to study the 
strictest economy ; and are also about to open a board- 
ing school for our common support. To this measure 
we have been advised by many gentlemen of brother 
Carey's acquaintance, by the governor, by the Rev. 
Mr. Brown, and others, who are acquainted with our 
situation. We look on it as not incongruous with our 
grand employment, and are not without hope that 
it will be something more than a means of support, 
even of instilling a knowledge of the true God into 
the tender minds of the rising European generation, 
to whom this is scarcely less necessary than to the 



Hindus. Meanwhile we hope to keep our eye steadily 
on the great object of our mission, making it wholly 
a public concern, that no idea of private emolument 
may pollute the mind of any of us, and intending 
to procure an usher as soon as it is meet, that the 
attention and time of no one of us may be absorbed 
thereby. The house we shall buy in your name, 
nominating ourselves trustees in behalf of the society. 
The advantages of your having a settlement of your 
own property in Serampore are much greater than 
perhaps you imagine. Here you have it your own in 
perpetuity ; but this is the case in few other places in 
India. And perhaps no place can be better situated 
for a general extension of gospel light : we are only 
sixty-six miles from Nuddea, and within a hundred 
miles of the Mahratta country. May the Lord quickly 
send out his light and his truth, that from hence 
they may pervade the whole land of India ! 

* We are your affectionate brethren in the gospel, 

*Wm. Carey. 

^JoHN Fountain. 

'Joshua Marshman. 

* W. Ward.' 

The Missionaries to the Society. 

' Mission House, Serampore^ Oct. 10, 1800. 
^ Dear Brethren, 

* We have waited with considerable anxiety to hear 
from you ; and though two or three letters from pri- 
vate individuals, of a late date, have reached us, we 


are still without any from the society. Cannot these 
delays be avoided ? Could you not return answers to 
our letters by the fleet which generally leaves England 
soon after the arrival of that from India? Then, 
instead of waiting for answers a year and a half or two 
years, we should get them in less than one. 

* The minutiae of our affairs will be found in the 
journals, &c. of individuals, which have been sent up 
to the last month. 

* Discourses are delivered to the natives by brother 
Carey five or six times a week, besides frequent 
occasional conversations. We have printed, besides a 
number of evangelical hymns, a piece written by a 
native, Ram Roshu, to usher in the bible. We have 
also distributed between two and three hundred 
copies of the book of Matthew, which we considered 
of importance, as containing a complete life of the 
Redeemer, being immediately ready, and as the 
expense of five hundred (the whole number printed) 
would be small, perhaps three or four pounds. We 
are now going to put to press a translation of our dear 
brother Pearce's address to the Lascars, altered a little 
so as to render it proper to be addressed to all 
Mussulmans. We have another piece nearly ready, 
written by a native (Ram Boshn), exposing the folly 
and danger of the Hindu system. This is peculiarly 
pointed against Brahmunism, something like those 
thundering addresses against the idle, corrupt, and 
ignorant clergy of the church of Rome, at the com- 
mencement of the reformation. We hope by the 
time you receive this the whole of the New Testament 

2 d2 


will be published, and part of the two thousand copies 
distributed. We are now in Acts. A few copies of 
the bible have been subscribed for by Europeans^ at 
thirty-two rupees. We do all in our power to lighten 
the expense of printing; but we find it very con- 
siderable, owing to the immense distance of our fimds. 
We print seventeen hundred on Bengali paper, and 
three hundred on the English paper sent ; so that we 
have all this Bengali paper to purchase as we want it. 
' And thus, amidst a thousand difiiculties, we arc 
attempting to prepare materials for the temple of the 
living God in this country. Many pass by and sneer 
at our design. Yet our hope is in God. Could you 
see us sometimes as we return together from our 
village preaching, you would be ready to ask, * What 
manner of communications are these that ye have one 
to another, as ye walk, and are sad V First, one men- 
tions an encouraging circumstance ; and then another 
quotes a promise ; and then another tries to bring a 
parallel case ; and thus we endeavour to encourage 
ourselves in the Lord our God, amidst those amazing 
barriers which Satan has thrown in the way of the 
destruction of his kingdom in this country. Never 
was there, we think, such a combination of false 
principles as here, and all so exactly suited to make 
the sinner * fancy music in his chains.' In other 
heathen countries, the law written upon the conscience 
may be appealed to, and often with effect, strengthen- 
ing the pover of conviction produced by the doctrine 
of revelation ; but here, the law of God is erased from 
the conscience, and a law of idolatrous ceremony 


engraved in its stead. Here the multitude believe 
that the Ganges can wash from iniquity : what need 
then of the blood of Christ ? Here Brahmuns un- 
blushingly declare that God is the author of sin, and 
that the world is merely his show : so that sin is no 
longer feared. Here it is commonly believed that this 
is not a state of probation, but of rewards and punish- 
ments : the doctrine of a future general judgment, 
therefore, appears wholly false. Here the multitude 
believe that hell is a place of temporary punishment 
merely : so that no one much fears, though he may 
think he is going there. Add to this, all pay a thou- 
sand-fold more reverence and devotion to the Brah- 
muns, than ever the people did to the priesthood in 
the darkest periods of popery ; and all are bound in 
their present state by the chain of the caste, in break- 
ing which a man must bear to be utterly renounced 
and abhorred, by his children, his friends, and his 
countr3rmen. All the ties that twine about the heart 
of a father, a husband, a child, a neighbour, must be 
torn and broken before a man can give himself to 
Christ. Such is, to human nature, the dreadful 
colossus which Satan has erected to his own name in 
this country. These diflSculties are increased to us 
by our want of language and of influence, the ex- 
ample of our countrymen, the heat of the climate, &c. 
We are often perplexed, but not forsaken ; cast down, 
but not destroyed. We have a sure word of prophecy ; 
nor arc we utterly without evidence that God is 
working by us, and opening a way for gathering a 
people in this benighted region. Our afllictions have 


abounded ; but goodness and mercy have much more 

^ Our temporal wants have been comfortably sup- 
plied, and our efforts to lighten the burden of our 
subsistence have not been altogether in vain. 

* The Hindu system is, in itself, so contrary to the 
plainest principles of reason, and there are so many 
glaring contradictions in their books, that it may be 
expected a moderate portion of general light will 
produce considerable effects, after a way has been 
opened for the junction of others by the formation of 
a native church. Even now Brahmuns shrink from 
every inquiry, after having been again and again 
defeated, and made the laughing-stock of Soodras* 
Nothing prevented the universal spread of the refor- 
mation but the arm of power. Here the mild and 
friendly government under which we live is disposed 
to protect us in all our prudent efforts. 

^ There appears to be a growing familiarity between 
us and the natives. They receive our printed papers 
and books with the greatest eagerness, and we cannot 
doubt but what they are pretty extensively read* 
One man says that he has lent his book to a friend at 
a distance ; another meets us, and repeats part of what 
he has found in a hymn, perhaps ; another attempts to 
find fault with something he has read. Brahmuns 
manifest a great dislike of our preaching and printing; 
and some begin to find out that we are come on 
purpose to put an end to their trade in the souls of 
men. There appears to be a favourable change also 
in the general temper of the people. Commerce has 


raised new thoughts and awakened new enei^es ; 
so that hundreds, if we could skilfiiUy teach them 
gratis, would crowd to learn the English language. 
We hope this may be in our power some time, and 
may be a happy means of diffusing the knowledge of 
the gospel. At present our hands are quite full.' 

Since this letter was penned, the cultivation of the 
English language by the natives of India has advanced 
with incredible rapidity, and promises, ere long, to 
become the medium of communication among all 
classes of Asiatic society, the very poor excepted, to 
the extremities of the Indian empire. It has long 
been a prime matter of desire to the enterprising and 
commercial portions of the population, who would 
spare no labour, nor scarcely grudge any expense, 
which they were able to incur in its attainment. 
But while this cause is operating, with ten-fold power 
compared with what it did forty years ago, there are 
now other causes at work, urging them on to its acqui- 
sition, the concurrent force of which will be irresistible, 
and which will produce, ere long, effects upon the 
social, literary, and religious interests of society, to an 
extent surpassing all calculation. The keen, judicious, 
and comprehensive policy of that consummate states- 
man. Lord William Bentinck, was in no instance more 
conspicuous, than in that by which he ordained that 
the orders of the supreme government should here- 
after proceed to the native courts in the English 
language. By this meadure, the native princes and 
all their court functionaries will necessarily become 


intent upon attaining it. Thousands, too, among the 
comparatively refined and affluent, are seeking an 
acquaintance with it, that they may open to them- 
selves an access to the sound literature and science, 
with all the other stores of mental opulence, which it 
contains ; and not a few, moreover, for the pleasure 
of colloquial intercourse. The consequence of this 
will be seen, and even now is very apparent, in an 
assimilation of sentiments, and an approximation of 
manners, between the native bom and European 
inhabitants. A common language is favourable to 
the exertions of the social sympathies, and will lead 
to an intercommunity of feeling and of sentiment. 
The misanthropy of the Hindu system, in the ten 
thousand circumstances it enjoins or inhibits, will 
soon make it abhorred for its inconvenience as much 
as it will be despised for its absurdity, whilst the facts 
of authentic history and the inductions of science will 
falsify its pretensions and explode its principles. 
The illusions of fable and of fiction are fast dissolving, 
the oppressed intelligence of a multitudinous popu- 
lation is about to spring into life and action, and the 
darkness of successive generations to recede before 
the light of day. 

It is granted that this may take place, and yet the 
gospel not be received. This is, indeed, possible ; 
and a melancholy feet it is. With devout persons it 
should stimulate to such increased activities, and lead 
to so great an augmentation of resources, as would 
render the means of a spiritual renovation commen- 
surate with the occasion which such intellectual 


improvement supplies. The principles of science may 
be accurately announced and freely received, and a 
sound literature and a high degree of mental culture 
may obtain without an adequate and saving religious 
change taking effect; yea, it may be, without any 
change being perceivable, beyond the renunciation of 
preposterous errors, and an abstinence from former 
revolting usages. Men have a radically vitiated 
nature to be regenerated, as well as a system of 
destructive errors to abjure, and a circle of external 
abominations to retrench and forego. But yet, though 
the turning from * dumb idols' may not necessarily 
induce men to serve the * living and the true God.' 
the former is certainly indispensable to the latter ; 
and when one is resolved upon, there is, at least, some 
rational hope that the other may succeed. 

*The children in our Bengali free-school, about 
fifty, are mostly very young. Yet we are endea- 
vouring to instil into their minds divine truth, as fast 
as their understandings ripen. Some natives have 
complained that we are poisoning the minds even of 
their very children. 

* We have been much comforted and encouraged, 
also, by an apparently very gracious work on the 
hearts of Felix and William Carey, the one fifteen 
and the other thirteen years old. In the room of one 
of our >brethren, they engage in prayer once or twice a 
week; and on these occasions, there is a simplicity, an 
earnestness, a fruitfulness, and a love to Christ mani- 


fested, which does our souls good. Their bowels of 
pity also seem to move for the poor heathen. 

^ But in the midst of these labours, difficulties, and 
encouragements, we have been called to mourn over 
the loss of our dear brother Fountain, who died at 
Dinagepore, on the 20th of August last. This is the 
second brother who has left us in less than twelve 
months. In compliance with the invitation of a gen- 
tleman (Mr. Udney), he went to his former station, to 
make indigo. He was very poorly when he left us on 
the 8th of July. Sister Fountain accompanied him. 
He took some medicines, &c. with him, but they did 
not prove sufficient to uphold his weakly constitution. 
Soon after his arrival at Moypal, he went forward to 
the house of Mr. Fernandez, at Dinagepore, when the 
company's surgeon at that place was sent for. He 
came with the ufinost readiness, and bestowed the 
kindest attention upon him during his whole sickness. 
Under his care for some days he appeared better ; but 
at length his disorder returned with great force, and 
resisted every effort. The following account was 
written at our request by sister Fountain, and will, no 
doubt, be the more acceptable as coming immediately 
from herself. Her affliction has been very great; but 
in the midst of the deepest distress she has been very 
graciously supported. 

' * The first time that his disorder took an alarming 
turn was nine days before his death. I perceived 
him to be much worse, and scarcely expected him to 


live through the day. I asked him how he felt his 
mind with r^pect to another world : he said it was 
tolerably comfortable; all his hopes were fixed on 
Jesus Christ; he had no other foundation to build 
upon, for all that he had done would by no means 
save him ; he depended on Christ for the salvation of 
his soul, and he should not be deceived. He then 
asked me to give him Dr. Watts's hymn-book. It 
being the time for family worship, he desired us to 
sing the eighty-fifth h3ann, second book, and to read 
the one hundred and sixteenth Psalm ; and though we 
were all weeping, he seemed happy and composed. 
Mr. Fernandez was obliged to stop several times to 
weep before he could get through. About the middle 
of the day, Mr. Webb came to see him. He shook 
him by the hand, and said he was not afraid to die, 
but he should have been glad to have lived a little 
longer, that he might have done something more for 
God. He lamented that he had done no more for 
him, and added, ' Now is the time to have the Saviour 
precious. How miserable must they be who have no 
Saviour to go to when they come to die 1' He said 
he found enough in the gospel to support his mind in 
a dying hour. In the afternoon, he desired us to sing 

' JesoB, lover of mj sool/ 


' Guide me, O thou great Jehovah.* 

And methinks I now see him, his eyes and his hands 
lifted up to heaven all the time of singing. He 
seemed in a very comfortable frame all day. Mr. 


Cunninghame came to see him in the evening ; 
but what he said I cannot tell, for I was not 
present till called to assist in singing the fifty-fourth 
hymn, second book, which he chose. That night, 
brother Powel arrived. He asked him to go to 
prayer. Mr. Powel told me, in the morning, he had 
a good deal of conversation with Mr. F. in the night, 
in which he said he had been harassed with fears 
respecting the truth of Christianity, and that Satan 
had suggested to his mind that his religion was vain. 
But, through mercy, he was not suffered to distress 
him long. 

* ' The next morning he was in great pain. At 
another time, Mr. Cunninghame observed to him, 
what a mercy it would be if he were raised again ! 
He replied, if he were, he wished to live with death 
and eternity always in view. 

* * During the last days of his life, his suflferings 
were very great. He was so weak that he could say 
but little ; but he seemed to have a well-grounded hope 
of his interest in the Sa^aour, and often wished to be 
absent from the body. He frequently repeated, *Thou, 
O Christ, art all I want.' *0 that my heavenly 
Father would fetch me away !' 

* * On the Sabbath before his death, he said to Mr. 
Fernandez, * The next Sabbath I shall spend will be 
with my heavenly Father.' On saying to me, he 
longed to be gone, I said, I could almost say the 
same, his suflferings were so great. Supposing I 
meant to say, I should like to die with him, he 
replied, * Ah ! my dear, what would become of the 


honour of God, if he were to take all his people ta 
heaven ? How would his cause and interest be sup- 
ported in the world V He could remember the time 
when it had been a trouble to him to think of living 
twenty or thirty years. 

* * On the day of his death, his thoughts were 
deranged ; but he seemed comfortable. After a little 
mitigation, he said, he should soon be freed from, 
these sufferings, and be at rest. In the afternoon, he 
asked Mr. Powel to pray for him, that he might have 
patience to wait his appointed time, and that, if it 
were the will of God, his pains might be alleviated. 
In the evening, he was much easier, so that he was 
able to talk to me for some time; but the conversation 
was chiefly respecting myself. On retiring, I felt my 
mind much resigned to the will of God. 

* * Early the next morning, I was called to take 
leave of him, as it was thought he was dying. He 
was in a happy frame. He desired Mr. Cunninghame 
to read the eighth of Romans, and to sing Dr. Watts's 
one hundredth hymn, second book. He then called 
Mr. Fernandez's son to him, and desired him to seek 
after the welfare of his soul while he was young : he 
would never repent of it : he was not too young to die. 
He said, he felt for him, lest he should be carried 
away with the riches and pleasures of the world, 
which would afford him no comfort when he came to 
die. * What would it avail me now,' said he, * if I were 
governor-general ? That would not seciire me from 
death.' To Mr. Cunninghame he said, * It appeared 
strange to us that the Lord should take away one mis- 


sionary as soon as he arrived, before he had learnt the 
language, or had become acquainted with the people ; 
and now, to take another away as soon as he had 
learnt it. But God did nothing in vain.' Yet he 
frequently said, * Jesus, my Redeemer,' &c., and 
seemed anxious to depart. About two hours before 
his death, he desired us to raise him up ; after which 
he seemed to be in prayer for some minutes; yet we 
could only hear, * Faith' — * My Redeemer' — * My 
heavenly Father,' &c. These are the last words he 
was heard to utter. At length, without a groan, he 
sweetly fell asleep in Jesus. 


* The next morning, brother Fountain was buried 
among the Europeans who have died at Dinagepore. 
All the gentlemen of the place attended. The church 
of England funeral-service was read by the judge. 
Mr. Fernandez, whose kindness to our brother lays us 
under renewed obligations, has signified his intention 
of placing a stone over the grave, with the inscription 
brother F. suggested : 





* We have much to be thankful for, in that we have 
sometimes sweet fellowship together in our £aimily 
meetings, and that our hearts are one in the great 


work which is in our hands, both as it respects the 
means of carrying it on, and the labours connected 
with it. 

* We are, 

* Very dear brethren, yours, 
*Wm. Carry. 
^JosH. Marshman. 
*W- Ward. 
*D. Brunsdon/ 

Mr* Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

* My dear brother, 

^ I am sensible that my correspondence has, of late, 
been very uninteresting, nor do I know how to remedy 
it. I know that you wish for details of our engage- 
ments and circumstances, and I have several times 
begun to keep a journal ; but, either from want of per- 
severance, or the intervention of other things, have 
never kept it regularly ; and even if I could do that, 
the copying it would be a dreadful task. To remedy 
this in some measure, I have formed a design of 
writing my letters to you in the form of a journal, and 
by this means I may retain some of those circum- 
stances which would otherwise be forgotten or neg- 
lected, and may also, perhaps, fill a letter in a couple 
of months. Other correspondents may receive shorter 
letters on this account, and yours may have many 
inaccuracies in diction ; but I cannot suppose this will 
be a loss to any one, for my letters are generally 
uninteresting, if not trifling. 


* Oct. 21. Brother Thomas has been here a week or 
more, and we have appointed every Tuesday morning, 
at six, as a season of prayer for the blessing of God on 
our labours. Till now, we had such a season once a 
month, on a Monday morning. This was the first time 
of our weekly prayer-meeting. Brother Thomas 
appeared unusually engaged in prayer; after him, 
brother Brunsdon and myself engaged. I was some- 
what enlightened by the opportunity, especially as I, 
last night, had a long conversation with three Hindus, 
the hardness of whose hearts discouraged me. I will 
try to recollect some part of it. They came and said 
that they wanted to have a little conversation about 
the gospel. But I am totally unable to recollect so 
much of the conversation as to write any thing con- 
nected about it ; so must leave it. This is the case 
with many disputes, conversations, and conferences 
held with the Hindus : they appear important while 
they last, and, I trust, are really so ; but sometimes 
the sameness of one to another renders them unim- 
portant when written in English : often the apparently 
little quibbles, though really important in our situ- 
ations, do not appear sufficiently so to send to 
England. We know nothing of the disputes which 
you in Europe are engaged in ; ours bear a nearer 
resemblance to those of the protestants with the papists 
at the reformation ; but a nearer still to those of the 
old fathers with the heathen and gnostics, such as you 
will find in Justin Martyr and Irenaeus. 

' Oct. 22. Last evening, brother Brunsdon and my- 
self went to a village about three or four miles distant. 


called Rishera. We were both weary and discouraged 
before we got there ; however, we went to the market- 
place, where three or four people were sitting smoking 
their hookas. I saw they were Brahmuns, and there- 
fore went up to them, and inquired what was the 
matter with their faces? It is the custom of the 
Hindus to make a stroke with powder of sandal-wood, 
or, more frequently, with a white earth, brought, it 
is said, from the temple of Juggunnath, in Orissa. 
These marks have divers names ; but the most com- 
mon is a perpendicular line, called Teelak. They 
answered, it was the Teelak. I inquired why they 
put such a mark. They said, it was a piece of holi- 
ness, and pleaded the authority of the Shastras. I 
inquired, what Shastras ? and what proof they had of 
their books being divine ? While we were thus 
talking, a good number of people got together, and 
among the rest, an old Brahmun, of very good under- 
standing. I had just inquired whether any one could 
inform me how my sins might be pardoned ? but on 
this old man's coming up, they all referred me to him. 
I sat down on a mat, he on another, and the rest of 
the people around us, and then I repeated the question. 
He said, that profound meditation and acts of holiness 
would answer the purpose. I observed, that we were 
sinfully inclined, and therefore could not possibly do 
a good action. You may, said I, as well expect to 
see mangoes produced on the Indiali fig, or cocoanuts 
on the toddy tree, as to see fruits of holiness proceed 
from a sinful heart. You all, said I, love this present 
world, and are pursuing sin with greediness ; now you 



cannot love sin and God at the same time, and you 
may as well expect to see fire and water agree, as 
persons with sinful hearts and desires cordially 
approve of the character of God. All the ceremonies, 
said I, which you call holiness, may be performed by 
the vilest of men, and it is no uncommon thing for a 
Brahmun to be employed one hour in these cere- 
monies, and the next hour, to lie, steal, or commit 
adultery : indeed, we cannot expect that you should 
be better than your gods. The Brahmun tried to 
defend their characters, but in vain. I produced 
instances from their books of their vices. I inquired, 
how can you suppose these things to be at all related 
to a holy God ? They are not God, nor the friends of 
God, nor even his servants. For instance : you cannot 
suppose that I should keep a servant whom I knew to 
be a person addicted to every evil ; much less should 
I choose such a person for my friend. They pleaded, 
that these debtas were gods. I observed, you may 
as well tell me that you are a Brahmun, a Soodra, a 
Chundal, a Mussulman, a Portuguese, an Elnglishman, 
&c. Brahmun, said I, you and I and all of us are 
sinners, and we are in a helpless state ; but I have 
good tidings to tell you. God, in the riches of his 
mercy, became incarnate, in the form of man. He 
lived more than thirty years on jthe earth, without sin, 
and was employed in doing good. He gave sight to 
the blind, healed the sick, the lame, the deaf, and the 
dumb ; and after all, died in the stead of sinners. We 
deserved the wrath of God ; but he endured it. We 
could make no sufficient atonement for our guilt ; but 


he completely made an end of sin , and now he has 
sent us to tell you that the work is done, and to call 
you to &ith in, and dependence on, the Lord Jesus 
Christ. Therefore, leave your vain customs, and fsJse 
gods^ and lay hold of eternal life, through him.' 
After much discourse of this [sort, we presented him 
with a copy of Matthew's gospel, and three more to 
three other persons. He promised to read, and make 
himself well acquainted witih its contents, and then to 
converse more about it. It was now dark : I therefore 
prayed with them, and we returned home. 

* Nov. 2. The people are so moveable, some going 
and others comings that often the congregation is 
quite changed before we have done. I think it 
desirable that all should hear of the incarnation and 
deatih of Christ, and the reasons thereof ; but on that 
account, am often obliged to repeat those circum- 
stances several times over at one standing, that all 
may hear the gospel. 

*A christian native Malabar, from Tranquebar, 
came to see us this morning ; he could speak very 
little English, but spoke German very fluently. We 
had heard from some Europeans very unfavourable 
accounts of the Malabar christians ; but this man, 
perhaps on that account, far exceeded our expec* 
tations. He says, that there are at least thirty-five 
thousand christians on the coast, from Tranquebar to 
Cape Comorin. There is a catechist in every village, 
who assembles and instructs them every day ; and 
there are elders in all the larger churches. Their 
schools are very prosperous ; in them they teach the 



German, Danish, and Portuguese langui^es; and 
several of the sciences. This man had with him a 
German bible, and appeared to be well acquainted 
with it. It is impossible to say much of his religion. 
He attended an English sermon, preached by brother 
Thomas, and gave a good account of some parts of it 
afterwards. I shall enclose to you, or to Dr. Ryland, 
copies of letters to me from Mr. Gerick6, one of the 
missionaries, which will give you a further account of 
the work there. I was much encouraged by this 
man, and thought, indeed I have long thought, 
whether it would not be desirable for us to set up a 
school, to teach the natives English. I doubt not but 
a thousand scholars would come : I do not say this 
because I think it an object to teach them the English 
tongue, but query, is not the universal inclination of 
the Bengalies to learn English a favourable circum- 
stance, which may be improved to valuable ends ? I 
only hesitate at the expense. 

* Had a good congregation of Portuguese, Hindus, 
and Mussulmans, in the evening, at our house. I 
preached to them from the parable of the sower; 
was much filled with a desire for their conversion. 

* On Tuesday morning, the day before yesterday, 
was oiir weekly prayer-meeting: it was a good season. 
Brother Thomas, who is still here, and myself, then 
went down to Calcutta ; we went to the house of Mr. 
Wilcox, supercargo of an American vessel, from Phi- 
ladelphia, who had brought us letters and parcels, and 
at his house we slept. There were a great number of 
merchants, Sirkars, and others, perhaps thirty or 


more, at his house. I entered into conversation with 
one of them, a man of great wealth and respectability ; 
the others listened. After a few preliminary questions 
and answers, I insensibly got into a preaching mood, 
and discoursed with them upon the way of life by 
Christ, and the insufficiency of all other ways. They 
objected to the death of Christ, saying, that God could 
not die. I told them, it was true, God, or the divine 
nature, could not die ; but God incarnate could, and 
that he was incarnate for that purpose, ^made lower 
than the angels for the suffering of death.' They 
acquiesced and wondered. The great man to whom 
I principally directed myself at first, told me that he 
had that day, or the day before, received the gospel by 
Matthew. We have dispersed nearly five hundred 
copies of Matthew, which are read by many. Yester- 
day, at the house, or rather as I was leaving the house, 
of a friend in Calcutta, I met with the Rev. Mr. 
Buchanan. It is three years since I saw him, but he 
remembered me, and we had a very pleasant conver- 
sation in the yard. He was very friendly, and invited 
me to his house. We had much talk about the 
govemor-generars disposition towards the mission. 
He informed me that he was sure we should have 
been perfectly secure in Calcutta, and might have 
preached any where in the town, if we had not assem- 
bled a congregation before the government house, 
which would have been indecent. He said that 
Marquis Wellesley, when he first heard of a printing- 
press at Serampore, supposed that some wild democrat 
might have run from Calcutta, and got protection 


under the Danish governor ; but that he was now 
perfectly satisfied, and perfectly well understood the 
design of our mission. When I left him, I went to 
the house of Captain Hague, of the Amelia, New York, 
who is son to Mr. Hague, baptist minister, of Scar- 
borough, Yorkshire. At his house I found some of 
the merchants to whom I had discoursed yesterday. 
They began to provoke me to speak of many things ; I 
therefore went over, to them and thirty or forty more, 
the history of the life and death of Christ, and pressed 
them to embrace him for themselves. They heard 
with great attention and pleasure, apparently. I then 
returned home with a Hindu, whose name is Fakira, 
a native of Beerbhoom, to whom I hope brother 
Thomas has been savingly useful. I hope to baptize 
him, Mr. Fernandez, and one, if not both, of my sons, 
in a very little time. I am not altogether without 
hope of Ram Boshu. He has written two pieces; one 
designed to introduce the gospel, the other, a very 
hard*mouthed attack on the Brahmuns. I saw him 
last night; he means to write to Dr. Ryland by 
these ships. 

* There is a very considerable difference in the 
appearance of the mission, which to me is encou* 
raging. The Brahmuns are now most inveterate in 
their opposition ; they oppose the gospel with the 
utmost virulence ; and the very name of Jesus Christ 
seems abominable to their ears. Yet they hear and 
dispute, are often put to silence, and sometimes to 
^harne^ Brother Ward and I went out one evening, 
designing to have gone to a village about three or four 


miles off. We had not got quite out of Serampore when 
we were called by some Brahmuns. Brother Ward 
wished to go on ; but I thought it best to go to them. 
I began conversation ; they began objecting ; one man 
in particular began to exculpate himself, and to cast 
the blame of all sin on God. I immediately addressed 
his conscience as closely as I could ; charged sin upon 
him ; appealed to all present whether that man was not 
a sinner; told him that, notwithstanding he called 
himself a god, he must die like a man, and very soon 
give an account of all his conduct to a just and impar- 
tial God. I exhorted him and all present to lay hold 
of Christ, and not to deceive themselves any longer. 
A multitude tried to object; but I persisted in de- 
claring their danger, and the only remedy. They 
told me they never would embrace Christ ; and, said 
one of them, do you worship our Krishnu, and believe 
our books, that you may be saved. I immediately 
placed myself by the side of a Brahmun, and said, 
well, appoint a day to invest me with the Poitoo,* 
and teach me the Gayotee.f Oh ! says he, you can- 
not become a Brahmun, you must be a Soodra. Yed, 
said I, a pretty business ! you want to put me under 
your feet, do you ? Is this your religion and benevo- 
lence? I preach the gospel to you, that you may 
become my brother, my beloved friend ; and you invite 
me to embrace your Shastras, that I may become your 
slave ! I have since been invited to embrace Krishnu ; 

* The Brahminieal thread. 

t A vene taught at their iovestment with the thread, accounted so holy, that 
none bat a Brahmun must hear it. I hare, howevar, got it. 


but my answer is, what fruits have the ^rvants of 
Krishnu to show ? You are proud, false, designing, 
treacherous, dishonest ; and no wonder, for so was your 
god : but whoever believes in the Lord Jesus Christ, 
will be purified from his love to sin, and delivered 
from slavery to it. The evening above mentioned, 
we were assaulted with all the insulting language 
that malice could invent; however, the next Sabbath, 
I went to the very same place, when they behaved 
with as much decorum as could be expected, 

* Our brother Marshman, who is a true missionary, 
is able to talk a little; he goes out frequently, nay 
almost every day, and assaults the fortress of Satan. 
Brother Brunsdon can talk a little, though not like 
Marshman. Brother Ward is a great prize ; he does 
not learn the language so quickly, but he is so holy, 
so spiritual a man, and so useful among the children 
of the family, that very pleasing appearances in some 
of the children of the school have taken place. My 
two eldest sons appear to be truly converted. Felix, 
the eldest, has an inclination, and I trust will have 
talents, for the ministry among the heathen. Brother 
Ward has frequently taken him out, and he has 
addressed the heathen in a very interesting manner ; 
his knowledge of the language will give him an 
advantage far greater than any person can have who 
Jieams it at a more advanced period of life. 

* Nov. 22nd, Yesterday brother Brunsdon and 
myself went to Baddhee-Batee : very few attended, 
and no impression seemed .to be made. Not more 
than ten were present. Some of them were people 


who had brought a sick man to die on the bank of 
the river. This is a common thing : they kill the 
person by putting him in the water when supposed to 
be in dying circumstances, and pouring the watef 
into his mouth as into a tunnel. As we went, had a 
little talk with some Mussulmans, at a noted place of 
their worship, and gave them two copies of dear 
brother Pearce's address to the Lascars, which we 
have translated and printed. Last night brother 
Ward and Felix had a prayer-meeting with Fakira. 
They were rejoiced to see him press the gospel of 
Matthew to his heart, as a treasure which he most 
highly esteemed. Brother Marshman went to a 
Mussulman-dyer's house to talk about Christ. 

* Last Lord's day we had perhaps the most mixed 
congregation that you ever heard of. It consisted of 
English, Danes, Norwegians, Germans, Americans, Ar- 
menians, a Greek, and a Malabar, whom I addressed 
from Isa. Iv. 1, 2. We preach in the evening of a Lord's 
day in our own house. This was originally designed 
for the instruction of the servants; several others 
however attend, and among them a good number of 
Portuguese have lately come to hear. Yesterday 
Ram Boshu was here, to revise his piece against the 
Brahmuns, in order to its being printed. It is very 
severe ; but it must be so to make them feel. Not- 
withstanding all his caution, he is obliged to dispute 
for the gospel sometimes, and meets with more 
severity from the Brahmuns than he would in all 
probability meet with if he were wholly on the side of 
Christ. I hope he may not be able to hold it out 


much longer. I long to see Hurry Charon, and 
Sookman ; but have had no account of the state of 
their minds since I left Mudnabatty, which is now 
near eleven months. It is impossible for me to be 
away till the bible is printed. 

* To-day they are printing off as far as 1 Corinthians 
xi. chapter, 26 verse. I have had convincing proofe 
that the translation is well understood by those who 
read it. I was at a villc^e one day, when a man read 
the sixth and part of the seventh of Matthew to a good 
number of people, who understood it well; neither 
the reader nor hearers had seen a book till about two 
days before. I explained the meaning, or rather 
discoursed upon it, verse by verse, as he read it. I 
have met with many difficulties in the translating. 
Indeed I began to write a series of questions upon the 
hard places, but really have not time to continue it 
The introduction to the epistle to the Romans is 
peculiarly difficult to put into intelligible sentences. 
The words, * carnal,' * spiritual,* the phrase, * after the 
flesh,* &c., are so foreign to any idea in the Bengal 
language, that, though I have laboured much, I have 
scarcely been able to express the precise ideas. But I 
hope the defects of that sort will be found to be much 
fewer than feared some time ago. 

^ Brother Marshman visits the Bengali school every 
day : the superintendence of it belongs to him, and 
he is very diligent in his attention to it. We have 
an intention, as soon as we are able, to set up a school 
to teach the natives English. The design of this is to 
turn the almost universal desire of this people to 


acquire English to some profitable account. The 
plan is not yet matured, nor will our circumstances 
admit of it at present. 

* I intend to send this by the Highland chief in the 
regular packet, but shall give a line to a serious young 
man, Mr. Brown, who has lived at Malda about four 
years. He is going to Scotland, and proposes to 
return to India by the next ships. He spent a Sabbath 
with us a fortnight ago. I desired him to call on 
you, and tell you what he has seen and heard. 

' Farewell, my dear brother ; you have all need of 
patience. The expense of the mission is great, and 
success has been long delayed ; buf in due season you 
shall reap, if you faint not. We are full of expectation, 
we are full of hope. My very cordial christian love 
to all the ministers, either of my acquaintance or 
yours, to the churches, to the Kettering friends. Pray 
is your book against infidelity out? Do send another 
copy of your ' Letters against Socinianism.' Christian 
love to Mrs. Fuller, Mrs. Wallis, Mr. and Mrs. Gotch, 
Timms, Hobson, &c. 

' I am, 
* Very afiectionately yours, 

*Wm. Carey.' 
' Serampore, 23rd Nov., 1800.' 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Sutcliff. 

* Nov. 27, 1800. 
' My very dear brother, 

' I think that I have been more negligent of you than 
of any of my correspondents lately, not because I lo?e 


you less than them, for I do not know a person in En- 
gland whom I esteem more than yourself ; but it has 
really been a very difficult thing with me to get time to 
write to any one. The printing requires much more of 
my time and attention than I had thought it possible. 
I find the copy, after three or four revisals, still to 
require a very close examination and rigid correction ; 
besides the labour of correcting the proofs, which, 
from the faulty state of Bengal orthography, is a far 
greater and more difficult work than you can possibly 
form any idea of. It is well that I had previously 
attained a small knowledge of Sunscrit ; for, as this 
work will perhaps hereafter be the standard for 
Bengal orthography, the little I know of Sunscrit is a 
great assistance in the spelling. We began the New 
Testament first, as it would form the most important 
book to put into the hands of the natives, and are this 
day printing off* the last chapter of 1 Cor. and one 
page of the first chapter of 2 Cor. Thus far the Lord 
has led us on in this great work, and 1 hope we may 
be able to send you a Bengali New Testament by the 
last ships of this season. No ship from England is 
yet arrived ; the two first, viz., the Queen and the 
Kent, are both lost, and with them whatever letters 
had been sent from England in them. The Queen 
was burnt off* the coast of South America, and the 
Kent taken by a French privateer just at the entrance 
of Calcutta river. The captain and several others lost 
their lives in the engagement. 

* I must write my letters in way of journals to all 
my correspondents ; by that method I may be able to 


supersede the keeping a journal, which I cannot- 
regularly do. I finished a letter in this way last to. 
brother Fuller ; now I begin one to you. I have very 
great pleasure in all our brethren and sisters ; they 
are of the right sort, and perhaps as striking a proof 
as ever was exhibited of the possibility of persons of 
different tempers and abilities being able to live in one 
family in the exercise of christian love; perhaps there 
never was a greater diversity in natural disposition 
and temper; yet this diversity serves to correct us all > 
we really love one another. All our brethren begin to 
speak the language, and hold conversations upon 
religious subjects with the natives. I have more 
cause for joy than any one likewise on account of the 
grace of God towards me. I trust God has mercifully 
begun a work of his Spirit on the hearts of my two 
eldest sons ; it has been of some standing now, viz., 
about three months, and was begun in both at the same 
time, or nearly so. Felix, the eldest, often goes out 
with brother Ward, who has encouraged him to speak 
to the heathen ; and I find he has several times done 
so to the satisfaction of our brethren who have 
heard him. 

*This morning I went to see a man who had 
yesterday dislocated his shoulder, and which we had 
reduced. He was recovered. On the way, I was 
called to by three men, and sat down with them on 
the bench at their door, where I declared the gospel 
to them. They heard with pleasure, and desired me 
to come again : thus we preach publicly, and from 
house to house. A Brahmun came this morning to 


discourse with us. He utterly denied being guilty of 
any sin. I endeavoured to prove to him that, what* 
ever he thought, God did not look upon him in any 
other light than that of a great sinner, and that the 
reason why he thought himself sinless was, that sin 
had blinded his eyes, and deprived him of all feeling; 
that if ever he was saved, the first thing he felt would 
be the opening the eyes of his understanding, and 
filling his heart with sorrow and remorse. He went 
away, as he came, as hard as a stone. 

'28. Last evening, brethren Marshman and 
Brunsdon, also brother Ward and my son Felix, went 
over the river in two parties, and had two good con* 
gregations. The river here is as wide as the Thames 
at Gravesend. I was last evening employed in teach- 
ing the English language to a German lady, who, I 
hope, possesses the grace of God. She is a person of 
lai^e fortune. I believe her &ther was a count ; but 
she informs me that he would never accept any but 
his hereditary title. She is from Sleswick, and has 
been instructed in the school of aflSiiction. She came 
last year into this country for her health, not having 
been able to speak or stand for some years. Her 
speech is restored, and she can walk a little; her 
name is Rumohr. I trust she has met with some good 
to her soul in this place. Another person, whose name 
is Mrs. Rolt, was here a little time ago, apparently in 
the last stage of a consumption. I trust she has found 
tiie Saviour of sinners, through the instrumentality of 
some of our brethren. 

* Dec. 1 . Yesterday was Lord's day. Our brethren 


now begin to stand upon their own legs in preaching. 
In the morning,! went out alone, and stood up close to 
an idol's temple, where I had an attentive congre<» 
gation, and after that, another in the market-place. I 
then returned home to breakfast. Brother Brunsdon 
and my son Felix went another way ; and brother 
Marshman, with my other son, William, took another 
road. Great numbers of people were, at this time, 
going to Calcutta, to the Shraddha of Gour MuUik, 
an enormously rich man, said to have died worth 
eighty-four lacs of rupees; it is said that five lacs 
were to be distributed to the poor on this occasion, 
which would amount to about a rupee each to the 
people, who went from all parts. This furnished our 
brethren with large congregations, as they met on the 
high road. 

^ 4. The evening before last, brother Marshman 
and myself went to a village, called Bissera, where 
we declared the name of Christ in the market-place, 
to a few people, who heard with some attention. The 
same evening brother Ward and Felix were visited by 
Gokul and Krishnu, the latter of whom is the man 
who had dislocated his shoulder ; the other is a dis- 
tiller, who had often been to discourse about the 
gospel, and appeared much affected some time ago ; 
but he had imbibed some foolish notions, particularly 
that whoever believed in Christ would never die ; I 
suppose from our mentioning some of the passages in 
John's gospel, without explanation. He had gone 
about among a great number of people with this 
potion, and told us that many were ready to lose caste 


and join us. I talked with him, and endeavoured to 
explain to him the scripture doctrine, and confront his 
wild ideas. I told him he must surely die, but that 
death was the gate of life to believers. He was 
offended, and went away; but the day Krishnu's 
shoulder was dislocated, we saw him at that house. 
I then told him that it was in vain for him to wish 
the word of God altered, for that was impossible. I 
told him that the fault lay in his own mind, and not 
in the gospel ; that if ever he obtained gospel blessings, 
his heart must be so changed as to correspond with 
the word ; and that it was vain to expect that God or 
his word would alter. He heard with tears, and has 
since been repeatedly to our house. We hope the 
word has touched his heart ; he appears more melted 
dovm, and in a very different spirit to what he was 
before. Last evening they were visited by brother 

* There is a college erected at Fort William, of 
which the Rev. D. Browne is appointed provost, and 
C. Buchanan, classical tutor: all the eastern languages 
are to be taught in it. 

* Dec. 5. Yesterday Gokul and Krishnu came to our 
house. I entered into some conversation with them ; 
when Gokul informed us that his wife had, the night 
before, been opposing him to the utmost. He had, in 
the time that he kept from us, spoke of his desire to 
be a christian, and his mother had left his house on 
that account. He now had told his wife his intention 
of serving the Lord, of professing faith in Christ, and 
being his wholly. She much opposed him, and in 


the morning left him, and went to live with her 
Bather. His son, a hopeful lad, was determined to 
continue with him. His observation on this was, that 
he would not part with Christ for a mountain of gold, 
that he would freely part with all for Christ, and with 
tears spoke of the rich love of Christ to him. At 
Krishnu*s house the matter appears quite different ; 
his wife and her sister appear to be really under 
concern of mind too. 

' 8. Since the last journal I have been twice to 
Krishnu's house. I find the women apparently under 
great concern to lay hold of Christ. They told me 
that we had been the occasion of great happiness to 
them; for they had now found the true way. I 
discoursed with them much upon the fulness and 
work of Christ ; they all say that they are ready to 
lose caste and all for Christ. Yesterday morning 
I read the fourth chapter of John's gospel to them, 
and explained it; several neighbours were present, 
and heard very attentively. I told them of the 
necessity of keeping the Sabbath holy; and they all 
agreed to abstain from work, and spend the day in 
holy exercises. I told them the importance of attend- 
ing our Bengali worship. The women, not having 
been accustomed to go out anywhere, found some 
difficulty in agreeing to come ; but the men came at 
night and told us that the women would come out 
another Lord's day. Krishnu has four daughters, 
who will all lose caste with him. Yesterday being the 
first Sabbath of the month, I preached four times and 
administered the Lord's supper ; viz., first, an expo* 

2 r 


sition, as aforesaid, at Krishnu's house ; afterwards, 
I preached in English, in the room of brother 
Brunsdon, who is sick with the ague. I preached 
from Romans the second chapter and the two last 
verses, to a good congregation. After the ordinance 
I went out and preached to some people in the street; 
and, at eight in the evening, to a good congregation, 
Hindus, Mussulmans, Portuguese, and Armenians, 
in the Bengal language. Gokul told me of a religious 
dream which he had a little time ago. As I fear his 
mind is naturally very susceptible of an enthusiastic 
turn, I warned him against regarding dreams, and 
told him that Satan would try to ruin the faith he had 
embraced, and that it would be very unsafe to deviate 
at all from the word of God. It is as much as can be 
done now to feed them with the word ; but it is abso- 
lutely necessary to supply them with that, lest the 
mind should be supplied beforehand with rubbish. 

* 18. I have not been able to write since my last 
journal. Brother Brunsdon has been very ill ever 
since. He appeared at first to be taken with a fever. 
I administered emetics and bark, and the fever ap- 
peared to be brought under; but a continual vomiting 
and loss of strength proved that he was getting worse 
in other respects. . His fever was symptomatic, and 
his disorder appears to be a violent cold, caught by 
standing on the floor of the printing-office without a 
mat under his feet. We called in the Danish phy- 
sician belonging to the settlement, who administered 
several remedies, but he got no better. A subsultus 
tendinum came on, and appeared very threatening. 


when, last evening, brother Thomas arrived. He con- 
sulted with the doctor, and he was afterwards put into 
a warm bath. This morning he appears somewhat 
better. We are dejected lest God should lessen our 
number still more; but wish to be still, and know 
that he is God. Brother T. had gone up with Fakira, 
who had given himself up to the church ; but, to our 
great sorrow, is returned without him. His heart 
sunk in the hour of trial. He set out from brother 
Thomas's house, in Beerbhoom, to go to his own, but 
returned no more ; and I fear there is no hope of his 
returning, unless God should, in a remarkable man- 
ner, fill his conscience with alarm. Gokul, Krishnu, 
and the two women still give us much pleasure, but we 
rejoice with fear ; so many disappointments are truly 
distressing. We are distressed at seeing our hopes 
frustrated ; more so, lest the hearts of our dear friends 
in England should sink ; still more, to see so many 
souls drop into hell, refusing the only way of deliver- 
ance ; but, most of all, when we see the dishonour 
daily cast upon the name of Christ. Often the name 
of Christ alone is sufficient to make a dozen of our 
hearers file oflf at once; and, sometimes, to produce 
the most vile, blasphemous, insulting, and malicious 
opposition from those that hear us. We, however, 
rather look upon this as a token for good, for, till very 
lately, no one ever opposed ; they were too fast asleep. 
Two days ago brother Marshman and I went to a 
neighbouring village, where we preached in two 
places. I had an attentive congregation in the mar- 
ket-place. I saw a number of people, and, going up 



to them, told them I had good news to tell them. 
They listened. 1 told them I knew one, who would 
make every one who went to him as rich as he 
pleased. An old man said, * What should we do with 
riches ? if I have God, I have enough/ Aye, said I, 
that is the riches I want to recommend ; but how can 
you lay hold of God ? You are a sinner ; God is 
holy. You cannot cross the river without a boat, 
neither can you go to God without a Mediator. I 
told him of Christ, contrasted the sufficiency of Christ 
with the weakness of idols, and his immaculate life 
with the vile actions recorded of their gods. They 
inquired, * How could God die V It is true, said I, 
had he not been incarnate, he could not; but he took 
flesh for the purpose of sufiering death. This is a 
theme we are obliged often to insist on. They 
wished to know how we could be assured that the 
bible was the word of God. I told them of the purity 
of its precepts, the excellency of its contents in general, 
and the persecutions under which many, who were 
the writers of it, had suffered, the enemies it had had 
in every age, and that God had preserved it notwith- 
standing all, and made it the instrument of salvation 
to many thousands of sinners, and of the destruction 
of innumerable idols. 

* Dec. 22. Gokul and Krishnu have this day thrown 
away their caste. They came on purpose to eat with 
us, and, after a few minutes spent in prayer by me, 
Krishnu, Gokul, and brother Thomas, they sat down 
to table, and ate with us in the presence of all. They, 
with the two women, will come to-night, to give in 


their experience, and next Lord's day I expect to 
baptize four natives, Mr. Fernandez, and my son 
Felix. Yesterday was Lord's day, but I have not time 
now to say more than that it was a glorious day. 

* Half-past ten at night. I ought to have employed 
an hour in revising for the press, but cannot refrain 
from giving you an account of our church-meeting, 
which is just broke up. About seven o'clock came 
Gokul, Krishnu, Krishnu's wife, whose name is Rasu, 
and her sister, whose name is Joymooni. As soon as 
&mily worship was over, we began church-meeting. 
After brother Thomas had engaged in prayer, my 
son Felix gave an account of the work of God upon 
his soul, much to the satisfaction of all, and was 
received. After him, Qokul. I wish I could remember 
all that was said by him and the others; but what he 
said amounted to this: that, soon after we came to 
Serampore, he heard one of us preach in the market- 
place; that the word struck him so much, that he 
went to another man, whose name was Bayshnub 
Charon, and that they spent the whole night in con- 
versation upon the things which they had heard ; 
that these two persons came to our house soon after, 
and found their hearts agree to many things which 
were said to them, and to dissent from many others. 
It may not be improper to remark, that I well remem- 
ber their frequent visits, and that Gokul's ideas were 
so extravagant on some things that I had very little 
hope of him. He was displeased that the bible did 
not agree with his notions, and discontinued his 
visits ; but says, that his mind was so uneasy that he 


could scarcely get sleep for two months ; that he saw 
himself a great sinner, and his heart all sinful ; that 
when Krishnu's shoulder was dislocated, what he 
heard encouraged him ; that he then looked to Christ, 
and has now no other hope ; is willing to leave all God 
forbids when he knows it, and to do all that is com- 
manded when he knows it. All this he said with many 
tears. After him, Joymooni, the woman mentioned 
above. Her account was, that she first heard Grokul 
give an accoimt of what he had heard ; that she im- 
mediately thought herself the greatest sinner in the 
world ; that she was rejoiced to hear of Christ as a 
Saviour ; and when she heard him, she made him her 
Asroy, which means a house built for the refuge of a 
jogee, who has forsaken his all ; in a word, it may 
mean refuge or dwelling in English, but no English 
idea comes up to its full sense. She answered with 
much readiness to every question, and very satisfac- 
torily. After her, came her sister Rasu. Her account 
was, that she first heard the account of the gospel, in 
a confused way to be sure, from her husband, who 
had heard brother Fountain ; she felt herself a sinner, 
she was unhappy, and full of fear. The news of a 
Saviour gladdened her heart, and she trusts and 
expects all at his feet. Krishnu came last of all. He 
first heard the word from brother Fountain ; told 
Gokul and Bayshnub Charon what he had heard ; 
was convinced immediately that this way was so 
superior to their own Shastras that his heart was en- 
gaged to it, though he understood it very imperfectly. 
He longed and kept at a distance, till his shoulder 


was dislocated^ when brother Thomas's discourse 
penetrated his heart. He did once delight in sin, 
but says, like Zaccheus, ^I will not follow sin any 
longer. I love holiness, and will follow it.' They 
have all eaten and drunk with us ; have lost caste, to 
the astonishment of the Hindus, and to the stopping 
the mouth of all gainsayers. Thus God has begun to 
make room for us, and we shall dwell in the land. 
I gave them many instructions and exhortations,- and 
concluded in prayer, they having been unanimously 
and gladly received. My dear brother, I wish you 
and another or two of our dear friends could have 
taken a peep at us, and participated of our joy. 

^ 23. This day the whole town and country has 
been full of confusion, on account of the transactions 
of last night. Krishnu had betrothed his eldest 
daughter some years ago to a lad of Calcutta; but the 
time for her going to her husband being arrived, he 
hesitated about sending her to a heathen, and had put 
it off for some time : the girl also appears to be so 
impressed as not to desire to live with heathens. This 
was made a pretence to-day for an assault upon him 
and his femily ; and, about one o'clock, Gokul's' son 
came and informed us that a great number of people 
had assembled, and dragged Krishnu, his wife, and 
daughter to the judge, who had ordered them to 
prison. Brother Marshman and 1 immediately went 
to the house of the judge ; but he not being at home, 
we went towards Krishnu's house, when a number of 
people exultingly called out and told us that they 
were gone to prison. We immediately went to the 


govemor, who is very friendly, as are all the officers 
of the government ; but, on our way, met the three 
persons, whom the governor had ordered to be set at 
liberty. Krishnu turned back with us, and we waited 
on the governor, who informed us that no harm should 
befall them ; that if the girl avowed her dislike to go 
to the house of a heathen, she should not be obliged 
to go by any means. We told him their baptism was 
expected next Lord's day, and he assured us that he 
would protect them so far as right would go. We 
told him that we had the fullest confidence in him, 
thanked him, and took our leave. However, both we 
and they were apprehensive that some mischief might 
befall them in the night, if they escaped murder. 
Brother Ward therefore wrote to the governor, re- 
questing a guard for them, who obligingly sent a 
seapoy to watch the whole night. Brother Marsh- 
man, myself, and my son William went to a village 
about three miles off, where we got two congregations 
in the market-place. I preached to one, they went to 
the other. I had a serious season. I exhorted them 
to forsake their ways and trust in Christ. The news 
of the Hindus eating with us had spread everywhere; 
several asked about it. This called for an explanation 
of their conduct; at which some mocked, and others 
wondered. After preaching and prayer, one man 
said, God had given one Shastra to them and another 
to us. I observed, that these Shastras were so very 
different from each other, that if one God gave them 
both, he must be a double-tongued being, which was 
a very improper idea of God. I told them some 


accounts of the vile characters of their gods, as 
recorded in their Shastras, and said, these cannot be 
gods. I quoted Seeb's ignorance of the churning the 
ocean, and the abuse that his wife Doorga poured 
upon him on that account. They were ashamed ; but 
I said, I cannot help it ; they are the words of your 
books ; I did not make those books. They wished, as 
they often do, to see a sign or miracle, in confirmation 
of our mission. I asked them if they had not a guar- 
dian god to their town. They said, * Yes, Punchanon.' 
I asked, is he a wooden one or made of stone ? They 
said, ' Who can tell what God is made of Y I said, 
what is the thing you worship made of? * Stone.' Well, 
if it is God, I cannot injure it. Now, if the people of 
the town will agree to it, I will try whether he is God 
or not. I will bring a large hammer, and, if I cannot 
break him to pieces, you are right. If I can, your god 
is gone, and you are undeceived. I had on the road 
made a similar proposal, with respect to Juggunath ; 
but, as he was a wooden one, I proposed to bum him. 

^ Dec. 29. Brother Brunsdon is nearly recovered. 
He has been in great danger ; though he had but a 
slight fever, yet the putrid symptoms appeared, and 
the disorder was very threatening. Brother Thomas 
arrived when he was at the worst, and ordered him 
the warm bath, which was of amazing benefit to him. 
Such fevers are very uncommon in this country. 
Poor brother Thomas has now been insane for a week. 
I think the joy he experienced in the prospect of 
seeing the baptism of a Hindu, hastened a disease 


to which, I think, he is constitutionally predisposed. 
He certainly was insane at the time he relinquished 
Moypal, but in a less degree. Last year he had a 
more heavy attack, and now, we have been obliged to 
confine him ever since Wednesday. To-day, I have 
written to Mr. Udney, to try to get him into the Cal- 
cutta hospital for lunatics. 

* Yesterday was a day of great joy. I had the hap- 
piness to desecrate the Gunga, by baptizing the first 
Hindu, viz., Krishnu, and my son Felix : some cir- 
cumstances turned up to delay the baptism of Gokul, 
and the two women. Gokul's wife came on Saturday 
to make a trial what could be done towards getting 
him back ; and the women, who stood persecution veiy 
stoutly, were brought to a state of hesitation, by the 
tears and entreaties of their relations. We went to 
them again and again, but though they all declared 
themselves stedfast on the side of Christ, they wished 
to defer their baptism a week or two. Krishnu's 
coming forward, alone, however, gave us very great 
pleasure, and his joy at both ordinances was very 
great. The river runs just before our gate, in front 
of the house, and, I think, is as wide as the Thames 
at Gravesend. We intended to have baptized at nine 
in the morning; but, on account of the tide, were 
obliged to defer it till nearly one o'clock, and it was 
administered just after the English preaching. The 
governor and a good number of Europeans were 
present. Brother Ward preached a sermon in 
English, from John v. 39, * Search the scriptures.* 


We then went to the water-side, where I addressed 
the people in Bengali ; after having sung a Bengali 
translation of, 

' Jmus, and shall it erer be/ 

and engaging in prayer. After the address, I admi- 
nistered the ordinance, first to my son, then to Krishna. 
At half-past four, I administered the Lord's supper ; 
and a time of real refreshing it was. I afterwards 
went with brother Marshman; we preached in the 
street, each to a congregation of Bengali's, while 
brother Ward and Felix went to Krishnu's house. I 
preached in the evening to a good congregation of 
Hindus, Mussulmans, Portuguese, Greeks, and Arme- 
nians. The Armenian priest was present, but could 
not understand, having but lately arrived in the 
country. After worship, Krishnu came to inform us 
that both Gokul and the women were again fully set 
to engage in the ordinance the first opportunity, 
which we expect in a Sabbath or two, when Mr. 
Fernandez has arrived. Krishnu's daughter, a young 
person of thirteen, appears to be under impressions of 
a serious nature. 

* Thus, you see, God is making way for us, and 
giving success to the word of his grace ! We have 
toiled long, and have met with many discourage- 
ments; but, at last, the Lord has appeared for us. 
May we have the true spirit of nurses, to train them 
up in the words of faith and sound doctrine ! I have 
no fear of any one, however, in this respect, but my- 
self. I feel much concerned that they may act worthy 


of their vocation^ and also, that they may be able to 
teach others. I think it becomes us to make the most 
of every one whom the Lord gives us. 

* I add a few words on the cover about our temporal 
concerns. It has much pained me for a long time to 
think how much our expenditure must exceed your 
calculations. Yet I assure you that it cannot be 
reduced. Every one of our brethren is very prudent, 
and very attentive to the economy of the family ; but 
our expenses must be great, and at this time we are 
quite pennyless^ Drawing is so difficult and preca- 
rious a business, that you can form no idea of it. I 
hope to succeed with two or three persons. One, a 
Mr. Dolton, is going to Europe, to return again imme- 
diately. I will try to send him to you or some 
minister of my acquaintance. He was under great 
concern of soul when I saw him at this time last year. 
I hope it will be found permanent. When he returns 
you may commit any parcel to his care with the 
utmost confidence. We are sending an assortment of 
Hindu gods to the Bristol Museum, and some other 
curiosities to different friends. Do send a few tulips, 
dafibdils, snowdrops, lilies, and seeds of other things, 
by Dolton, when he returns, desiring him not to put 
them into the hold. Send the roots in a net or basket, 
to be hung up any where out of the reach of salt water, 
and the seeds in a separate small box. You need not 
be at any expense, any friend will supply these things. 
The cowslips and daisies of your fields would be great 
acquisitions here. Mr. Robert Brewin, of Leicester, 
would, with the utmost pleasure, send you an assort- 


ment. Our school, I mean the English school for 
our support, promises well at present ; it is worth near 
£300 a year, and we have some additions already 
made since christmas; so that I hope we, by our 
labour, may be able to lighten the expenses of the 
society, though, at present, we are in difficulties. We 
all have a mind to work. The New Testament is 
printed to the end of Titus, and I hope we may be 
able to send a few copies by the ships which this goes 
by. We shall immediately begin to print the Old 
Testament. The whole will be five octavo volumes. 
Except as above mentioned, our family is in good 

4 am, 

* Very, very affectionately yours, 

*W. Carey.' 

In a letter to Dr. Ryland, dated January 3rd, 1801, 
Mr. Carey thus notices the distressing affliction of 
Mr. Thomas : — 

' Poor Mr. Thomas has been deranged, and we got 
him into the hospital for lunatics, at Calcutta. He is 
better, and the doctor has sent him out again ; but I 
think he is far from well. 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Sutcliff. 

* Seramporey April 8, 1801. 
^ My very dear brother, 

* We are waiting with considerable anxiety to hear 
whether our dear society approve or not of the steps 


we have taken in purchasing the mission-house, 
and keeping an English school for our support ; of all 
which, we have given them an account. The pur- 
chase was a heavy expense, but will be far cheaper 
and more convenient than hiring houses ; and as the 
whole bible, Old and New Testament, will be printed 
for nearly the sum which it was supposed it would 
require to print the New Testament alone, I hope our 
dear friends will be able to answer the bills drawn 
this year. We have a pleasing prospect that our 
school will soon defray the current expenses of the 
family. It increases more than we could have ex- 
pected, and I hope we may look forward to some good 
fruit being produced thereby, of a spiritual kind. 
Should the society send out any more missionaries, I 
would propose to them to have their eye upon some 
one who would be capable and willing to step into the 
school in case of the death of brother Marshman ; and 
it will be necessary that he be a pious man, who 
would have been capable of managing one of the first 
boarding schools in England. Brother Marshman's 
industry, and hearty engagement in the work, are such 
as have raised the school to a good degree of celebrity, 
which must be maintained. Sister Marshman has, 
also, a school for young ladies, which rises in reputa- 
tion. I hope we may not be deprived of either of 
them for many years ; but it would be well to provide 
gainst such an event : a young man, thus qualified, 
especially if married to a woman equally so, would 
be a great acquisition indeed. I hope you will be 
peculiarly careful respecting the men you send out. 


They must be of mild, accommodating tempers, to 
live peaceably in a common family like ours; and 
they must not only be such who appear hearty in the 
mission, but such who will not account it a hardship 
to be subject to rules in all their conduct, and who 
will have no views of personal aggrandizement ; but 
yet will labour diligently for the public stock. I 
believe one of our family rules, which forbids any 
member of our family to enter into business on his 
private account, has done more than any thing 
towards preserving our peace ; and I hope it will, in 
no instance, ever be broken in upon. This cuts off 
all ambitious schemes, and yet secures industry in the 
body. Perhaps we may have no further occasion for 
help from England at present ; a circumstance now 
on the tapis will determine this.' 

The circumstance alluded to, is his connexion with 
the college of Fort William, now about to be esta- 
blished by the Marquis of Wellesley ; the account of 
which being much clearer in a subsequent letter, the 
notice of it in this is omitted. 

* On Friday last, the feith of our dear friend 
Krishnu and his &mily was put to a severe trial, 
under which they have acted as becomes Christians 
indeed. It is the custom of the Hindus to marry their 
children very young. In pursuance of this custom, 
Krishnu's daughter had been married some years ago, 
to a man at Calcutta. The girl, about thirteen years 
old, appeared under a deep sense of the importance of 


eternal things, and when her husband demanded her, 
some time ago, declared her dislike to living with a 
heathen ; and the governor of this place, hearing her 
disposition, refused to let him take her away. On 
Friday last, she was a very little way from her father's 
house, when she was seized by the husband and some 
others, and violently carried away. We went to the 
governor, and represented the matter. He had been 
informed of it by the watchmen ; but they, to cover 
their own negligence, had reported that she was taken 
from without the borders of the Danish dominions. I 
got a proper officer, and soon ascertained the falsehood 
of the report. But presently a report was spread that 
the girl was murdered on the road. The governor 
wrote a letter to the master of police in Calcutta, and 
I did the same ; and her &ther went down, where he 
found her alive ; and the girl deposed before the ma- 
gistrate, that she had voluntarily embraced Christi- 
anity, or, in her own words, that hearing of the love 
of Christ, she had, of her own accord, given herself 
up to him. While I am writing, a very polite letter 
is come in from the master of the police at Calcutta, 
informing me that he has taken every method in his 
power to secure to the young woman the free exercise 
of her religion, but that a change of religion cannot 
dissolve the marriage-union. I perfectly coincide 
with this opinion, and have been inculcating it on the 
whole family from the first day that the girl was 
carried off, and I hope not without success, though 
Krishnu appears very disconsolate. I say, who 
can tell but her going thither may prove the sal- 


vation of some in that &mily. I shall certainly 
ask the master of the police for leave to visit and 
strengthen her. 

* I have given a number of letters, from Mr. Gericke 
to me, to brother M arshman, that he may get them 
copied in the school. They will do you good, and 
show you much of the state of religion on the coast; 
but I almost fear they will not be ready to accompany 
this. I think you should not print his letters as letters 
from him to me, but rather throw them into another 
form, as articles of intelligence from me respecting 
that mission : it may hurt his feelings to see private 
letters to me printed. Mr. Edmonds, from the Cape, 
is arrived, and was at our house yesterday ; we told 
him that we could not receive him as a missionary 
unless he had proper credentials, but we must treat 
him as a christian. 

^ Yours, very affectionately, 
' W. Carey; 

Mr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

* Serampore, June 15, 1801. 

*My very dear brother, 

* Yesterday I received yours of January 3rd, by the 
hand of Mr. Short, who very unexpectedly arrived 
here. I was astonished to see him, yet gratified. I 
do not know the reason of his coming, but suspect 
that he finds it difficult to live in England. He went 
down to Calcutta to-day, so that I have yet had 



scarcely any opportunity for conversation. He is 
tolerably well. 

* I am delighted with the life of dear brother 
Pearce ; but never was I so ashamed of myself. O 
my dear brother, I really think that I never had any 
thing in me worth calling either love to God or love 
to man ! I appear to myself to have never possessed 
concern for the heathen, tenderness of conscience, 
faith, zeal, or anything worth calling a christian 
grace ! I am humbled and astonished ! God is as 
ready and willing to communicate to me, as to him ; 
my wants are greater than his, because my heart 
appears to be naturally more unimpressible ; and yet I 
am placed in a situation which needs incomparably a 
greater share of the Spirit of Christ than any situation 
in England can do. 

* I know you will sympathize with me, and pray for 
me, when you read this : and I wish I had a heart to 
pray more for myself. Providence appears to put me 
in such situations as require the greatest abilities, the 
maturest judgment, and the most patient and perse- 
vering spirit. You have, I trust, heard before now 
that God has given us some from among the heathen, 
and some from among Europeans and others. We 
have baptized, since the last day of December, five 
Hindus, the last of whom, a man whose name is 
Gokul, was baptized June 7th. We hope for another 
or two. These give us much pleasure. Yet we need 
great prudence, for they are but a larger sort of 
children, compared with Europeans : we are obliged 


to encourage, to strengthen, to counteract, to advise, 
to disapprove, to teach ; and yet, to do all so as to 
retain their warm affections. 

' The manner in which our Hindu friends recom- 
mend the gospel to others is very pleasing. They 
speak of the love of Christ in suffering and dying, 
and this appears to be all in all with them. Their 
conversation with others is somewhat like the follow- 
ing. A man says, 'Well, Krishnu, you have left off 
all the customs of your ancestors; what is the reason?' 
Krishnu says, ' Only have patience, and I will inform 
you. I am a great sinner. I tried the Hindu worship, 
but got no good : after a while, I heard of Christ, that 
he was incarnate, laboured much, and at last laid 
down his life for sinners. I thought, What love is 
this ! And here I made my resting-place. Now say, 
if anything like this love was ever shown by any of 
your gods ? Did Doorga^ or Kalee, or Krishnu die 
for sinners ? You know that they only sought their 
own ease, and had no love for any one.' This is the 
simple way in which they confront others ; and none 
can answer except by railing, which they bear 
patiently, and glory in. 

' We sent you, some time c^o, a box, full of gods 
and butterflies, &c., and another box, containing a 
hundred copies of the New Testament in Bengali. 
These boxes were sent to the ships, bills of lading 
obtained, &c. ; but afterwards were returned, with two 
sloop-loads of goods, for want of room. Mr. Mc. 
Clintock, the gentleman who kindly undertook to ship 
them, informed me that the idols were gone on board 



another ship about a fortnight ago, and he expected 
to get the books aboard in a few days more ; so that I 
hope they will soon arrive in England. I believe 
they are in the Georgiana packet, but cannot be 
sure. Poor Mrs. Buchanan^ a precious, godly wo- 
man, is going home, I believe, in the same ship, in a 

* I hope my friend, Mr. Webb, is safely arrived in 
England. Give my affectionate christian love to him. 
Mr. Cunninghame is just appointed salt inspector, 
either at Sulkee, just opposite Calcutta, or on the 
circuit under the Ramgur Hills. I saw him last 
week, but it was not determined. Mr. Lang is study- 
ing Bengali, under me, in the college. 

^ What I have last mentioned requires some expla* 
nation, though you will probably hear of it before this 
reaches you. You must know, then, that a college 
was founded, last year, in Fort William, for the 
instruction of the junior civil servants of the com- 
pany, who are obliged to study in it three years after 
their arrival. I always highly approved of the insti- 
tution, but never entertained a thought that I should 
be called to fill a station in it. The Rev. D. Brown is 
provost, and the Rev. Claudius Buchanan, vice- 
provost ; and, to my great surprise, I was asked to 
undertake the Bengali professorship. One morning, 
a letter from Mr. Brown came, inviting me to cross 
the water, to have some conversation with him upoii 
this subject. I had but just time to call our brethren 
together, who were of opinion that, for several reasons, 
I ought to accept it, provided it did not interfere with 


the work of the mission. I also knew myself to be 
incapable of filling such a station with reputation and 
propriety. I, however, went over, and honestly pro- 
posed all my fears and objections. Both Mr. Brown 
and Mr. Buchanan were of opinion that the cause of 
the mission would be furthered by it ; and I was not 
able to reply to their arguments. I was convinced 
that it might. As to my ability, they could not 
satisfy me ; but they insisted upon it that they must 
be the judges of that. I therefore consented, with fear 
and trembling. They proposed me that day, or the 
next, to the governor-general, who is patron and 
visitor of the college. They told him that I had been 
a missionary in the coimtry for seven years or more ; 
and as a missionary, I was appointed to the office. A 
clause had been inserted in the statutes, to accommo- 
date those who are not of the church of England (for 
all professors are to take certain oaths, and make de- 
clarations) ; but for the accommodation of such, two 
other names were inserted, viz., lecturers and teachers, 
who are not included under that obligation. When I 
was proposed, his lordship asked if I was well affected 
to the state, and capable of fulfilling the duties of the 
station ; to which Mr. B. replied, that he should never 
have proposed me, if he had had the smallest doubt 
on those heads. I wonder how people can have such 
favourable ideas of me. I certainly am not disafiected 
to the state ; but the other is not clear to me. When 
the appointment was made, I saw that I had a very 
important charge committed to me, and no books or 


helps of any kind to assist me. I therefore set about 
compiling a grammar, which is now half printed. I 
got Ram Boshu to compose a history of one of their 
kings, the first prose book ever written in the Bengali 
language ; which we are also printing. Our pundit 
has, also, nearly translated the Sunscrit fables, one or 
two of which brother Thomas sent you, which we are 
also going to publish. These, with Mr. Foster's 
vocabulary, will prepare the way to readiii^ their 
poetical books ; so that I hope this difficulty will be 
gotten through. But my ignorance of the way of 
conducting collegiate exercises is a great weight upon 
my mind. I have thirteen students in my class ; I 
lecture twice a week, and have nearly gone through 
one term, not quite two months. It began May 4th. 
Most of the students have gotten through the acci- 
dents, and some have began to translate Bengali into 
English. The examination begins this week. I am 
also appointed teacher of the Sunscrit language ; and 
though no students have yet entered in that class, yet 
I must prepare for it. I am, therefore, writing a 
grammar of that language, which I must also print, if 
I should be able to get through with it, and perhaps 
a dictionary, which I began some years ago. I say 
all this, my dear brother, to induce you to give me 
your advice about the best manner of conducting my* 
self in this station, and to induce you to pray much 
for me, that God may, in all things, be glorified by 
me. We presented a copy of the Bengali New Testa- 
ment to Lord Wellesley, after the appointment^ 


through the medium of the Rev. D. Brown, which 
was graciously received. We ako presented governor 
Bie with one. 

< Serampore is now in the hands of the English. It 
was taken while we were in bed and asleep ; you 
may therefore suppose that it was done without 
bloodshed. You may be perfectly easy about us : 
we are equally secure under the English or Danish 
government, and, I am sure, well disposed to both. 

* Our church now consists of sixteen members. My 
eldest son was baptized the last day of December. I 
believe my second son is converted to God, and I have 
much to praise God for on their behalf. Mr. Fer- 
nandez was baptized some time ago ; his son is with 
us, and, I hope, is seeking God. I have no doubt of 
the conversion of a German lady, who came hither 
for her health ; her name is Miss Rumohr, from the 
dutchy of Sleswick, of great part of which her father 
was proprietor, and a nobleman. Hers, however, is 
true nobility. She speaks French fluently, but 
wished to learn English. The governor asked me 
to give her, now and then, a lesson. I agreed, and 
have reason to believe that my visits have been 
blessed. We^ hope there were ten conversions in 
Bengal, the last year. 

*W. Carey.' 




The life and labours of Mr. Carey were at this 
time so identified with those of his brethren, that they 
could scarcely be described otherwise than in combi* 

^Serampore, Nov., 1801. 
* My dear sisters, 

* We now form a public family ; and we have been 
blessed with outward things fer beyond what any one 
of us ever expected. Yet we have no private pro- 
perty ; and it is happy that we have not, as I believe 
the existence of the mission depends, in a very great 
degree, on our never engaging in private trade, or 


toy thing which shall divide us from the common 
families of missionaries. 

^Hitherto the Lord has helped me. I have lived to 
see the bible translated into Bengali, and the whole 
New Testament printed. The first volume of the Old 
Testament will also soon appear. I have lived to see 
two of my sons converted, and one of them join the 
church of Christ. I have lived to baptize five native 
Hindus, and to see a sixth baptized ; and to see them 
walk worthy of the vocation for twelve months since 
they first made a profession of faith in our Lord Jesus 
Christ. I have lived to see the temporal concerns of 
the mission in a state far beyond my expectation, so 
that we have now two good houses contiguous to each 
other, with two thousand pounds; a flourishing 
school ; the favour of both the Danish and English 
governments ; and, in short, the mission almost in a 
state of ability to maintain itself. Having seen all 
this, I sometimes am almost ready to say, * Lord, now 
lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to 
thy word ; for mine eyes have seen thy salvation.' 

* Moreover, I have outlived four of my brethren, 
Mr. Grant, Mr. Fountain, Mr. Brunsdon, and last of 
all, Mr. Thomas, who died October 13th last. I 
know not why so fruitless a tree is preserved ; but the 
Lord is too wise to err. 

* We live in the most desirable love with one an- 
other, and, I think, are of one heart and one soul in the 
work. I must leave off. Mr. Short, I fear, cannot 
live long, Mrs. Carey is obliged to be constantly 


confined ; she has long gotten worse and worse, but 
fear both of my own life and hers, and the desire of 
the police of the place, obliged me to agree to her 

^ Your afiectionate brother^ 

*W. Carey/ 

' Calcutta, Dec. 2y 1802. 
* My dear sisters, 

* I have an opportunity to write by the Waltham* 
stow, which I must not let slip ; especially as a very 
pious and intimate friend is returning to Europe by 
her, who will take charge of the letters. He, however, 
will go to Glasgow, so that you will not see him. I 
am exceedingly sorry for his removal, though I have 
no doubt that the leadings of Providence are clear for 
it, and I also trust that he will be very useful at 
home. He has not lefk his like, in every respect, in 
India ; though we have a goodly number of them who 
fear Grod, and I trust that that number is gradually 
increasing. There are few places in foreign settle* 
ments blessed like Calcutta, where we have two evan- 
gelical clergymen, Mr. Brown and Mr. Buchanan. I 
have the pleasure of being intimately acquainted with 
them both, and I believe you will not find many in 
England who have less bigotry and more friendship. 

^ I shall give you a little account of Calcutta ; per<* 
haps it may be gratifying to you or to some one else. 
It is a large city, between tJiree and four miles in 
length, and about one mile in breadth, at a medium* 
The south part, for about one-fourth of the length, is 


inhabited by Europeans, Portuguese, and Armenians, 
with a few Chinese. The remaining part of the town 
is inhabited by the different castes of Hindus, and by 
Mussulmans. The river Hoogly, in the western 
branch of the Delta of the Ganges, runs close to the 
west side of the town. It is about half a mile wide, 
and ships come up to the town in great numbers, and 
from all parts of the world. On the south end of 
the town is a large plain called the Esplanade, a mile 
wide, and a mile and a half or more long, lying by 
the river side, where is a beautiful walk, with trees 
planted on each side down to Fort William. I cannot 
describe the Fort ; suffice to say that it is accounted 
one of the most complete in the world : it is at least 
half a mile through it, and I suppose no ship could 
pass it without certain destruction from the guns. 

* The trade of Calcutta is very great : goods from 
every part of Bengal, Oude, and the more remote 
western provinces, are brought down the numerous 
rivers in great abundance ; and the export trade to all 
countries is very large. The government house is 
scarcely finished. It is a very elegant and large 
building, which I cannot describe, my taste not being 
in that line. There are two protestant churches, where 
the gospel is preached in its purity; one the presi- 
dency church, the other the mission church, built 
some years ago by Mr. Kiemander, a German mis- 
sionary ; it is now private property, I believe : also a 
Portuguese and an Armenian church. The college is 
the next institution of public utility. There is no 
building erected for it, but a number of houses are 


rented by government for the purpose. It contains a 
common hall, lecture rooms, where the Arabic, Per- 
sian, Sunscrit, Bengali, Hindusthani, Tamul, and the 
modem languages of Europe are taught; and lectures 
on philosophy, chemistry, and the arts are delivered. 
There are chambers for the different officers, and a 
good library, which will, no doubt, much increase, 
if the institution be continued. This bids fair to be of 
the most essential benefit to the country, by furnish- 
ing the company^s servants with a knowledge of the 
languages and manners of India. Their characters 
and abilities are also known to government, before 
they are appointed to any office. 

* The characters of the people in this place are 
various, and their dress, manners, &c., form the most 
motley picture that can be imagined. You see at 
once Europeans in elegant carriages drawn by fine 
horses, and attended by numerous servants ; children 
in carriages drawn by bullocks ; Mussulmans in old 
tattered coaches or indescribable carts, made with 
bamboos, covered with red curtains, and drawn by 
horses which can scarcely stand upright ; all sorts of 
palankins, a sort of sedan, carried on four or six men's 
shoulders, but of many varieties ; carts, of a wonder- 
ful construction, made with a stage of bamboos, 
mounted on two most singular wheels, without the 
sides being raised up, and drawn by two oxen. On 
foot, Europeans of different nations, Armenians, Por^ 
tuguese, Chinese, Mussulmans, and Hindus, all in 
the dresses of their respective nations, some of the 


poor with scarcely any dress at all, and all speaking 
the languages of their own countries, though most of 
them speak also Bengali or Hindusthani. 

* There are a few real christians. Some^ who 
profess a love to God, are too conformable to the 
world ; and, among them, some, who, for many years, 
stood firm in the ways of God. Deism is the fashion- 
able profession of Europeans. The Armenians are 
fond of imitating the English in show and inattention 
to all religion, though they are of the Greek church, 
and have the bible in their language. The Portuguese 
are catholics^ a few excepted. They are the most 
debased and despised of any people in Calcutta, 
though I hope the Lord will carry on a work among 
them. I preach at the house of one of them, a pious 
young man, every Thursday evening, to a few pevr 
sons. The utmost profligacy of manners prevails 
both among natives and others. Europeans have 
their work carried on, their assemblies and routs, on 
the Lord's day the same as on another day : and a 
man, when he arrives in India, shows what he would 
have been in England if there had been no 

* I should say something about the mission, but my 
paper is spent, and it is nearly twelve o'clock at 
night. We are all well. One of our Hindu friends 
was murdered a little time ago, one excluded, and 
one suspended. I have some hope of him who is 
excluded. One we have sent to instruct his country- 
men at a distance, though he is not in the ministry 


yet. We wish to send another, in like manner, but 
do not think it proper yet. Notwithstanding the 
distressing circumstances mentioned above, I think 
the aspect of the mission to be very encouraging. 

'* Affectionately, 

*W- Carey.' 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

' Sept. 7, 1803. 
'My dear brother, 

' I may mention a thing which I have long de- 
signed^ but, for want of funds, have never been able 
to accomplish. I suppose the expense of doing it 
might be thirty rupees per month. I have always 
had a strong turn for natural history, and know 
nothing more fit to relax the mind after close appli- 
cation to other things. I have long wished to employ 
a person to paint the natural history of India, the 
vegetable productions excepted, which Dr. Roxburgh 
has been about for several years. The birds, insects, 
lizards, fishes, and serpents (many of the last have 
been drawn by Dr. Buchanan and Dr. Russel, with 
descriptions) would be amusing, would take little 
time, and might be of use. I could do it for that 
sum, and indeed intend to employ my own little 
property for that purpose, as soon as it can be spared 
from the fiimily. 

' The Lord still smiles upon us. I some time ago 


baptized three natives and my son William. Our 
number of baptized natives is now twenty-five, and 
the whole number of church-members thirty«nine. 
I was greatly pleased with a small excursion which I 
made, some little time ago, in Jessore. I hope there 
is the foundation of a work in those parts. We have 
now begun to print the second edition of the New 
Testament, and are about to publish some of our little 
pamphlets in the Hindusthani language. Dear Pearce's 
address to the Lascars is put into that language. We 
have also some thoughts of the Mahrattas. A 
Mahratta pundit, whom we have retained, has made 
a beginning of some small portions of the scripture 
in that language, and the Devnagur letter will an- 
swer for that tongue and the Hindusthan as well as 
the Sunscrit. 

^ Affectionately yours, 

*Wm. Carey.' 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Sutcliff. 

' Calcutta, Sept. 21, 1803. 
* My dear brother, 

'I see that I have inadvertently written some things 
to England which savour strongly of vanity, and 
which, when they have been printed, have made me 
wish they had never been written. I am not con- 
scious of having felt the workings of vanity when 
writing them, and believe that the sentiments were 
what lay uppermost at the moment of writing ; but 


I wish they had not been published, at least in thdr 
present form. 

* My time is so much occupied with the second 
edition of the New Testament, and the remaining part 
of the Old, that, together with my other necessary 
avocations, the whole is completely engrossed, and my 
mind has acquired so much bias towards seeking out 
words, phrases, and idioms of speech, that it is nearly 
unprepared for any other undertaking, and I feel that 
there is a possibility of having the mind secularized 
whilst employed on bible criticisms. This, however, 
is an absolutely necessary work, and cannot be done 
without much repeated and close attention, and fire* 
quent revision. I therefore comfort myself with the 
thought that I am in the work of the Lord. The 
alterations in the second edition are great and nume* 
rous ; not so much, however, in what relates to 
meaning as construction. I hope it will be tolerably 
correct, as every proof sheet is carefully revised by us 
all, compared as exactly with the Greek as brother 
Marshman and myself are capable of doing, subjected 
to the opinion and animadversion of several pundits, 
and some of it translated by a native into a collateral 
language of which we can form some idea, before it 
is printed off. 

* Somebody, I think Morris, observed that Rowland 
Hill rather exulted in the thought that we had ren- 
dered fiaiTTlZw by a word signifying, to drown. 
We, however, have not thought proper to alter it in the 
second edition, even after the most close investigation 
which we can make. There are several words which 


we have chosen from, thus "^ITT* bathing; but this 
may be performed by pouring water all over the 
body as well as by immersion in it. ^W3"3Tl^, an 
immersion antl immediate emersion. This was a 
plausible word, but I do not find that the Greek word 
has any idea of emersion belonging to it. I suppose 
it simply means to immerse, and that the emersion is 
a consequent and separate act. ^Hipr, l^W^ff^T) and 
^U2|^, which signify immersion, and ^SP^y ^be 
term which we have used, and which means the 
same. We have preferred this, because it is the most 
common. In its simple form, it means an immersing. 
^g[^ immersion, its derivative, is compounded with 
OfSSr to give, and we very frequently hear a mother 
use it to her child, when bathing in the river ; thus, 
^5^ Q\Z immerse yourself, but she certainly does not 
mean drown yourself. ^5[A ^"SXTUT, the causal, is to 

immerse another person, or dip him. j[^ ^[{M, is to 
dive, and ^jQUDUZ^ is to drown, viz., literally 
immersing to kill. Indeed, none of our friends, nor 
any new comers, are ever afraid of being drowned, 
which they might well be, if the word had such a 
meaning. We are, however, much obliged by his 
doubt, or whatever you may call it ; it has occasioned 
us to examine the matter much more closely than 
before, and has confirmed us in the opinion, that, 
like immersion, it never means to drown, except as a 
consequence, which must follow if the person or thing 
remain immersed. There are many other words 
which we see occasion to alter, and I hope we shall 



rejoice in any hint from any one on a subject so 

* The Lord has blessed us with twenty-five native 
church-members, who are all baptized on a profession 
of their faith. They do not all afford us equal 
pleasure, and we have been under the necessity of 
suspending some from communion for a time. Yet, 
with all their imperfections, they are our glory and 
joy. We have hope of one or two more ; and, though 
things have not been so lively for these three months 
past as for some time before, yet we are not quite left. 
I hope the school, which is set up for the benefit of 
the natives, will not be in vain. It has had much to 
struggle with, but has existed and rather increased 
hitherto, and a degree of gospel knowledge has been 
communicated thereby. Our boarding-school, for the 
support of the mission, I esteem as one of the most 
essential parts of the mission itself. It now consists of 
thirty-five scholars, most of whom, if not all, may be 
expected to spend their days in India, to all of whom 
the Bengali or Hindusthani language is vernacular, 
and some of whom we may expect to be converted, 
according to tjie common course of Providence. 

* Of literary productions I have but little to say. 
I believe all our brethren make memoranda of what- 
ever appears remarkable in either reading or common 
life ; but the difficulty of obtaining accurate infor- 
mation, or of obtaining Hindu books, is very great, 
and that of reading them still greater. I am reprinting 
my Bengali grammar, with many alterations and 


edditions. There are now four hundred and thirty-two 
pages of the Sunscrit grammar (large quarto) printed 
off. I expect that there will be nearly as much 


*W. Carey.' 

As this is the first time in progress of the memoir 
in which the subject of the baptismal controversy 
occurs, it may be allowable to accompany it with a 
few remarks. It was to be apprehended, that between 
the denomination to which Mr. Carey pertained, 
and other communities, some degree of collision, in 
the course of their missionary labours, would be 
•unavoidable. When the question at issue is not specu- 
lative and sentimental, nor one of ecclesiastical polity, 
but of positive obedience, initiatory to the christian 
profession ; and, as the controversy embraces both the 
subject and the mode of the ordinance in question, 
there was no possibility of escaping the difficulty ; 
nor was any honourable course open to either party, 
but that of permitting the other, both in preaching 
end in organizing churches, to follow out their own 
conviction of truth and duty, and in the solemn work 
of translation, to give a simple and faithful version, 
without hesitation and without compromise. 

In this work the controversy is, of course, of verbal 
interest only, and, as far as the conduct of the subject 
of this memoir is concerned, may be expressed within 
the compass of a few lines. He felt convinced that 
the divine writers employ Greek words upon this 



subject, signifying to immerse, and immersion. He 
found also that the greatest number, and they too the 
most profound, of biblical critics, candidly lend their 
suffrages to this interpretation. Thirdly, he con- 
ducted his labours under the solemn conviction that 
every part of the word of God should be translated 
unequivocally. That, in a positive institute, it seemed 
reasonable to suppose that the divine Lawgiver would 
choose words of explicit import, to be applied in their 
simple, primary, and literal sense ; and that, if words 
fairly corresponding to them existed in the language 
into which a translation was making, it was incumbent 
upon a translator to adopt them. That it would 
not be wise to perpetuate a mere barbarism in other 
langus^es, because it is so done in our English 
version ; nor did he deem it religious to choose any 
word of intermediate and ambiguous meaning, to 
escape either the labour or the odium of controversy. 
It was alleged, that the subject of this memoir had 
selected words, in reference to this ordinance, which 
signified * drowning,' and ' to drown.' And it is much 
to be regretted that the same allegation has been 
recently repeated by our brethren of other denomi^ 
nations in their correspondence with the committee 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society ; and that 
that body, upon such ground, should have resolved to 
withhold the resources of a catholic institution from 
labourers whom it does not deem incompetent, nor 
suspect of being unfaithful. Such an institution was 
never supposed to be an arbiter between different 


sects of christians, but to be equally the friend and 
benefactor of them all. If it persevere in this course, 
it consents to resign the simple majesty of its 
Catholicism, it descends from its high pre-eminence, 
and its glory departs. 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

* Calcutta, Feb. 21th, 1804. 

* Very dear brother, 


' The state of things among us is, in some respects, 
painfiil, and, in some, encouraging. I fear that there 
is a very great decline in the vital power of religion 
among some of our Hindu friends. We have on that 
account appointed the morning of next Lord's day to 
be a season of prayer and humiliation of soul, and of 
serious individual examination. May the Lord again 
shine upon us in answer to prayer ! 

* I have been just writing a letter to the society, 
informing them of our having engaged in a transla- 
tion of the scriptures into the Hindusthani, Persian, 
Mahratta, and Oolkul languages, and of our intention 
to engage in more. Perhaps so many advantages for 
translating the bible into all the languages of the east 
will never meet in any one situation again, viz., a 
possibility of obtaining learned natives of all these 
countries, a sufl&ciency of worldly good things, with a 
moderate degree of annual assistance from England 
to carry us through it, a printing-office, a good library 


of critical writings, a habit <tf translating, and dis- 
position to do it. 

^ We have agreed to make an experiment, on a plan 
lately formed, to extend the mission, by setting up 
several subordinate stations, at about one hundred 
miles from each other, which we hope may maintain 
themselves by a little business, such as dealing in 
cloth, or whatever the situation may produce. Four 
brethren always to stay at Serampore, each station to 
communicate with them monthly, both about spiritual 
and temporal things, the whole to be public property 
and for the public good. Brother Chamberlain will 
be fixed in the first, which we intend to form imme- 
diately near Cutwa, on the banks of the Calcutta river, 
above Nuddea. 

^ I am, 

* Very affectionately yours, 
*Wm. Carey.' 

Me. Carey to his Sisters. 

August 23rrf, 1804. 

^ My dear sisters, 


* Through divine mercy we are all well, and, myself 
excepted, are labouring hard in the cause of our Lord 
Jesus. But this year has hitherto been marked with 
a very great number of distressing circumstances, 
which have been a cause of great pain to us. Yet we 
have not been without some encouragement. I think 
we have baptized eight persons, and I hope to baptize 


three or four more in a week or two. Thus, though 
we have cause to lament the sins of some, we are also 
called to admire the abundant grace of the Lord our 
God, who always causeth us to rejoice in every place, 
and spreadeth abroad the savour of his name by our 
means. Oh, join with us in praising the Lord, and 
let us exalt his name together. 

* I have, this evening, been preaching in English, 
from 2 Peter iii. 18. I endeavoured to define the 
grace of God, as consisting in sorrow for, and for- 
saking ofj sin ; in holy jealousy over ourselves, and 
care not to transgress; and in participation of that 
inind which was also in Christ Jesus. The knowledge 
of our Lord Jesus Christ I considered as a hearty 
trusting in him for salvation, and receiving him as 
exhibited in the gospel. I defined growing in grace 
as consisting in frequently looking into ourselves; 
always seeking for more than we have already ; and 
a continual desire to lay out for God's glory what we 
do obtain from him. Our hearers are but few, and I 
fear but little good is done, yet I dare not say that 
nothing is done. 

* 1 preach on Wednesday evening in Bengali, to a 
small number of natives, chiefly Portuguese ; on 
Thursday, in English, to some Europeans. On Lord's 
day, one af my brethren comes down, and I am always 
at Serampore. Who can tell but the Lord may return 
and be gracious ? 

* I nerer had better health in my life. Poor Mrs. 
C. is rather worse than better; a very distressing 


object indeed. This affliction is heavy O may I 
bear it like a christian, and may it be of benefit to me! 
Farewell, my dear sisters. 

^ I am, 

* Your affectionate brother, 
*W. Carey.' 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Sutcliff. 

* Calcutta, August 22, 1805. 
^ My dear brother, 

* I was forty-four years of age last Friday. 

* Yesterday, our venerable brother, Peetumber 
Singh, died, triumphing in the Lord. Our brethren 
were singing a hymn by him when he died. His 
reason was in full exercise to the last, and he appeared 
to feel the sentiments of the hymn in his dying mo- 
ment. He has been a very honourable member of the 
church. His conversation on his death-bed was very 
encouraging and edifying. He frequently observed, 
that he had obtained the peace which Paul wished in 
the introduction to all his epistles. 

^ Within this fortnight past, several have appeared, 
in Calcutta and its neighbourhood, to be inquiring in 
earnest, what they must do to be saved. Krishnu is 
down here, and has his hands full with goin^ to visit 
and converse with them. Seven persons in or.e village 
appear to have been awakened, by receiving small 
pamphlets, and the consequent conversation arising 
therefrom. Three or four of them appear anxious for 


baptism. This village, Ram Checadnopore, is just 
opposite to Calcutta, on the other side of the riven 
Two in Calcutta seem to be in earnest ; of one of 
them I have scarcely any doubt. Yesterday, four 
more persons, whom I had never seen before, attended 
our Bengali worship, in Calcutta, and staid till night 
conversing, fiiU of anxiety, about salvation: how it 
may end, I cannot tell. 

^ Is it not possible to do much more in England ? 
Money must be turned into this channel. Would not 
an annual meeting in some central part of England, 
say London, be of use, to call the public attention more 
to this point? The annual meetings of our paedobaptist 
brethren have this eflfect. Ought not more ministers 
to be engaged in the active part of the society ? I see 
that the whole rests on a few : brother Fuller, yourself. 
Dr. Ryland, and one or two more. Were you to die, 
who would be found that would take equal interest in 
the active parts of the work ? 

* Some new sources of income are opening here. 
The council of the college have petitioned government 
for an enlargement of my salary, and some of the gen- 
tlemen feel much interested therein. One of them 
told me that he had spoken personally to Lord Com- 
wallis about it. The college and the Asiatic society 
have agreed to allow us a stipend of three hundred 
rupees per month, to assist us in translating and 
printing the Sunscrit writings, accounted sacred or 
scientific. We have begun the Ramayunu, the most 
ancient poem in the Sunscrit language. Sir John 
Anstruther showed me, to-day, a letter which he, as 


president of the Asiatic society, and by desire of the 
college, intends to address to all the learned societies 
and bodies in Europe, to recommend the work. The 
three hundred rupees per month is independent of 
the sale of the books. The copy will be ours, and all 
profits on the sale. The Sunscrit text will be printed 
on one page, and the translation, with notes, on the 

* You may, perhaps, wonder that I write no more 
letters ; but when you see what I am engaged in, you 
will cease to be surprised. I translate into Bengali, and 
from Sunscrit into English, viz., the Ramayunu. I 
have also begun an attempt at translating the Veds. 
I must collate copies ; every proof-sheet of the Bengali 
and Mahratta scriptures, the Sunscrit grammar, and 
the Ramayunu, must go three times, at least, through 
my hands. A dictionary of the Sunscrit, which is 
edited by Mr. Colebrooke, goes once, at least, through 
my hands. I have written and printed a second 
edition of my Bengali grammar, wholly new worked 
over, and greatly enlarged; and a Mahratta gram- 
mar ; and collected materials for a Mahratta diction- 
ary. Besides this, I preach twice a week, frequently 
thrice, and attend upon collegiate duties. I do not 
mention this, because I think my work a burden, it is 
a real pleasure ; but to show that my not writing many 
letters is not because I neglect my brethren, or wish 
them to cease writing to me. The truth is, that 
every letter I write is at the expense of a chapter 
of the bible, which would have been translated in 
that time. W. Carey.' 


Mr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

* December \Oth, 1805. 
' My dear brother, 

^ This has been the most prosperous year that the 
mission has yet seen ; we baptized thirteen natives in 
the last month; viz., October, and the first Sabbath in 
November, and five more last Lord's-day, December 
Ist. I think about thirty-five or thirty-six have been 
baptized Mrithin the year ; nor do I know of any season 
in which so many other propitious circumstances have 
combined in favour of the work. 

* Two obstacles have hitherto stood in the way, if 
we had had the men ; viz., want of money to support 
them, and the difficulty of getting permission from 
government. I trust that both of these are in a fair 
way of being surmounted. Our friend, Mr. Udney, 
is now first member of council, and, in consequence of 
the absence of the governor-general, Sir G. Barlow is 
now vice-president and deputy-governor. I went to 
breakfast with him a few days ago, and took the 
opportunity to mention our design to him, adding, 
that it was our wish, if possible, to fix our brethren as 
missionaries, and not as traders. I told him that we 
did not wish to conceal a single step that we took from 
government, but that, as things stood, we were subject 
to innumerable hinderances from the magistrates of the 
districts, who, in obstructing us, would be only doing 
their duty, as things now stand. I mentioned a recent 


circumstance, in which the judge of the city of Dacca 
forbad brother Moore and my son William from dis- 
tributing books, though the people were so eager to 
get them, that they were obliged to moor their boat 
out from the shore to prevent its being sunk by the 

crowd. Mr. U , in a very friendly manner, 

desired me to state every thing we wanted in a 
private letter to him, and said that he would pri- 
vately communicate with Sir G. Barlow upon the 
subject, and then give me his best advice. I have 
no doubt but government will give us all the liberty 
they can. The other difficulty, I trust, will be re- 
moved also. 

* Another propitious circumstance will, I trust, 
enable us to do more. The British and foreign bible 
society sent a letter to Mr. Udney, wishing him, Rev. 
Messrs. Brown and Buchanan, brethren Marshman, 
Ward, and I, to form a committee to cooperate with 
them in this country. In consequence of this, brother 
Marshman drew up a memorial, which was much 
approved, showing the practicability of translating 
and publishing the bible here, for a comparatively 
small sum. From this, Mr. Buchanan drew up an 
address, which was immediately forwarded to the 
governor-general, and is intended to be circulated all 
over India, to get subscripticms for this work, and I 
doubt not of its success. This will, if obtained, take 
off the heavy expense of translating and printing, and 
enable us to employ the money in spreading the word 
when printed. We have mentioned the following 
languages, viz., Sunscrit, Bengali, Hindusthani, Mah- 


ratta, Oorea, Telinga, Kumata, Guzzeratti, Persian, 
Boutan, Thibet, Assam, Burma, Chinese, and Malay* 
You will probably see a copy of the memorial. All 
these are or can be brought within our reach. 

'W. Carey.' 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Sutcliff. 

'February 8, 1805. 
^My situation in the college imposes a great 
quantity of labour on me; but I feel happy in it, 
because it subserves the cause of the mission. In Sep- 
tember last I was, as moderator at the public disputa- 
tion, called to deliver a public speech in the Bengali 
language, and another in Sunscrit, before the gover*^ 
nor-general and all the chief officers of government. 
The Sunscrit speech, being the first ever delivered in 
that language by a European, was ordered to be 
translated, and, with its translation, printed among the 
college essays and theses, I took that opportunity to 
address part of the speech to his excellency, lord 
Wellesley ; and after it was translated I sent it to Mr* 
Buchanan, desiring him to suggest any alterations or 
additions. He considerably enlarged the address to 
lord Wellesley, and inserted some expressions of 
flattery, which I totally disapprove. Without saying 
any thing to me, he sent the speech thus enlarged 
and amended to his lordship, for his approbation, pre- 
viously to its publication. As it involved some things 
respecting the mission, particularly an open avowal of 
my having beejn in the habit of preaching constantly 


to the natives, and superintending schools for the 
instruction of Hindu children in the principles of 
Christianity, he was very anxious about the result, 
but said nothing to me till it was returned, with a 
letter written by his lordship's hand, of which, as 
nearly as I can recollect, this is a copy : 

* I am much pleased with Mr. Carey's truly origi- 
nal and excellent speech ; I would not wish to have 
a word altered. I esteem such a testimony from such 
a man a greater honour than the applauses of courts 
and parliaments. 

* Both Mr, Brown and Mr. Buchanan were astonished ; 
and yet more so, when, on the 6th of February last, 
Mr. Brown and I, before dinner at the government 
house, were talking t(^ether, Lord Wellesley came up, 
and expressed nearly the same sentiments to me, in 
nearly the same words, adding, I then desired Mr. 
Buchanan to tell you this, and have the pleasure now 
to tell it you myself. He then asked several ques- 
tions about our family, told me that he had been in- 
formed of all things about our establishment by Dr. 
Buchanan (surgeon), and expressed the highest satis- 
faction with the whole. He had, a week before, sent 
me a great number of copies of inscriptions, and 
other curious documents, in the Kumata and Tamul 
languages, collected by Dr. Buchanan in Mysore, for 
me to translate. I have given in an estimate of the 
expense, and it will probably fall on me to superin- 
tend the translation, if it be done, which, as it is 


ordered by the court of directors, will, I suppose, be 
the case. 

* Within the last year the Mahratta language has 
been taught in the college : this was placed under me. 
On the 6th of February last, a gentleman who had 
studied it delivered a public declamation therein, at 
the public disputations at the government-house, with 
very great reputation. In consequence of this, it was 
proposed to make me a professor, and to double my 
income. Mr. Buchanan informed me that it was ap- 
proved by his lordship, and would, in all probability, 
take place. At present I know nothing further about 
it ; but as it was proposed without my seeking for it, I 
wish to leave it where it is. ' 

Mr. Carey to his Sisters. 

* Calcutta, Dec. 31, 1805. 
*My dear sisters, 

* I shall never more see either of you in this world ; 
indeed, considering the work which lies before me 
here, and the loud calls to exert all my powers, if I 
had a thousand bodies as strong as this, I dare not 
entertain a thought or wish of seeing any of my 
friends any more while I am here below. I enjoy 
very good health and spirits in general. The cold 
season rather pinches me, though I have every com- 
fort that heart can wish. I do not know how I could 
possibly endure an English winter; for though we 
have no frost, I can scarcely endure the cold. 


*This year God has increased us with thirty per- 
sons added by baptism ; twenty-seven of them 
natives, and three Europeans. Several of our native 
brethren have gifts for preaching the gospel, and are 
much more useful in this work than we are. I hope 
a few more are inquiring the way to Zion, with their 
faces thitherward. O that the Lord may greatly 
increase their number, and carry on his cause till all 
India, and the whole world, are obedient to the faith. 

* We are now engaged in translating and printing 
the bible in seven languages, and expect to begin it 
in six more in a little time. 

^ I am your affectionate brother, 

*W. Carey.' 

It has often and justly been remarked, that it would 
be scarcely, if at all, possible to supply a European 
agency adequate to the evangelization of the heathen 
world ; and that hence we may infer the great im- 
portance of employing native preachers, and by their 
means multiplying subordinate stations throughout 
the various regions in which missionaries have 
planted themselves. But two or three things should 
be regarded. First, that the minds of native brethren 
be well cultivated, and sedulously trained to scriptural 
study. Secondly, that the stations should not be 
selected too remotely from those occupied by Euro- 
pean missionaries, lest, for want of succour, they 
yield to discouragement, and fall by temptation. And, 
to comfort them and increase their efficiency, the 


European brethren should, as frequently as practicable, 
become their companions in their itineracies and 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

* Calcutta, May 15, 1806. 
* My dear brother, 

*The work of God goes on gradually among us, 
and there are few months in which some are not bap- 
tized. Last month three natives were joined to us, 
and the month before two. We have, however, had 
occasion to exclude several members for evil conduct. 

•The Cape of Good Hope is now in the hands of 
the English. Should it continue so, would it not be 
possible to have a general association of all denomina- 
tions of christians from the four quarters of the world, 
kept there once in about ten years ? I earnestly re- 
commend this plan. Let the first meeting be in the 
year 1810, or 1812, at furthest. I have no doubt but 
it would be attended with very important effects. We 
could understand one another better; and more en- 
tirely enter into one another's views by two hours' 
conversation, than by two or three years' epistolary 

* AflPectionately yours, 

* W. Carey.' 

2 I 


' Calcutta, July 17, 1806. 
*My dear brother, 

*I have lately been apprehensive of an induration 
of the spleen. This, however, does not lay me by 
from my usual labours. I have just done preaching 
to an attentive auditory of Europeans, from. We 
beseech you, in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to 

* We are now engaged in a large undertaking, 
namely, the translation of the scriptures into all the 
languages of tlie east. A subscription to a great 
amount has been made for this purpose, and is still 
filling up. I suppose that it amounts at this time to 
three thousand pounds sterling. The printing of the 
Bengali, Mahratta, and Sunscrit, is begun; I trust 
the whole will be ultimately accomplished. 

*The printing of my Sunscrit Grammar is now 
finished within a sheet or two. It has been a heavy 
business. I am heartily glad that it is done. 

' I am your afiectionate brother, 

*W. Carey.' 

Mr. Carey and his companions had no sooner 
settled themselves at Serampore and commenced 
their missionary work, than they had to encounter the 
opposition of the ruling powers. The grounds alleged 
for this interference were not dissimilar to those 


which formed the pretext for persecuting the first 
preachers of the gospel in Judea and Asia Minor. 

The Missionaries to the Society. Written by 

Mr. Carey. 

* Ser ampere, Sept. 2, 1806. 
^Very dear brethren, 

* Our quarterly letter will inform you of the state of 
the mission up to the 24th of June last This is to 
relate to you a circumstance which occurred last week, 
highly distressing, and which may considerably em- 
barrass and cramp us in our labours. 

* You have been informed of our wish to extend the 
influence of the gospel by settling missionary stations 
in different places of this and the neighbouring 
countries. As it is desirable to do every thing in a 
way which shall give no offence to government, bro- 
ther Carey, by the wish of us all, some time ago 
wrote a private letter to Mr. Udney, stating the out- 
lines of our plan, and praying for the permission of 
government to carry it into effect. Mr. U. very 
kindly wrote a letter, stating our wishes, and recom- 
mending the desired permission to Sir G. Barlow, 
governor-general, who was then in the upper pro- 
vinces: to this letter no reply was given. Some time 
after this, a plan was digested, and proposals were 
issued, for translating the scriptures into several of 
the languages of the east; and, in consequence of a 
letter from the Bible Society, some gentlemen of great 
respectability intended to have joined with some of 



US to form a committee, for the purpose of managing 
this undertaking. Several Armenians and Portu- 
guese have strongly testified their approbation of the 
truths delivered ; and one of each of these nations has 
desired our native brethren to publish the gospel in 
his house to such as choose to attend. 

'The word has been widely diffused through the 
country, and we have reason to think that the disposi- 
tion to hear the truths of the gospel has been 
gradually increasing for some time past. 

'Judge then, dear brethren, what was our grief and 
surprise at a circumstance which took place last week, 
and which we shall relate exactly as it occurred. 

' Our brethren Chater and Robinson, who arrived 
here last week, went, as is customary, to the police- 
office to report their arrival ; on which occasion some 
demur arose about permitting tnem to proceed to 
Serampore. Brother Carey therefore went to town 
on Tuesday last, and \^aited on two of the justices of 
the peace (Mr. Blacquiere and Mr. Thoroton) about 
the matter. As he was leaving the office, Mr. Blac- 
quiere called him back, and said that he had been di- 
rected by the governor-general to express to him his 
desire that he would not interfere with the prejudices 
of the natives by preaching to them, instructing them, 
or distributing books or pamphlets among them ; that 
he would desire his colleagues to observe the same 
line of conduct; and that we would not permit the 
converted natives to go into the country to spread 
Christianity among the people. Brother Carey in- 
quired if this communication had been made in 


writing, and was answered in the negative. He then 
assured the magistrate that we would endeavour to 
conform to the wishes of government in all that we 
conscientiously could. 

^This prohibition is to us extremely distressing ; and 
is rendered more so by the encouraging circum- 
stances among the natives which we have already 

*As we have scrupulously refrained from inter- 
meddling with politics, we are at a loss to assign any 
adequate cause of this sudden change. It is certain 
that government had not till now any suspicion that 
evil would arise from our conduct. Brother Carey, 
in a public speech, since printed, informed Lord Wel- 
lesley that he had for several years been in the habit 
of preaching to the natives. The present governor- 
general in a public speech, also printed, acknow- 
ledged with approbation *the Society of Protestant 
Missionaries at Serampore.' No political evil can 
reasonably be feared from the diffusion of the gospel 
now, for it has been publicly preached in different 
parts of Bengal for about twenty years past, without 
the smallest symptom of that nature. At least a 
million tracts and pamphlets of different sorts have 
been distributed in every direction, among the na- 
tives, without a single instance of disturbance, except 
the abusive language of a few loose persons may be so 
called. To this might be added the experience of the 
missionaries on the coast, who have preached the 
gospel for a hundred years, and reckon about 40,000 
persons who have embraced Christianity. Such long- 


continued exertions to spread the goepel, carried on to 
such an extent and in such different situations, with- 
out producing the smallest inconvenience, may, we 
presume, furnish a course of experience quite suffi* 
cient to remove every suspicion of political evil aris- 
ing from the introduction of Christianity. 

' However great our inclination might be, there is 
one part of the wish of the governor-general with 
which we are unable to comply : we mean that which 
requires us to prevent converted natives from dis- 
seminating Christianity. Native christians are settled 
in different places through the greatest part of Bengal; 
and we are by law prohibited to go where they re- 
side. Being, therefore, unable to speak to them on 
the subject, compliance is out of our power. 

^ It is difficult for us to ascertain the present path of 
duty. We are much in the situation in which the 
apostles were when commanded ^not to teach nor 
preach any more in his name.' They, it is true, re- 
plied, * whether it be right in the sight <rf God to 
obey you rather than God, judge ye ? ' Would it be 
right or not for us to make the same reply in the first 
instance ? On the one hand our prospects of success 
are obscured, and those opening doors for usefulness, 
which a few days ago engs^ed our attenljjion, and ani- 
mated our exertions, are shut by this ci'uel message : 
the consequence is, that souls are perishing on every 
side, and we are forbidden to administer the remedy 
which God has put into our hands. To act in open 
defiance of the wish of the governor-general, might 
occasion a positive law against evangelizing the 


heathen, and at once break up the mission, which has 
been settled at so great an expense. On the other 
hand, it is probable that if we yield a little to the pre- 
sent storm, it may soon blow over, and we may not 
only enjoy our present privileges, but obtain the 
liberty which we have so long wished for. We, with 
the advice of our best friends, have for the present 
chosen the latter line of conduct. 

*You will see by a letter of ours, dated Aug. 27, of 
this year, what prospects are opening upon us. We 
trust, therefore, that you will do your utmost in 
England to clear our way, and rest assured, that we 
shall do all which our situation will permit us, to get 
the obstacles removed here. 

' We think that this circumstance should not make 
any alteration in our plans for spreading the gospel 
by means of subordinate stations. It is highly proba- 
ble that a way may be opened for the word to have 
free course, long before brethren sent from England 
can be fitted for effective labour, and therefore beg 
that our letter of August the 27th may be considered 
as a statement of our ultimate plans. We are not 
doubtful respecting the final success of the gospel in 
these countries, though greatly distressed at the pre- 
sent occurrence. Our hope is in God. We trust 
that this will be a peculiar subject of prayer with us, 
and we shall endeavour to improve the privileges yet 
remaining. The cause is God's, and will never be 
deserted by him, though he may permit temporary 
obstructions to arise. 

^ The Rev. Mr. Brown called on Saturday last on 


the magistrate at Calcutta, and has sent us the fol- 
lowing memoranda of what he learned from him. 

^ After a long discussion with the magistrate, I find 
as follows, viz. : 

' 1 . The missionaries remain at Serampore in full 

^2. There is no objection made to their circulating 
the scriptures. 

*3. There is no objection to their preaching in their 
own house at CossitoUah, or in the house of any other 
person, provided they do not preach openly in the 
Lai Bazar. 

*4. Natives may teach and preach wherever they 
please, provided they be not sent forth as emissaries 
from Serampore. 

*5. There will be no objection to their exercising 
in the Lai Bazar, or any where else, when they can 
procure permission from the court of Directors or the 
British government. 

* The magistrate informed Mr. Brown that he had 
never received any complaint against us, or any of 
our brethren, and that he knew nothing of any report 
to our prejudice having ever been sent to government. 

*Thus, dear brethren, we have given you a simple 
account of this afflicting occurrence. We now leave 
it with you to take such steps as may appear proper 
and practicable. We know that you will not be 
backward to help us with your prayers, your counsels, 
or your exertions. We remain, dear "brethren, 

' Very affectionately yours, 

. *W. Carey, and Brethren.' 


Mr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

'Calcutta, Nov. 18, 1806. 
' Dear brother Fuller, 

' At no time since the commencement of the mis- 
sion have its affairs been more important than at pre- 
sent. Except what I wrote to you, no communication 
concerning the mission has been made from govern- 
ment; yet several circumstances combine to make me 
conclude that the removal of it, or even the suppres- 
sion of it, would not be matter of regret to the 
governor-general. Much trouble has been given on 
account of the arrival of our brethren. An order was 
passed prohibiting the clearing out of the ship, unless 
the captain took them back. We made a representa- 
tion to government, and the governor of Serampore 
very kindly wrote an official letter to say that we 
were under the protection of the court of Denmark, 
by express orders from Copenhagen. Notwithstand- 
ing all, the sentence was confirmed ; and when the 
captain applied for a clearance it was refused, but was 
granted about two hours afterwards. This was a 
matter of praise to God. 

* I felt at first much distressed about these unto- 
ward circumstances; but was afterwards, with all our 
brethren, brought to determine that we would go 
straight forward, and leave the matter with God. We 
resolved to do all in our power, by representation, re- 
monstrance, and the like ; and if all were unsuccessful, 


to yield up our brethren and sisters. God has, how- 
ever, been better to us than our fears. Through this 
whole affair, our friend Mr. Brown has interested 
himself much on our behalf ; as have also our other 
friends, Messrs. Martyn, Corrie, and Parsons, evan- 
gelical clergymen lately arrived. We have prayed 
repeatedly with and for each other, and I am sure 
have felt a real interest in each other's affairs. Our 
friend Dr. Buchanan is on the coast, where he has 
long been on a survey of the state of religion there. 
He writes very favourably about the state of the 
christian congregations at and about Tanjore. In- 
deed, it appears that incredible good was done by the 
labours of the late excellent Mr. Schwartz. 

* In consequence of our being unable at present to 
spread ourselves, as we wish and propose, in Bengal 
and Hindusthan, we have resolved upon sending two 
brethren to try whether a mission cannot be begun in 
the Burman empire. Brethren Mardon and Chater 
have accepted the call to go thither, and are only 
waiting for a ship to take them to Rangoon, the sea- 
port of that empire. You may see a full account of 
that country in Colonel Symes's embassy to Ava. It 
is a large empire, lying contiguous to Bengal on the 
east, but inaccessible by land, on account of the moun- 
tains, covered with thick forests, which run between 
the two countries. It is at least eight hundred miles 
long, bordering on its east side upon China, Cochin- 
China, and Tonquin. I hope we may be able to 
penetrate those countries also, ultimately. 

^ In this troublous time, some Armenians and Por- 


tuguese have come forward to encourage preaching 
among the Hindus, and are fitting up a place for that 
purpose in Calcutta* Our brethren preach in the 
school of an Armenian, while the place is fitting up. 
This is matter of great encouragement; it is the Lord's 
doing, and marvellous in our eyes. About a dozen of 
our native brethren are constantly employed as 
itinerant preachers; they go two and two together, 
viz., one gifted for preaching, reading, &c., and 
another, of inferior gifts, as his companion. I trust 
that fruit will arise from this. 

' W. Carby.' 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Sutcuff. 

* Calcutta, Feb. Uth, 1807. 
' My dear brother Sutcuff, 

^The present is to the mission in this country a 
highly eventful period, and one which ought to make 
us eye the providential hand of God at every step. 
I wish my heart were mow affected with the circum- 
stances which are continually taking place. 

^ Notwithstanding the distressing occurrences some 
time ago, we are still preserved ; and though we act 
with considerable caution, and under many disad- 
vantages, yet our efforts to spread the gospel are but 
little diminished, and it is highly probable that the 
present discouragements will eventually contribute to 
the more wide spread of it. 

' You must not however suppose that no attempts are 


making in Bengal ; our native brethren are constantly 
employed. Six of them have a monthly allowance 
from us, and are continually out as itinerant preachers. 
Four of them, and my son William, are now in the 
neighbourhood of M alda, where gospel light has been 
much spread abroad, and there are pleasing hopes 
that one or two may be soon baptized. 

* Three evangelical clergymen have been stationed 
in different places under this presidency, and one has 
just left this for Madras. The very places which we 
desired to occupy, but could not obtain permission, 
are thus supplied by men, who are as desirous of the 
conversion of the heathen as we are, and who heartily 
coincide with our measures. 

* Until lately I was teacher of three languages in 
the college, on a monthly salary of five hundred 
rupees per month ; but, on the 1st of January past, 
I was, by the governor-general in council, appointed 
professor of the Sunscrit and Bengali languages, to 
which the Mahratta is added, though not specified in 
the official letter, with a salary of one thousand rupees 
per month. This will much help the mission. 

* Very affectionately yours, 
*W. Carey.' 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

* CaktUta, Feb. 13M, 1807. 
* My dear brother Fuller, 

* A few weeks ago I wrote to you, and now intend 
to give you a few more remarks upon the state of 


things among us. The gloomy cloud which hung 
over us some time ago gave us much alarm, and still 
threatens to hinder our exertions. Though it will not 
perhaps be so severely felt as was at first imagined. 
India swarms with deists, and deists are, in my 
opinion, the most intolerant of mankind ; their great 
desire is to exterminate true religion from the earth. 
I consider the alarms which have been spread through 
India as the fabrications of those men, who took 
occasion, from the concurrence of two or three cir- 
cumstances, viz., the massacre at Yellore, and the 
rebellious disposition of the inhabitants in some parts 
of Mysore, and the public advertisements for sub- 
scriptions to defray the expense of oriental translations; 
to represent the introduction of Christianity among 
the natives as dangerous. The effects of these 
attempts have been greater under the Madras govern- 
ment than here. 

* I believe Dr. Taylor would have found it a very 
difficult thing to have stayed at Bombay (as it is, his 
going to Surat is deferred) had it not been for Sir 
James Mackintosh. Sir James, some time ago, wrote 
to me, inviting us to try a mission in those parts, and 
offering it all the assistance in his power. Dr. Taylor 
was then with us. I therefore replied to Sir James, 
that Dr. T. would endeavour to settle at Surat, and 
that I should esteem any attention shown to him as if 
it were shown to myself. I afterwards repeated this, 
in reply to another letter from him ; and have now the 
pleasure to hear that he has interested himself so 
much in his favour, that there is little fear but he will 


remain there unmolested. Sir James is recorder of 
Bombay ; the man who gained such applause in En- 
gland, in the cause when was prosecuted for 

libelling Napoleon. 

' Dr. Buchanan has been a tour to visit the whole 
of the south of India. His interview with the Syrian 
christians, in the mountains of Malabar, was the most 
interesting of anything. Those Christians have been 
in those mountains, in the dominion of a heathen 
prince, the king of Travancore, ever since the fourth 
century, if not before that period. They were forced 
by the Portuguese to submit to the church of Rome, 
and remained under bond^e to it about eighty years, 
when the greater number of them cast off the yoke, 
and have ever since worshipped God according to the 
dictates of their own consciences. When he went 
among them, they received him with the greatest 
reserve, for they thought him to be a Romish priest, 
and had an idea that all the English, if they were any 
thing in religion, were papists. They thought his 
visits a trap, designed to bring them again under the 
bondage of popery. When he had convinced them to 
the contrary, they were like people in an ecstasy, and 
received him with the most lively pleasure. One of 
their oldest bishops talked like a man of true religion. 
These people have many manuscript copies of the 
Syriac bible, but the greatest part of them had never 
seen a printed bible. The Portuguese had burnt 
many of their books, but not one of their bibles. 
They, however, had insisted upon inserting some 


interpolations ; but these are in so different a character 
as to appear at first sight. They want a translation 
into the Malayala tongue. One of them had trans- 
lated Matthew ; but it was almost always borrowed by 
others, for the sake of getting copies. They have 
agreed to encourage translations, and to set up 
christian schools in every village. A book was 
published, about one hundred and fifty years ago, in 
England, giving an account of these people ; it is 
called, ' An account of the acts of the Synod, held at 

Diamper, in the year .' The Jews at Cochin 

are numerous, and have manuscripts of the Hebrew 

*W. Carey.' 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

' Calcutta, October Hth, 1807, 

*Dear brother Fuller, 

# ♦ #* # « #*# 

* I however rejoice to inform you, that the storm is 
gone over. On Tuesday last, the governor of Seram- 
pore received a letter from government, revoking their 
order for the removal of the press to Calcutta, and 
only requiring to be apprised of what we print, as the 
productions of our press are designed for distribution 
within the British territories. We shall send copies 
of what we intend to print to the governor of Seram- 
pore, who will transmit them to the British govern- 
ment. The same day, a letter to the same purport 


was sent to me. We had little expectation of a formal 
revocation of the former orders, but had hopes that 
they might not be enforced. We intend to keep a 
day of thanksgiving for this deliverance, as soon as I 
return to Serampore. As the circumstance of our 
dispersing pamphlets in the company's dominions is 
recognized in their letters of revocation, we shall feel 
no delicacy in distributing them ; and, as we wish to 
avoid every thing inflammatory, and have a genuine 
desire to promote the tranquillity of the country, I have 
no doubt but we shall be permitted to print nearly all 
we wish. Our public work will not be greatly inter- 
rupted by this occurrence, and I have reason to hope 
that the obstacles which yet remain will be gradually 
taken away. Perhaps our situation is, even now, 
better than it was before. There are, however, many 
here who would rejoice to see Christianity wholly 
expelled the country, and, particularly, to see any 
embarrassment thrown in our way. We, therefore, 
have no security but in God. I this evening 
preached from Isaiah li. 1, 2, 3. I think I feel a 
trust in God, as it respects the concerns of his 
church. The example of his preserving and increasing 
Abraham, who was alone when called, and the cir- 
cumstance of this being held up to encourage the hope 
that God will comfort, repair, beautify, and fill with 
gladness his church, as promised in the third verse, is 
a support to me. I have, for many months past, had 
my mind much drawn to that passage, Isaiah xl. 
27, 28, particularly verse 28, *God is the Lord, 
the everlasting God, the creator of the ends of the 


earth.' Thus, he can do all that is necessary for the 
extension and benefit of his church. Thus, God fainteth 
not, neither is weary, notwithstanding the wicked- 
ness of the world, and the ingratitude of his own 
people. He knows how to accomplish all that he 
has promised, for there is no searching of his 
*«* « • « * « • 

* W. Carey.' 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

' Jan. lith, 1808. 
* My dear brother Fuller, 

* Blessed be God, all things now continue quiet with 
us ! Our deliverance has been great, and it may be 
said, with propriety, that God * has stretched forth his 
hand against the wrath of his enemies, and that his 
right hand has saved us.' 

* On the eighth of December last, it pleased God 
to remove my wife by death. She had been in a 
state of the most distressing derangement, for these 
last twelve years ; indeed, the turn of her mind was 
such as prevented her from feeling even those ideal 
pleasures which sometimes attend maniacal persons. 
She was attacked with a fever, which terminated in 
about a fortnight. 

* Our friend, Mr. Wm. Grant, who died some time 



ago, left twenty thousand rupees to the mission,* 
which sum I have this day received from his executor, 
Mr. Eilerton. He also left ten thousand to assist the 
translations, and ten thousand more to a fund formed 
at Calcutta, to maintain an evangelical minister at 
the mission church. 

^We are printing in six languages, and casting 
types for more. Reports will be sent, perhaps, by this 



* AflTectionately yours, 
*W. Carey.' 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Sutcliff. 

* Calcutta, Jan. \Sth, 1808. 
' My dear brother, 

* By the General Stewart you will have received a 
very large cargo of letters, giving you an account of 
the great peril to which the mission has been exposed, 
and of the wonderful deliverance wrought out for us 
by God. Seldom has a more remarkable interposition 
been known, and seldom has a deliverance been more 
evidently an answer to prayer. We were all over- 
whelmed with distress ; but I am persuaded that we 
all felt a reliance on God, such as we have scarcely 
witnessed before. We are under the greatest obli- 
gations, imder God, to the governor of Serampore, 

* ' We mean to appropriate the interest of thia aum to the support of the mis- 
aion-atationa, in Tarioas parts of India.' 


who showed himself our staunch friend upon this 

' I have lately made a comparison between the state 
of India when I first landed here, and its present state, 
as it respects the progress of the gospel ; which I shall 
send you. When I arrived, I knew of no person in 
Bengal who cared about the gospel, except Mr. Brown, 
Mr. Udney, Mr. Creighton, Mr. Grant, and Mr. 
Brown, an indigo planter, besides brother Thomas 
and myself. There might be more, and probably 
were, though unknown to me. There are now in India 
thirty-two ministers of the gospel. 

^ The bible is now translated into, and printed in, 
the following languages : — 

* Sunscrit, Bengali, Mahratta, Orissa, Hindusthani, 
Guzeratti, Chinese, Seek, Telinga, Kurnata, Burman, 
and Persian. 

'The languages on the continent, into which a 
translation is not yet begun, are, Nepaul, Bhootan, 
including Tibet, Assam, Arrakan, Pegur, Siam, Cam- 
bodia, and, perhaps, two or three more, of which 
I am not informed. In the islands, they are nu- 
merous; viz., three languages in Sumatra, one, at 
least, in Java, that of Borneo, Timor, perhaps ten 
more in the Moluccas, that of the Philippines, and a 
few others; in all about thirty. Should God spare 
our lives, we may possibly engage in those of the con- 
tinent, if our means will suffice. The Chinese, now 
under translation, includes that of Cochin China, and 
the Japanese. All this must be done, and men must 
be provided to carry these translations to the different 



countries, before the millenDium, which cannot be 
far off. 

*W. Carey.' 

In a letter to Mr. Sutcliff, he thus alludes to his 
second marriage. 

' May 4th, 1808. 
^ I have resolved on a second marriage, and expect, 
by the end of June, to be united to Miss Charlotte 
Emilia Rumohr. She is a person about my own age, 
and of whose piety and attachment to the mission I 
have the strongest proofs. She is of a noble £Eunily, 
in the dutchy of Sleswick. Her father died when she 
was young. Her mother, the countess of Alfeldt, died 
about three years ago. She has a sister living near 
Sleswick, who is the wife of the Graff (Chevalier) 
Wamstedt, chamberlain to his Danish majesty, and 
ranger of the royal forests. Another sister is married 
and settled at Marseilles. I do not know of any, 
except Mrs. Wamstedt, who are serious, though the 
family is very numerous. 

^ Accept the assurance that I am 

* Very, very affectionately yours, 

' W. Carey.' 

'January, 1808. 
' My dear sisters, 

*The last year has been one of the most eventful 
of my whole life, and has been marked by some of the 


Strongest features of any period. I have received the 
greatest proofs of public regard, and have felt the 
strongest effects of public jealousy, that ever have 
been shown to me before. I have had some of the 
most painful exercises, and have experienced some of 
the greatest supports, I ever recollect. It would be 
vain to repeat to you the hard struggle which we have 
had with government, and the remarkable way in 
which God has exalted himself above the wrath of 
his enemies, as these things are detailed at large in a 
great number of letters sent to England. I do not 
recollect any occasion on which I liave felt so much ; 
nor do I recollect any circumstance in which so full 

an answer was granted to prayer in so short a time. 

• « « 4( • • « 

* In the last year the Lord bestowed upon me the 
unspeakable favour of callin&f my son Felix to eneraffe 
in an «.emp. .o begin . new' n.Lon. A day oMwo 
before Felix left, my poor wife was indisposed, but no 
danger was apprehended. She, however, grew worse 
and worse, till December the 8th, on which day she 
died. Her disorder was fever. The affectionate at- 
tention which the sisters paid to her made a deep 
impression upon my mind. 

* Your affectionate brother, 

*W. Carey.' 






In the ensuing section, comprehending a period of 
seven years, and those some of the most eventiiil 
that ever marked the progress of the Baptist 
mission in India, Dr. Carey's own correspondence 
was found to be so copious, and so explicit upon 
almost every topic of which it treats, that nothing 
devolved upon the compiler, beyond making the ap- 
propriate selection. No portion of the work, it is 
believed, will be found of more various and intense 

* August 9, 1808. 

^My dear sisters, 

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ * « ♦ 

'This part of the world is, as it respects divine 


things, a vast uncultivated wilderness. We see 
thousands and thousands of people wherever we go, 
and no extent of charity can make us say of one of 
them, * that is a christian.' I am often discouraged 
when I see the ignorance, superstition, and vice, with 
which this coimtry ahoimds, the vast numbers who 
have not heard of the word of life, the obstacles of 
various kinds, external and internal, to the conver- 
sion of the heathen, the fewness of the labourers, the 
imperfections that are among them, the comparatively 
little success which has hitherto attended the gospel, 
and many other considerations which perpetually 
occur to my mind. I do not know that I have been 
of any use to any one, but my mind has been con- 
stantly more or less burdened with various painfiil 

*When I first came into the country I had to learn 
a difficult language before I could hope to be of any 
use, and I had nothing to help me in it. I recollect 
that after I had preached, or rather thought I had, for 
two years, a man one day came to me and declared 
that he could not understand me ; and this, long 
after my flattering teachers had declared that every 
one could understand me. I feel the impression 
which that poor man's remark made on me to this 
day. I laboured long, and saw no iruit. Afterwards 
the Lord wrought, and several Hindus and others 
were baptized. Some of these are an honour to the 
gospel, and some have died in the Lord with triumph 
on their tongues ; but many have pierced us through 
with sorrows. God has endowed several of our native 


brethren with ministerial gifts, and they have been 
called to the ministry, yet still our solicitude con- 

^ I, however, must not complain. I ought rather to 
rejoice, that to me, who am less than the least of all 
saints, is this grace (favor) given, that I should preach 
among the gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ. 

* I must now give you a short detail of the few 
occurrences which have taken place since I last wrote. 
I was married. May the 9th, to Lady Charlotte 

^ Pray for me, that I may hold out to the end. I 
am within a week of forty-seven years of age. 

* Your affectionate brother, 

* W. Carey.' 

* Calcutta, August 8, 1809. 
* My dear sisters, 

* Through great mercy, and in answer to many 
prayers, I am now in the land of the living, and about 
to resume my usual employments, after a fever, in 
which my life was despaired of for a week together. 

* In the morning my fever increased, attended by 
a strong delirium. Brother Marshman immediately 
went to Calcutta, to get, if possible, one of the physi- 
cians there to come up. This, however, was impossi- 
ble. In the absence of Dr. Darling, another medical 
gentleman was recommended. I was then in a high 
state of delirium, and had conceived a strong abhor- 


rence of every thing relating to war. At this time 
this gentleman came, and, being attached to the anny, 
was in his regimentals. The sight of a red coat filled 
me with abhorrence, and I treated him very roughly, 
and absolutely refused to touch his medicine. In 
vain did he retire, and put on a black coat. I knew 
him, and was resolved. I believe this agitation of 
spirits did me much injury; but just then in came 
Dr. Darling, in whom I had the most implicit confi- 
dence, and who had hastened and came before his 


« « « ♦ « 

* In this populous city there is great encouragement. 
Ten years ago there was not a person joined to us ; 
now nearly fifty sit down at the Lord's table, and we 
have several inquirers. 

♦ ♦ 4K ^ « 

* W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Mr. Sutcliff. 

' Calcutta, Aug. 12, 1809, 

* My dear brother Sutcliff, 

« 4^ # • ♦ 

* I have been lately brought to the gates of death 
by a severe fever. I was first seized with it the last 
Sabbath in June, as I was returning from Calcutta 
with brother Marshman. For the first two or three 
days 1 took medicine according to my own judgment; 
but getting worse, medical aid was called in from 
Barrackpore, a military station on the opposite side 


the river from Serampore. For several days I took 
medicine which appeared to answer the designed end ; 
but a delirium, attended with considerable fever, su- 
pervened, and for a few weeks tc^ether my life was 
in doubt. One or two days I was supposed to be 
dying. I believe the medical gentleman (Dr. Dar- 
ling) who attended me well understood my case, and 
treated me with the utmost skill ; but I believe my 
life was given back in answer to prayer. From all 
that I can find, there was a remarkable spirit of 
prayer poured down upon the church and congrega- 
tion at Calcutta, on my account ; and I have reason 
to believe that it was not confined to our congrega- 
tion, but was pretty general among the serious people 
in Calcutta and its environs. On the Monday, the 
day after I was taken ill, I put the finishing stroke to 
the translation of the scriptures into the Bengali lan- 
guage, which some of my friends considered as the 
termination of my labours. Now I am raised up, I 
beg that I may be enabled to go on with more sim- 
plicity of heart, and more real dispatch and utility, in 
the work of the Lord. 

* We have greater encouragement on the whole than 
I formerly expected, and I trust that the appearances 
of a divine blessing are indications of the Lord's 
intention to carry on his work to a greater extent in 
this dark land. 

^I cannot now say, without referring to written 
memoranda, how many persons have been baptized at 
Calcutta ; but the number is such as to give us much 
encouragement. Several others are now on the in- 


quiry, and will probably join the church in a little 
time. I have much pleasure in observing, too, that 
the greatest number of inquirers are among that class 
of people who are likely hereafter to be the most use- 
ful ; I mean the native Portuguese. These persons 
not only speak the native languages, but are much 
nearer the natives, in their habits and manners, than 
a European can ever be brought to be. 

' I have written for some works of science, which I 
hope you will send. I think your best way is to send 
my list of roots, seeds, &c., to some nurseryman of 
note in London, with orders to ship them on the Pro- 
vidence, directed to me. Were you to give a penny 
a day to a boy to gather seeds of cowslips, violets, 
daisies, crowfoots, &c., and to dig up the roots of blue- 
bells, &c., after they have done flowering, you might 
fill me a box every quarter of a year ; and surely some 
neighbours would send a few snow-drops, crocuses, 
&c., and other trifles. All your weeds, even your 
nettles and thistles, are taken the greatest care of 
by me here. The American friends are twenty times 
more communicative than the English in this respect; 
indeed, though you cannot buy a little cabbage seed 
here under about £2. 2s., yet I have never been able 
to extort an ounce, or a quart of kidney-beans, from 
all the friends in England. Do try to mend a little.' 

Every department of natural history engaged his 
attention, but botany was his £Eivourite study. The 
reader will remember The Daisey, by Mr. Mont- 



'Thrice welcome, little English flower! 

My mother-coantry's white and red. 
In roee or lilj, till this hour 

Never to me such beauty spread : 
Transplanted from thine island-bed, 

A treasure in a grain of earth. 
Strange as a spirit from the dead. 

Thine embryo sprang to birth. 

' Thrice welcome, little English flower ! 

Whose tribes beneath our natal skies 
Shut close their leaves while vapours lower ; 

But when the sun's gay beams arise, 
With unabashed, but modest eyes. 

Follow his motion to the west ; 
Nor cease to gaze till day-light dies. 

Then fold themselves to rest. 

* Thrice welcome, little English flower ! 

To this resplendent hemisphere, 
Where Flora's giant offspring tower 

In gorgeous liveries all the year : 
Thou, only thou, art little here. 

Like worth unfriended or unknown. 
Yet to my British heart more dear 

Tlian all the torrid zone. 

' Thrice welcome, little English flower ! 

Of early scenes beloved by me. 
While happy in my father's bower. 

Thou shalt the blithe memorial be : 
The £Bury sports of infancy. 

Youth's golden age, and manhood's prime. 
Home, country, kindred, friends, with thee 

Are mine in this fair clime. 


' Thrice welcome, little English flower! 

Ill rear thee with a trembling hand : 
Oh, for the April sun and shower, 

The sweet May dews of that &ir land. 
Where Daisies, thick as star-light stand 

In every walk ! — that here might shoot 
Thy scions, and thy buds expand, 

A hundred firom one root ! 

' Thrice welcome, little English flower ! 

To me the pledge of hope unseen : 
When sorrow would my soul o'erpower 

For joys that were, or might have been, 
I'll call to mind, how fresh and green^ 

I saw thee waking from the dust. 
Then turn to heaven, with brow serene^ 

And place in GOD my trust.' 

*The Bible Society have voted £1000 per annum 
for three years, and have again nominated us mem- 
bers of the corresponding committee. We are this 
day, August 12, just returned from forming it. 

* Yours, very affectionately, 

*W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

'May 24, 1810. 

* My dear BROTHER RylAND, 

* It is now nearly seventeen years since I left 
England for this country. Since that time I have been 
witness to an astonishing train of circumstances, 
which have produced a new appearance of all things 
relating to the cause of God in these parts. The 


whole work, however, has been carried on by God in 
so mysterious a manner, that it would be difficult for 
any one person to fix on any particular circumstance, 
and say, ^ I am the instrument by which this work 
has been accomplished/ At the same time all has 
been done by the instrumentality of one or another, 
or, more properly speaking, by the instrumentality of 
all, so combined, compounded, and re-compounded, 
that distinct instrumentality can scarcely be per- 
ceived. We see the effect ; each one rejoices in it ; 
and yet no one can say how it has been wrought. I 
have often thought that the work must be obstructed 
by me, and that the God who aboundeth in all 
wisdom and prudence in the dispensations of his 
grace, could not give a blessing to the labours of such 
a one as I am, without deviating from that ivisdom 
and prudence which he always observes. I have often 
been discouraged on account of that apparent want of 
every pre-requisite for publishing the gospel, both 
natural and moral, of which I am undoubtedly the 
subject. A natural backwardness for spiritual con- 
versation, a perpetual vagrancy of mind, and uncom- 
mon barrenness of idea, a great prevalence of un- 
sanctified affection, to which I may now add a great 
decay of recollection, have long pressed me down, 
and convinced me that the ministry of the gospel is 
not the work for which I am fitted. I have for years 
been obliged to drag myself on, to subject myself to 
rules, to impose the day's work upon myself, to stir 
myself up to my work perhaps sometimes several times 


in an hour, and, after all, to sit down in confusion at 
my indolence and inertness in all to which I set my 

His friend Dr. Ryland remarks upon the above 
passage : ^ Lowspiritedness, and wild humility.' 

* Reflections such as these have occasioned, and 
still do occasion, me much distress. Yet I do desire 
to give myself, such as I am, wholly to the cause of 
my God, and to be wholly employed in his service. I 
do indeed plod on in my work, but without the life 
and spirit necessary to excite me to do it as a spiritual 
service to God. 

* I will, however, leave off saying more about my- 
self, and give you a little account of the state of things 
in India, in a religious point of view. All our bre- 
thren are at their stations, and I have not lately 
heard of any thing new. Brother Chamberlain has 
been greatly blessed in his work. A number of 
soldiers at Burhampore, about fifty, have been brought 
to the knowledge of the truth, and added to the church. 

*We have now the ftillest proof of the Sunscrit 
being intelligible, as pundits from the most distant 
provinces have made translations from it into their 
vernacular languages ; and, as I am obliged to learn 
these languages, and to acquire somewhat of a critical 
knowledge of them, before I can judge of these 
translations, and, having acquired it, am obliged to 
employ it to correct their rough copies for the press, 
I am able to see every place where they mistook the 


Sunscrit; and I am happy to say that these passages are 
few, and some of them have arisen from the necessary 
use of words of several meanings in the Sunscrit, some 
from obscurity in the Grreek phraseology, which we 
did not think ourselves at liberty to alter, some from 
the length and intervolved natures of the periods, 
especially in the epistles, and some from errors. 

* Very affectionately yours, 

*W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

October 24, 1810. 
* I bless God, our affairs are in rather a prosperous 
state. Last Thursday evening I had twenty persons 
with me under concern of soul, all of them desirous 
of being admitted into the church. Two others who 
are like-minded were absent. I expect these will all 
be brought forward within two or three months. 
This is very encouraging, especially as a few months 
ago, after a baptism, I looked around, unable to see 
more than one or two persons concerning whom I 
had any hopes. Indeed the Lord is doing great 
things for Calcutta; and though infidelity abounds, 
yet religion is the theme of conversation or dispute 
in almost every house. A few weeks ago, I called 
upon one of the judges to take a breakfast with him, 
and going rather abruptly up stairs, as I had been 
accustomed to do, I found the family just going to 
engage in morning worship. I was of course asked 
to engage in prayer, which I did. I afterwards told 


him that I had scarcely witnessed any thing since I 
had been in Calcutta which gave me more pleasure 
than what I had seen that morning. The change in 
this family was an effect of Mr. Thomason's ministry. 
This morning I called on him again, when I had a 
very pleasing conversation with him, his wife, and 
wife's sister, upon the subject of setting up a charity- 
school for Portuguese girls. We began one for boys 
last January, and now more than seventy boys are 
instructed in it gratis. This laid the foundation for a 
conversation on the best manner of constituting and 
managing such a school. My heart was filled with 
thankfulness to see the zeal of the ladies in this im- 
dertaking, and I have little doubt of its being soon 
set on foot. About ten days ago, I had a conversa- 
tion with one of the judges of the supreme court. Sir 
John Royds, upon religious subjects. Indeed there is 
now scarcely a place where you can pay a visit without 
having an opportunity of saying something about true 

The pleasing effect of missionary and other evan- 
gelical labours upon European society, has been ad- 
vancing from the period when this brief review was 
taken to the present hour; so much so, that the aggre- 
gate result is such as far to transcend the sanguine 
expectations of the most devoted ministers and chris- 
tian friends who witnessed only its commencement. 

* About a month ago, I received a letter from my 
son Felix, of which the following extract will give 

2 L 


you pleasure. * The present viceroy is uncommonly 
kind to strangers of every description, but more espe- 
cially to us. He has been once to see us, and wishes 
us to call on him as often as we can find it conve-^ 
nient. He is of a very free and afiable disposition. 
The other day I went to him in behalf of a poor suf- 
ferer who was crucified, and condemned to die in that 
situation. After I had pleaded for about half an 
hour, he granted my request, though he had denied 
several other people, among whom was the Ceylon 
priest. I took the poor man down, after he had been 
nailed up for more than six hours, brought him 
home, and dressed his wounds, and now he is nearly 
cured. This man will now, by law, belong to me as 
long as he lives,* and I hope, may not only be a use- 
ful servant, but become a real christian.' In a letter 
to William, he says that he was going to see some 
patients, and saw the poor man on the cross. He im- 
mediately went the nearest way to the viceroy's 
house, and as he was in the habit of visiting a female 
relation of the viceroy who was ill, he had access to 
all the private apartments, though the viceroy had 
given orders that no one should be admitted, in order 
that he might not be importuned on this subject. The 
entering was attended with danger, where the will 
of the governor was law; and, had he been in an 
ill humour, might have occasioned the loss of his 
head. He however ventured, presented his petition, 
and, according to the Burman custom, insisted on 

* Upon thia passage Dr. Caiej adda, * I abhor alarerj, and shall this week 
write to him to gire the man bis liberty, if it be possible/ 


its being granted before he left the place. The 
viceroy refused several times, but at last said he would 
grant it, if he received promise never to intercede for 
another. This Felix refused. He then made him 
promise to go up to Ava with him, when he shall 
have occasion to go thither. To this he assented, 
when the order for the poor man's release was given. 
This was to go through all the forms of office, but 
at last he obtained it from the secretary, and went 
with it to the cross. When he arrived there, not one 
of the officers who attended would read it without 
a reward. After remonstrating and threatening for a 
considerable time, he was obliged to offer them a 
piece of cloth ; when the man was immediately taken 
down, and had just strength left to express his 
thanks. I understand that the punishment of cruci- 
fixion is not performed on separate crosses, elevated 
to a considerable height, after the manner of the 
Romans, but several posts are set up, which are con- 
nected by rails near the top, to which the hands are 
nailed, and by a rail at the bottom, to which the feet 
are nailed in a horizontal manner. The crucifixion 
of this man took place about the 10th of August. He 
was nailed up about three in the afternoon, and took 
down between nine and ten at night. Brother Chater 
says, he believes Felix was the only person in the 
place who could have succeeded, and that it gained 
him much renown among the Burmans. The family 
were much alarmed for his safety, and knew nothing 
of the transaction till he arrived at home, vrith a num- 
ber of officers and others, with the poor man. I un- 



derstand he was able to sit up the next day, and ex- 
pressed a high sense of gratitude. In about a fort- 
night he was able to stand. 

* Yours, &c., 
*W. Carey/ 

Mr. Carey to Mr. Sutcliff, 

' Received March 27, 1812. 
^ My dear brother, 

* There are a few circumstances in the mission 
which I have not particularly mentioned to Mr, 
Fuller or Dr. Ryland, which I shall mention to you. 
The first respects the labours of our native brethren, 
which will give you pleasure, though we have in two 
instances occasion for grief. There are two native 
preachers of the name of Krishna. One of them, the 
first Hindu who was baptized, is settled in Calcutta, 
and the other with John Peter, at Ballasore. The 
first labours at Calcutta with great success. Krishna 
is now a steady, zealous, and well-informed, and I 
may add, eloquent minister of the gospel, and 
preaches, on an average, twelve or fourteen times every 
week, in Calcutta and its environs. Sebuk-ram, 
another honourable minister of the gospel, is also em- 
ployed in and about Calcutta, and preaches nearly or 
quite as often. We preach in English at the jail 
every Lord's-day, the jailor being one of our deacons, 
and did preach in the fort till a military order stopped 


US. Our brethren Krishna and Sebuk-ram, however, 
preach once or twice a week in the fort, in the jail, in 
the house of correction, at Ali-poora, a village south 
of the jail, at ten or twelve houses in different parts of 
Calcutta, at a large factory, north of Calcutta, where 
some hundreds of men are employed, and at other 
places. Some of their congregations are small, and 
others larger. In several instances Roman catholics, 
having heard the word, have invited them to their 
houses, collected their neighbours, and they or some 
of their neighbours have received it with gladness. 
The number of inquirers constantly coming forward, 
awakened by their instrumentality among this poor 
and benighted people, fills me with joy. I do not 
know that I am of much use myself, but I see a work 
which fills my soul with thankfulness. Not having 
time to visit the people, I appropriate every Thursday 
evening to the receiving the visits of inquirers. Sel- 
dom fewer than twenty come ; and the simple confes- 
sions of their sinful state, the unvarnished declara- 
tions of their former ignorance, the expressions of trust 
in Christ, and of gratitude to him, with the accounts 
of their spiritual conflicts, often attended with tears 
which almost choke their utterance, present a scene of 
which you can scarcely entertain an adequate idea. 
At the same time, meetings for prayer and mutual 
edification are held every night in the week, and some 
nights, for convenience, at several places at the same 
time, so that the sacred leaven spreads its influence 
through the mass. 


* Brother Chater's mind is set on a mission to Pulo- 
penang. It is an important place, and I doubt not 
but he will be faithful, diligent, and useful there ; but 
three years spent on the Burman mission are thrown 
away. Sumatra is a very important place for a 
mission. I was informed by the late T. Parr, Esq., 
who was then president there, that he had the most 
decisive proofs of the natives of that island being 
cannibals ; but, about a fortnight ago, a gentleman of 
undoubted veracity, gave me such an account of them 
as exceeded all that I ever heard of cannibals. This 
gentleman, captain of a ship in the eastern trade, was 
at Serampore about a fortnight ago, with a little boy. 
As we were together, he said to me, ^Can you ima- 
gine how I came by this boy V I said. No. Said 
he, * I was on the east coast of Sumatra, when having 
occasion to go ashore, my attention was arrested by 
three little boys whom I saw. I asked a Malay who 
they were. He, without any hesitation, replied that 
they had been stolen from a neighbouring island, and 
would be sold for food to the Battas, a nation inhabit- 
ing part of Sumatra, as soon as they were fattened. I 
asked their price, and was told one hundred and fifty 
dollars. Without thinking of the price,' said he, * I 
went on board and brought the money, with which I 
bought them, and carried them on board the ship.' I 
believe it is not supposed that cannibals exist who de- 
vour any besides enemies taken in war. Surely the 
enemies of missions will not dispute the propriety of 
sending the gospel thither. Felix is well and happy 


at Rangoon. That country is in a horrid state of re- 
volt, distraction, and civil war. 

* Affectionately yours, 

'Wm. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Dr. Ryland, (Extract.) 

' December 10, 1811. 
* The necessity which lies upon me of acquiring so 
many languages, obliges me to study and write out 
the grammar of each of them, and to attend closely to 
all their irregularities and peculiarities. I have there- 
fore published grammars of three of them, the Sun- 
scrit, the Bengali, and the M ahratta. I intend also 
to publish grammars of the others, and have now in 
the press a grammar of the Telinga language, and 
another of that of the Seeks, and have begun one of 
the Orissa language. To .these I intend in time to 

add those of the Kumata, the Kashmeera, and 
Nepala, and perhaps the Assam languages. I am now 
printing a dictionary of the Bengali, which will be 
pretty large, for I have got to 256 pages quarto, and 
am not nearly through the first letter. That letter, 
however, begins more words than any two others. I 
am contemplating, and indeed have been long col- 
lecting materials for a universal dictionary of the 
oriental languages, derived from the Sunscrit, of 
which that language is to be the ground-work, and to 
give the corresponding Greek and Hebrew words. I 
wish much to do this, for the sake of assisting biblical 
students to correct the translation of the bible in the 


oriental languages, after we are dead, but which can 
scarcely be done without something of this kind; and 
perhaps another person may not, in the space of a 
century, have the advantages for a work of this 
nature that I now have. I therefore think it would 
be criminal in me to neglect the little that I am able 
to do while I enjoy them. 

* W. Carey.' 

' Calcutta^ March Wth, 1812. 
' My dear brother, 

* With respect to myself and family, I have the 
greatest reason to be thankful. I enjoy good health. 
I have a very affectionate and pious wife, whose mind 
is highly cultivated by education and extensive read- 
ing. Three of my sons are members of the church, 
and two of them engaged in the work of the ministry. 
I have experienced the truth of what the Lord said, 
^ He that forsaketh any earthly good, for my name and 
the gospel, shall receive a hundred fold.' But I have 
seen that which is of infinitely more importance than 
all temporal good ; I have seen the word of God take 
root in this land, so that there are now belonging to 
this mission, or connected therewith, eleven churches, 
and two or three more are on the eve of being formed. 
Some of these churches are in an infant state, but 
there are others which have thirty, forty, seventy, and 
even a hundred and fifty members. 

* In any other way, I am unconscious of being of 


any special use. I occupy a place among others of 
my species, and may, perhaps, sometimes partake of 
the pleasures of the saints ; but of this, I can say but 

* Your affectionate brother, 
*W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Eustace Carey. 

* March \2th, 1812. 
* Whether you come to India or not, be assured that 
the work of publishing the gospel is the most important 
work you could have chosen. Engage in it with 
humble dependance on God, and with a single eye to 
his glory, and I doubt not but he will give a blessing 
to your undertaking. I am fully of opinion that 
every person to whom God has given abilities for the 
work, is bound to devote himself to the work of the 
ministry. It is not at the option of such a person, 
whether he will engage in it or not, nor is it at the 
option of a church whether it will send one to the 
work of the ministry upon whom God has bestowed 
spiritual gifts. If the church neglect to send such a 
member into the ministry, the guilt lies on them. 
The number of persons now required to spread the 
gospel through the earth, is unspeakably great. If 
fifty thousand ministers, besides those actually em- 
ployed, were now to go forth, they would be so 
thinly spread about, as scarcely to be perceived. The 


harvest is indeed great, but the labourers are very 

' I began this letter last night; this morning I close 
it hastily, having received intelligence of a dreadful 
loss which befell the mission last night. Our printing- 
office was totally consumed by fire ; and all the pro- 
perty, amounting to at least sixty or seventy thousand 
rupees, was destroyed ; nothing was saved but the 
presses. This is a heavy blow, as it will put a stop to 
our labours in printing the scriptures, for a long time 
to come. Twelve months' hard labour will not put it 
into the state it was in, not to mention loss of property, 
manuscripts, and other things, which we shall scarcely 
ever surmount. I wish to be still, and know that the 
Lord is God, and to bow to his divine will in every 
thing. He will, no doubt, bring good out of this evil, 
and make it the occasion of promoting his interest ; 
but to us, at present, the providence is exceedingly 
dark. Through divine mercy, no lives were lost We 
cannot tell what was the cause of the fire. 

* Your affectionate uncle, 
•W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

' Calcutta, March 25/A, 1812. 
* My dear brother Fuller, 

* We have been smitten in a very tender part, and 
smitten repeatedly, within these few months. Poor 
brother Chamberlain has been successively bereaved 


of all his children, all three of them having been 
removed within the short period of nine months. 
Brother Mardon has lost his partner in life, and, last 
week, his youngest child. Brother Ward has lost his 
youngest daughter but one, and brother Marshman, 
his youngest son ; and, the week before last, our 
printing-office, with all that it contained, was con- 
sumed by fire ; nothing was saved, except the presses^ 
which were in an adjoining room. The loss cannot 
be estimated at less than seventy thousand rupees. 
By this providence, several important manuscripts 
were lost. I believe, in my own case, it will require 
twelve months' hard labour to replace what has been 
consumed. This affliction is severely felt, as it will 
occasion a considerable delay in the publication of the 
different versions of the bible, in which we are 
engaged, and the loss of English paper cannot, if our 
funds were ever so large, be soon replaced in this 
country. Many very merciful circumstances, how- 
ever, attended this providence, and I rather wish to 
record them, than to dwell upon the gloomy side of 
the event. 1. No life was lost, and no one's health 
injured, though brother Ward was in very great dan- 
ger of being suffocated with the smoke, through 
running into the place as soon as the fire broke out. 
Another man, who ran in after the oxygen of the air 
had been nearly consumed with the fire, fell down 
senseless before he could get out, and was rescued 
from death by the people who were near. 2. We had 
a strong proof of the kindness of our neighbours of 
every description, both European and native, and of 


the lively sympathy of all who knew us, from the 
highest to the lowest. 3. The matrices of the oriental 
types, and the punches, are all recovered, and the 
presses saved, so that with the metal of the t3rpes 
which was melted down in the fire, we are able imme- 
diately to begin casting, and shall, in another fort- 
night, if nothing unforeseen intervene, be able to begin 
printing again in one language. Another month will 
enable us to begin in another^ and I trust that in six 
months our loss in oriental types will be repaired. 
4. The printing-offices in Calcutta have sold or lent 
us a few English types, so that we may hobble on till 
you can send the articles ordered by our over-land 
letter of yesterday. 6. Our paper manufactory is not 
injured, so that we shall not be stopped for want of 
country paper, on which to print our own editions of 
the scriptures. 6. Our premises are not injured, ex- 
cepting the printing-office; and providentially a large 
building, larger than the one consumed, which we 
had let to a merchant of Calcutta, as a warehouse, 
was vacated only four days before the fire, so that we 
are not under the necessity of building before we can 
begin work. 7. None of our sources of income are 
dried up, and besides our regular income from the 
school and the college, we have pretty large funds 
which we can use. Mr. Brown wished us to draw 
immediately upon the bible society, for the £3000 
voted us for the ensuing three years ; but I trust we 
shall get through without that. The loss of manu- 
scripts of the Telinga, Kumata, Shikh, Sunscrit, and 
Assam languages, is a very heavy loss; but as the 


travelling a road the second time, however painful it 
may be, is usually done with greater ease and certainty 
than when we travel it for the first time, so I trust the 
work will lose nothing in real value, nor will it be 
much retarded by this distressing event, for we shall 
begin printing in all these languages the moment 
types are prepared. The ground must be laboured 
over again, but we are not discouraged; indeed, the 
work is already begun again in every language : we 
are cast down, but not in despair. 8. We have all of 
us been supported under the affliction, and preserved 
from discouragement. To me, the consideration of 
the divine sovereignty and wisdom has been very sup- 
porting ; and, indeed, I have usually been supported 
under afflictions by feeling that I and mine are in the 
hands of an infinitely wise God. I endeavoured to 
improve this our affliction, last Lord's-day, from 
Psalm xlvi. 10, ^Be still, and know that I am God.' I 
principally dwelt upon two ideas, viz. : 1 . God has a 
sovereign right to dispose of us as he pleases. 2. We 
ought to acquiesce in all that God does with us and 
to us. To enable us to do which, I recommended 
realizing meditation upon the perfections of God, 
upon his providence, and upon his promises, includ- 
ing the prophecies of the extension of his kingdom. 

*W. Carey.' 


Dr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

'March 25, 1812. 
^ My dear brother, 

^I shall now repeat the particulars of our late 
disaster. Brother Marshman wrote you an account of 
it, and has written about it to brother Fuller. The 
loss is very great, and will long be severely felt ; yet 
I can think of a hundred circumstances which would 
have made it much more difficult to bear. The Lord 
has smitten us, he had a right to do so, and we de- 
serve his corrections. I wish to submit to his sovereign 
will, nay, cordially to acquiesce therein, and to exa- 
mine myself rigidly to see what in me has contributed 
to this evil. 

' I now, however, turn to the bright side ; and here 
I might mention what still remains to us, and the 
merciful circumstances which attend even this stroke 
of God's rod ; but I will principally notice what will 
tend to cheer the heart of every one who feels for the 
cause of God. Our loss, so far as I can see, is repara- 
ble in a much shorter time than I should at first have 
supposed. The Tamul fount of types was the first 
that we began to recast I expect it will be finished 
by the end of this week, just a fortnight after it was 
begun. The next will be the small Deva Naguree, 
for the Hindusthani scriptures, and next the larger 
for the Sunscrit. I hope this will be completed 
in another month. The other founts, viz. : Bengali, 


Orissa, Shikh, Telinga, Singalese, Mahi<itta, Bunnan, 
Kashmeerian, Arabic, Persian, and Chinese, will fol- 
low in order, and will probably be finished in six or 
seven months, except the Chinese, which will take 
more than a year to replace it. I trust, therefore, 
that we shall not be greatly delayed. Our English 
works will be delayed the longest; but in general 
they are of the least importance. Of MSS. burnt, I 
have suffered the most ; that is, what was actually pre- 
pared by me, and what owes its whole revision for the 
press to me, comprise the principal part of MSS. con- 
sumed. The ground must be trodden over again, but 
no delay in printing need arise from that. The 
translations are all written out rough first by pundits, 
in the difierent languages, except the Sunscrit, which 
is dictated by me to an amanuensis. The Shikh, 
Mahratta, Hindusthani, Orissa, Telinga, Assam, and 
Kumata, are re-translating in rough by pundits who 
have been long accustomed to their work, and have 
gone over the ground before. I follow them in re- 
vise, the chief part of which is done as the sheets pass 
through the press, and is by far the heaviest part of 
the work. Of the Sunscrit only the second book of 
Samuel and the first book of Kings were lost. 
Scarcely any of the Orissa, and none of the Kashmee- 
rian, or of the Buiman MSS., were lost. Copy for 
about thirty pages of my Bengali dictionary, the whole 
copy of a Telinga grammar, part of the copy of the 
grammar of Punjabee or Shikh language, and all the 
materials which I had been long collecting for a dic- 
tionary of all the languages derived from the Sunscrit. 


I hope» however, to be enabled to repair the loss, and 
to complete my favourite scheme, if my life be pro- 

* Yours, &c., 

*W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Rev. Robert Hall. 


* Calcutta, April 9, 1812. 
* My dear brother, 

* I have long wished to write to you, and should 
have repeatedly done it before now, had it not been 
for an unconquerable aversion to letter-writing, which 
gives force to every little excuse sufficient to keep me 
from making the attempt. 

* Once or twice I have had the pleasure of receiving 
favours from you, which I believe I acknowledged. It 
would, however, much gratify me, if you would enter 
into a more regular correspondence with me. Several 
things make such a correspondence peculiarly de- 
sirable, and conspire to induce me to request it. 

* 1 . There are many difficulties occur in translating 
the word of God, and in my other literary pursuits, 
which I should feel a pleasure in communicating to 
you, and in receiving your observations on them, 
which, joined to the remarks I may meet with from 
other friends, might enable me to correct many errors, 
to remove many difficulties, and to clear up some 
things which at present appear obscure. 

* 2. You are, I find, pastor of the church at Lei- 


cester, a place I always think of with pleasure, and a 
people in whose best concerns I feel a deep interest. 
Every account, therefore, which respects that people, 
will be highly gratifying to jne, and calls up some of 
the tenderest feelings of my heart. 

^3. I doubt not but you feel a deep interest in the 
work in which I and my colleagues are engaged, and 
wish therefore to request you to take as active a part 
as possible, in furthering the cause in Europe. Other 
reasons I could mention, but I am assured these are 

* Notwithstanding, we have within the last years 
had some of the most heavy afflictions with which 
this mission has ever been visited ; yet its affairs were 
never in a more promising state, if I except one par- 
ticular, viz., a well-furnished printing-office, which, I 
hope, will very soon be so recovered as to enable us to 
go forward with our undertakings. 

* There are now belonging to the mission twelve 
churches, viz. : three in Hindusthan, at Agra, Digga, 
and Patna; five in Bengal, viz.: Dinagepore, Gomalti, 
Cutwa, Jessore, and Serampore, including Calcutta ; 
one in Orissa ; one at Rangoon ; one in Java ; at 
Samarang; and one in the Isle of Mauritius and 
Bourbon. Some of these are in a prosperous state, 
and only two which are very low. There is a pros- 
pect of several other churches being formed. I only 
meant, when I began, to request your correspondence, 
but have begun to weary you with details. I now 
leave off. Believe me, that I am yours, &c., 

^W. Carey.' 

2 M 


The kindness of christian ministers and others in 
India, under their recent calamities, made a deep im- 
pression upon Dr. Carey^s mind. He adverts to it in 
the following manner. 

Dr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

' Caleuttay July 30, 1812. 

* Dear brother Fuller, 


* On this occasion we experienced the tender sym- 
pathy of many friends, and not a few stood ready to 
contribute towards repairing the loss. Rev. Mr. 
Thomason put round a subscription immediately, 
which amounted to more than seven thousand rupees. 
Indeed, we have always experienced his friendship, 
and readiness to do us all the good he could. 

*We began to attempt a recovery from our ashes 
the day after the fire, and immediately set the letter- 
founders to work to re-cast the types, and have ever 
since kept them at work ; the consequence of which 
is, that we are now enabled to print in Bengali, Sun- 
scrit, Hindusthani, Punjabi, Mahratta, Orissa, and 
Tamul. The fount of Singalese is almost finished, 
the Persian is in considerable forwardness, and so for 
as relates to the eastern languages, I hope we shall, by 
the end of the year, be nearly as well furnished as we 
were before. Our loss in English types and English 
paper, however, cannot be replaced till you are able 
to send us out a supply. 

* I am fifty-one years old the seventeenth of this 


month. I have been now almost nineteen years in 
the work of the mission, and seem as if I had but just 
gotten over the principal obstructions which blocked 
up the threshold of the door. 

^ I am, 

* Very affectionately yours, 
*Wm. Carey/ 

Dr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

'March 26, 1813. 

♦ ♦ * * ♦ 

^ I was never so closely employed as at present. I 
have just finished for the press my Telinga grammar; 
the last sheet of the Punjabi grammar is in the 
press. I am getting forward with my Kumata gram- 
mar ; indeed it is nearly ready for the press. I am 
also preparing materials for grammars of the Kash- 
meer, Pushto, and Billochi languages, and have 
begun digesting those for the Orissa. The care of 
publishing and correcting Felix's Burman grammar 
lies on me, besides learning all these languages, cor* 
recting the translations in them, writing a Bengali 
dictionary, and all my pastoral and collegiate duties. 
I therefore can scarcely call an hour my own in a 
week. I however rejoice in my work, and deUght in 
it. It is clearing the way, and providii^ materials 
for those who succeed us to work upon. I have much 
for ^ich to bless the Lord. I trust all my children 
know the Lord in truth. I have every family and 
domestic blessing I can wish, and many more than I 

2 m2 . 


could have expected. The work of the Lord prospers. 
The church at Calcutta is now become very large, and 
still increases. The mission, notwithstanding its 
heavy losses, has been supported, and we have been 
enabled, within one year from a very desolating 
calamity, to carry on our printing to a greater extent 
than before it took place. I wish we could have com- 
municated to you our real situation, on the day you 
received the news of the fire. It would have greatly 
raised your drooping spirits could you have looked 
forward, or could you have known how we had been 
supported till then. 

* I am, very affectionately yours, 

' W. Carey.' 

To HIS Sisters. 

'July 20th, 1814. 
^ My dear sisters, 

^ Could you see me driving on from morning till 
late at night every day, you would be thankful for my 
health. I am sometimes weary, but I rejoice in the 
daily approaching prospect of giving the bible to the 
various nations of the east. The call for the scrip- 
tures is so great that all our exertions, with ten presses 
constantly at work, cannot supply the demand. 

^ We must not, my dear sisters, expect to go through 
this world without afflictions of one kind or another. 
Let us make up our minds to suffer patiently all his 


will, and always cast our care upon him, for he careth 
for us. 

' Your affectionate brother, 
*W. Carey.' 

'Augusts, 18U. 
^My dear sisters, 

* I rejoice greatly in the triumph which the cause of 
God has gained over its opponents in the late debates 
in parliament on the renewing of the charter. I 
wonder at the barefaced impudence with which the 
cause of missions was opposed, but they were repulsed 
with shame and dishonour. The cause of missions 
and of the bible is the cause of God, and will prevail 
to the lasting ignominy of all who oppose it. 

* The Lord has done great things for India, both 
here and in England. Here religion, which formerly 
had scarcely an existence, lives and prevails. 

* I am, through divine mercy, well. My necessary 
labours leave me no time to write. But these la- 
bours are themselves a reward. I look round on 
the nations on all sides; see translations of the bible 
either begun or finished in twenty-five languages at 
our house, and hope to be able to secure the other 
languages spoken around us, when I hope all will 
hear in their own tongues the wonderfiil works of 

* I am your affectionate brother, 

^W. Carey.' 


Dr. Caret to Mr. Fuller. 

'August A, 1814. 

* The cause of the Lord still goes forward, and I 
trust will continue so to do. Our encouragements 
are great. I think the number of languages into 
which the scriptures are translated, or under transla- 
tion, by us is twenty-five, but I will enumerate them : 

^ 1. Sunscrit, printing advanced to 2 Chronicles, 
translating to Jeremiah. 

* 2. Bengali, printed. 

' 3. Orissa, last volume in the press. 
^ 4. Mahratta, printed to 2 Samuel. 
^5. Hindusthani, ditto. 

* 6. Shikh or Punjabi, N. T. printed within a few 

^ 7. Assamee, printed to the middle of Mark. 

* 8. Khase, printed to the middle of Matthew. 

* 9. Chinese, Genesis in the press. 

0. Burman, Matthew do. 

1. Brij, Luke do. 
[2. Kashmeerian, Matt. do. 

3. Nepola, do. do. 

4. Bikhaneera, do. do. 

5. Oadaypoora^ do. do. 

6. Mariva, do. do. 

7. Jypoora, do. do. 

8. Pushto, Mark do. 
[9. Billochi, Matt. do. 

'20. Kunkuna, do. do. 


'21. Telinga, Luke in the press. 
' 22. Kumata, Matthew do. 
^ 23. Grujeratti, printing not begun, translation 
far advanced. 

*24. Wuch, do. do. 

^ 25. Sindhee, do. do. 

' 26. Maldivian, do. do. 

* I see it is twenty-six. 

* Farewell, my dear brother. The Lord has hitherto 
encouraged both of us ; and I trust will carry on his 
work so as yet to make us rejoice more and more. 
Give my love to all who know or care about me. 

* Yours, very affectionately, 

*W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Mr. Fuller. 

* Serampore, May 17, 1815. 

^ My dear brother Fuller, 

* Through divine goodness, I still live, and am in as 
good a state of health as, perhaps, I ever was : well 
would it be if my soul were in as good a state as my 
body. I think I trust in the Lord Jesus, and I cannot 
say that I ever get further than to cast my perishing 
soul from day to day on the Saviour of sinners. What 
I have always lamented as the great crime of which I 
am constantly guilty, is want of love to Christ. That 
fervency of spirit which many feel, that constant 
activity in the ways of God, and that hunger and 


thirst after righteousness which constitutes the life 
and soul of religion, I scarcely feel at all, or if I do 
perceive a small degree of it, its continuance is so 
short, and its operations so feeble, that I can scarcely 
consider it as forming a part of my character. I live 
a kind of mechanical life, going through the labours 
of each day as I should go through any other work, 
but in a great measure destitute of that energy which 
makes every duty a pleasure. 

* At the present time my labour is greater than at 
any former period. We have now translations of the 
bible going forward in twenty-seven languages, all of 
which are in the press except two or three. The 
labour of correcting and revising all of them lies on 
me. I have lately been fully convinced of the necessity 
of having some brother associated with me in this 
department of the work, who shall be in some manner 
initiated into my ideas; and if I should be laid aside 
by sickness, or removed by death, should take charge 
of this department of the work. I think, from the 
account given by brother Ryland of brother Yates, 
that he will be as fit a person as any I have seen, and 
from what I have already witnessed of his personal 
religion, his quiet spirit, and his habits of diligence, I 
am much inclined to associate him with myself in the 
translations. I have mentioned my wish to the other 
brethren, who approve of the step. 

* Yours, very affectionately, 
*W. Carey.' 


Dr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

'October 14, 1815* 
*My dear brother R., 

* Yours of May 2, 1 received a few days ago, and at 
the same time received an extract from a Cambridge 
paper copied at Plymouth, by an officer of the ship, 
Mr. Johnstone, who is acquainted with us, informing 
us of the death of dear brother Fuller. 

* Considering the extensive countries opened to us 
in the east, I entreat, I implore our dear brethren in 
England, not to think of the petty shop-keeping plan 
of lessening the number of stations so as to bring the 
support of them within the bounds of their present 
income, but to bend all their attention and exertions 
to the great object of increasing their finances, to meet 
the pressing demand that divine Providence makes on 
them. If your objects are large, the public will con- 
tribute to their support ; if you contract them, their 
liberality will immediately contract itself proportion- 
ably. A subscription equal to one farthing a week, 
for all the inhabitants of Great Britain who are grown 
up, viz., eight millions of farthings, or a penny a 
week from a fourth of them, would produce £8,333. 
6s. 8d. per annum. Let only this sum come to the 
Baptist mission, surely not too much to expect, and 
all the objects will be accomplished for which Euro- 
pean subscriptions are wanted, translations excepted, 

* The translations of the scriptures are now become 


SO numerous that the work is of the first importance. 
By constant attention to the object, and the smiles of 
God upon our undertaking, we have now collected at 
Serampore a large body of men from all parts of 
India, who are employed in translating the word, and 
who, if dismissed, could not be easily obtained again. 
These men write out the rough copy of the translation 
into their respective languages; some translating from 
the Bengali, others from the Hindusthani, and others 
from the Sunscrit, as they are best acquainted with 
them. They consult with one another, and other 
pundits who have been employed for several years in 
correcting the press and copy, and who almost know 
the scriptures by heart. They, therefore, form the 
idiom ; after which I examine and alter the whole 
where necessary, and upon every occasion have men 
bom and brought up in the countries themselves to 
consult. The number of these languages far exceeds 
what I thought it till very lately, for till lately I, like 
almost every one else, thought all the north and west 
of India to be occupied by the Hindi or Hindusthani, 
but I now doubt whether any country be exclusively 
so. What have hitherto been accounted varieties of 
the Hindusthani and vulgar varieties of jargon, are in 
reality distinct languages, all derived, it is true, from 
the same source, the Sunscrit, but so diflTerently ter- 
minated and inflected as to make them unintelligible 
to the inhabitants of the surrounding countries. The 
uniformity of the words in all these languages, makes 
it comparatively easy for me to judge of the correct- 
ness of the translations, and makes that quite possible 


which to one unacquainted with Sunscrit, and the 
mutation of words in the current languages, would 

be impossible. 

♦ ♦«««♦♦«♦ 

* Yours, &c., 

*W, Carey/ 

Dr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

'February 2% 1816. 
^ My dear brother Ryland, 

* Yours of July 2, 1816, I have received. I am 
glad you have taken the office of secretary upon your- 
self; but you will not live for ever, and I think it is 
very important while you live to take such steps as 
shall prevent disagreeable circumstances from aris- 
ing after your death. I have thought much on 
the subject, and will say what appears to me 

^ The office of secretary, when in the hands of our 
dear brother Fuller, included a mass of influence and 
power which properly belongs to the society itself. The 
secretary, however, should be the mere organ of the so- 
ciety. While brother Fuller lived, there was no danger 
of the power he possessed beins wrongly used ; nor do 
I U-ioryon «ll'Zr,l<^ J B.. i/<*ce ^^ de- 
volve on others after your death. I therefore recom- 
mend the so modelling and enlarging the society, 
that all its acts shall originate from itself, and that 
the secretary be, as nearly as possible, the mere officer 


to record the transactions and resolutions of the 
society, and to communicate them to the persons 
whom they concern. 

^ Suppose the society, instead of being confined to 
one part of England, were to be made co-extensive 
with England and Scotland, and the whole country 
to be divided into districts, and all the churches in 
each district to choose a number of the most active, 
wise, and holy men within them, to act as a committee 
of that district ; from these others should be chosen 
to represent them at a general-meeting of all the dis- 
trict divisions, once or oftener every year, at which 
meeting every thing regarding the plans of the 
society should be finally settled. The present asso- 
ciations might answer every purpose of districts, and 
the annual meeting of the denomination in London 
might answer every purpose of the general meeting. 
Each district might, if necessary, have a secretary, 
who should correspond with the chief secretary. 
It would not be always necessary to have a meeting 
even for special business; the secretary, whom for 
distinction's sake I call the chief secretary, might be 
empowered to send a circular letter to each of the 
secretaries of the districts upon special occasions, and 
thus in ten days he might get the opinion of almost 
all the districts upon any subject; a few printed 
letters, as many as were wanted, would answer the 
purpose, and might be sent to all at once. We carry 
on almost all public business in this manner in India. 
This plan might be modified in any way as might 
appear necessary ; but it would have the efiect of 


making the secretary's office so different from what it 
necessarily is at present^ as to make it unlikely that a 
canvas for it should take place. All this, however, 
you can better arrange than I can possibly contrive; 
but something appears to me highly necessary. 

* Yours, &c., 
*W. Carey.' 






In 1817 there commenced a misunderstanding 
between the Serampore missionaries and the Parent 
Society. The latter recommended a new and more 
satis&ctory investment of the mission property ; and 
that, in connexion with the missionaries themselves, 
a number of gentlemen in England should be asso- 
ciated in the trust. To this the missionaries objected; 
and issued a declaration from the Danish court of 
Serampore, expository of their own views, and invest- 
ing the property accordingly. To the statements and 
design of this instrument, the society, in their turn, 
could not feel consentient. Explanations followed, 
which, though they mitigated the evil and somewhat 


arrested its progress, yet left it essentially unsolved. 
The primary matter of dispute remaining unadjusted, 
unity of counsel and feeling was impaired ; and other 
economical difficulties supervening, in 1827 the 
Serampore missionaries and the Parent Institution 
separated their connexion. 

If I were writing the history of the Baptist mission, 
it might be expected that I should trace out the 
merits of this controversy, and exhibit its facts and 
events in detail. But I am writing the life of an in- 
dividual ; and, being convinced that neither his 
character was affected nor his usefulness compro- 
mised, by the views he entertained and the course he 
adopted, I have not thought it incumbent on me to 
dwell upon circumstances and renew a dispute calcu- 
lated to awaken no pleasurable feeling, or serve any 
useful purpose. Moreover, as from the very origin of 
this controversy to its last discussion, and throughout 
all the interests it involved, I, with the brethren with 
whom I acted, entertained opposite convictions fix)m 
my honoured relative, and committed myself to a 
different procedure, I should deem it ungenerous and 
impertinent to make this memoir the vehicle of my 
own ideas, or the instrument of my vindication. Be- 
yond, therefore, the above very brief notice, I willingly 
abstain from any analysis even of the controversy. 
Ekiough has been written by each party, it is pre- 
sumed, fistirly to expound, if not exhaust, all its legiti- 
mate topics. If any are of another mind, I leave to 
them to find an occasion, and select their own mode 
for reviving it. 


Sensitive, and decided too, as Dr. Carey was known 
to be upon the subject above referred to, the ensuing 
section will afford abundant evidence, that the dif- 
ference between himself and his junior brethren did 
not interfere with the current of his affection towards 
them, nor render him insensible to the importance of 
their labours. 

To Dr. Ryland. 

' Serampore, Oct. 23, 1820. 

^ I bless God I am as healthy as I ever remember 
to have been. I have, for some time back, had much 
at heart the forming of an agricultural society in 
India. Some months ago I had a conversation with 
Lady Hastings upon the subject, who encouraged me 
to make an attempt. In consequence of which, I 
published the inclosed prospectus, and circulated 
it throughout India. The result is, that on the 14th 
of September an agricultural society was formed^ 
which consists already of about fifty members. By 
desire of the society I wrote to Lord Hastings, request- 
ing him to become its patron, to which he acceded. 
Several of the most opulent natives have joined it ; 
and I hope it will ultimately be of great benefit to the 
country, and contribute to prepare its inhabitants for 
the time when Hhey shall beat their swords into 
plough-shares, and their spears into pruning-hooks.' 

* I am very affectionately yours, 

*W. Carey/ 


Dr. Carey to his Sisters. 

* Serampore^ June 4, 1821. 
^My dear Sisters, 

* I have the sad office of informing you of the great 
bereavement with which it has pleased God to afflict 
me. My dear wife was removed by death on the 
morning of the 30th of May. To me the loss is such 
that earth cannot make it good ; but to her the gain is 
infinite glory and happiness. 

* A little time ago the king of Denmark sent to 
brother Marshman, brother Ward, and me, each a letter 
signed with his own hand, expressing his full appro- 
bation of our labours, accompanied with a gold medal 
for each of us ; and in a fortnight afterwards arrived an 
order to convey to us, for the use of the college, a large 
house and ground belonging to his majesty, formerly 
occupied by one of the members of council, to whom 
an increase of salary was granted as an equivalent. 

' Your very affectionate brother, 

* W. Carey.^ 

To Mr. Burls. 

'October 5, 1821. 

* God, who does all things well, however painful to 
us, has seen good to remove my dear partner to a 

2 N 


better world. I was deprived of her on the 30th of 
May last. My loss is irreparable. If there ever was 
a true christian in this world, she was one. We had 
frequently conversed upon the separation which death 
would make^ and both desired that, if it were the will 
of God, she might be first removed ; and so it was. 
Her illness was short, and her trust in the Redeemer 
was sincere and firm. 

* Yours, &c., 

*W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

'July 4th, 1822. 
^My dear brother Ryland, 

* I received your most welcome letter a few days 
ago. The most perfect harmony subsists, as far as I 
know, between us and the younger brethren, the in- 
dependents, and the episcopalians, and I believe a 
divine blessing attends all our labours. I expect to 
receive two persons into the church to-day, and I be- 
lieve there is scarcely a month in which there are not 
additions to more than one church. A great number 
of excellent pamphlets are printed by one or another 
in the Bengali^ and some other languages, which con- 
tribute not a little to the edification of believers, and 
to the stirring up of a spirit of inquiry in a people 
whose most prominent feature is apathy. There has 
also been a great change in the circumstances of the 
natives themselves. There are now three newspapers 
printed in the Bengali language, and one in Persian. 


In these, many things connected with heathenism, as 
well as Christianity, are discussed by the natives 
themselves, and facts brought to light respecting the 
blackness of idolatry, which might otherwise have 
been sought for in vain. That spirit of establishing 
and maintaining schools, especially charity schools, 
which now prevails, and is much increasing among 
the natives, some of the chief men for wealth and 
respectability among them coming forth and volun- 
tarily taking an active part in these institutions, is to 
me a matter of great encouragement. They now 
unite with Europeans, and Europeans vrith them, in 
promoting benevolent undertakings, without servility 
on their parts^ or domination on ours. God is doing 
great things for India, and for all the world. 

* About fifty years ago, one of the sovereigns of 
Europe was employed in writing fourteen volumes of 
lampoons on Christianity. Voltaire, in all his multi- 
farious, much-read publications, constantly made 
Christianity the butt of his ridicule and sarcasm. The 
Encyclopaedists attacked Christianity in a more grave 
manner. Gibbon and Hume did the same ; and a host 
of novelists, writers for the theatre, and pamphleteers, 
followed in the rear ; if not actually saying, as the 
Abb6 Barmel asserts, ^Ecrasez I'lnfame,' at least 
acting up to the spirit of what is charged upon them 
by that writer. Now, sovereigns on their thrones de- 
clare themselves on the side of religion, and encou- 
rage bible societies, and other associations to do good ; 
while all ranks, from the noble to the slave, unite to 
promote the same object. Who that loves God or 



man can behold the present state of things without 
thanks to God ? 

* Be assured, my dear brother, I sincerely sympa- 
thize with you in all your trials, as far as I know 
them. I generally appropriate two mornings in the 
week to pray for all my friends by name, especially 
all employed in missionary work. You are, on these 
occasions, frequently remembered by me, if I am not 
deceived, with genuine affection, and indeed you are 
almost the only one left of my brethren in the 
ministry with whom I have enjoyed sweet commu- 
nion in England. I bless God, I have many family 
mercies for which to be thankful. 

^ Yours, very affectionately, 

*W. Carey/ 

Dr. Carey to Mr. Dyer. 

* Serampore^ Jan. 23, 1823. 
* My dear brother, 

* Yours of 1 received in due course by Miss 

Pearce, and also the copy of the late Mr. Scott's life. 
That work 1 have read with uncommon interest, as, 
independently of those circumstances which constitute 
the biography of a man for whom I have long enter- 
tained the highest esteem, it called to my recollection 
a great number of others to which I had been a wit- 
ness, and which, at the time they took place, were con- 
nected with scenes in my own life which had nearly 
escaped my memory. When I first was brought to 
the knowledge of the truth, I frequently attended Mr. 


Scott's preaching, and never, that I recollect, without 
benefit He, on his pedestrian journeys from Raven- 
stone and Olney, to Northampton, usually called on 
a relation of mine at Hackleton to rest himself on his 
journey, where I had frequent opportunities of con- 
versation with him upon subjects which to me were 
at that time of very great importance, and frequently 
received such hints or observations from him, which I 
remember with gratitude at the present day. I was 
not then acquainted with my very dear friends Fuller, 
Dr. Ryland, Sutcliff, and Mr. R. Hall, sen., from 
whom I afterwards received those advantages, upon 
which I shall, I trust, reflect with pleasure through 
an eternal duration. The friendship of these great 
men I always consider as one of the greatest privileges 
of my life, and feel deeply humbled that 1 have 
turned it to so little profit. 

a shall now mention some few circumstances rela- 
tive to the progress of the Redeemer's cause in India. 
The most prominent, and one of the most encourag- 
ing things in the present state of Indian missions, is 
the harmony which subsists between all engaged in 
the work. Excepting the mere circumstance of a 
separation having taken place, and that consequent 
distinct attention to our respective churches and con- 
gregations, we and the junior brethren are cordially 
united, and I believe sincerely love one another. 
This is also the case with the Independent brethren, 
notwithstanding two of their number were lately bap- 
tized ; one, since removed to glory, by brother Lawson ; 
the other, now living at Chinsura, by me. The same 


friendly disposition exists between the evangelical 
clergymen and the different dissenting ministers. 

' The reports from the diSerent stations are perhaps 
as gratifying as they ever were at any former time. 
The additions within the last year were very con- 
siderable. In Jessore (Jushuhur) all the inhabitants 
of one village, except five houses, have either made 
an open profession of the gospel, or are in a pleasing 
train towards it Several vills^es near Dhacca 
(Dhaka) are full of inquirers and inquiry. 

* Yours affectionately, 

* W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

* Calcutta, July 18, 1823. 
^ My dear brother Ryland, 

* You have long ere this heard of the death of bro- 
ther Ward. His end was honourable to the gospel 
he professed, but we severely feel his loss. Sister 
Ward and his two daughters are well. The death of 
Felix was, and still is, much felt by me. He was 
highly useful in correcting several versions of the 
scriptures, and getting them through the press. The 
whole of that, in addition to my former labours, now 
falls on me. I have also engaged to correct and pub- 
lish the labours of the late Mr. Schroeter, who was 
employed as a missionary by the Church Missionary 
Society. As he was paid by government, his manu- 
scripts were claimed by it, and referred to me. I 


recommended the printing of the whole, to which 
government assented. They consist of materials for a 
grammar and dictionary of the Bhote or Thibet lan- 
guage. The grammar I must write from his materials ; 
and the interpretations of the words in the dictionary, 
being in the Italian language, I shall have to tran- 
slate. My Bengali dictionary will take fully another 
year before it is printed off; and to add to my labours, 
I received yesterday from government an appointment 
to a new office, in addition to that of professor ; viz. 
that of translator of the regulations of the governor- 
general in council, into the Bengali language. 

* I have just received from England information of 
my being elected a Fellow of the Linnaean Society of 
London ; and a member of the Geological Society ; 
and a diploma, constituting me a corresponding mem- 
ber of the Horticultural Society of London. I bless 
God, that though nearly sixty-two years of age, I 
enjoy nearly as good health as I ever did, and get 
through as much work as ever. I have also reason to 
acknowledge with gratitude, that God has greatly 
blessed me in my domestic relations. My present 
wife is a pious woman, and I have every domestic 
comfort in her society that I can wish for, and far 
more than I expected. 

' At the late festival of drawing the car of Juggun- 
nath, which ends this day, I think our brethren have 
dispersed 8,000 pamphlets in the Bengali language. 
Brother Mack was highly gratified by seeing one 
man mounted on the car, near the wooden horses, 
securing a tract with the utmost care. We trust some 


of this seed will spring up ; at any rate, the gospel is 
more and more known and read among the natives of 

' I am, my dear brother, 

* Very affectionately yours, 

*W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

' Serampare^ Dec. 22, 1823. 
* My dear brother Ryland, 

* I once more address you from the land of the 
living, a mercy which about two months ago I had no 
expectation of, nor did any one expect it more, nor 
perhaps so much as myself. On the 8th of October, 
I went to Calcutta to preach, and returned with a 
friend about midnight. When I got out of the boat, 
close to our own premises, my foot slipped, and I fell; 
my friend also fell in the same place. I, however, 
perceived that I could not rise, nor even make the 
smallest effort to rise. The boatman carried me into 
the house, and laid me on a couch, and my friend, 
who was a medical man, examined my hurt. The 
Danish surgeon was called in the mean time, and it 
was feared that the hip-joint had received a violent 
contusion, if it were not luxated. They examined 
whether both the legs were of the same length, as 
well as the pain I suffered and the position in which 
I lay would permit, and the next morning recom- 
menced the examination. An English surgeon. Dr. 
Mellis, from Calcutta, who was on a visit to Barrack- 


porc> hearing of the hurt, kindly came over to see 
me, and having had much more advantage, or rather 
experience, than most, in cases of that nature, ex- 
amined the limb most carefully, and concluded that it 
was not luxated, but suspended his judgment till he 
could see me stand with crutches, which two days 
after he did, and was assured there was no luxation. 
The day after the hurt, and the two next days, one 
hundred and ten leeches were applied to the thigh, 
and, except excruciating agony, all appeared to be 
favourable. I had no fever, or other bad symptom, 
till about the tenth day, when I was seized with a 
fever which was highly alarming. The pulse one 
hundred and twenty in a minute for several days, at- 
tended with a violent cough and expectoration. Lord 
Amherst very kindly sent his own surgeon. Dr. Abel, 
to report my state of health to him. From all these 
afflictions I am, through mercy, nearly restored. I 
am still very weak, and the injured limb is very pain- 
ful. I am unable to walk two steps without crutches, 
yet my strength is sensibly increasing, and Dr. 
Mellis, who attended me during the illness, says he 
has no doubt of my perfect recovery. 

* During my confinement in October, such a 
quantity of water came down from the Western Hills, 
that it laid the whole country, for about one hundred 
miles in length and the same in breadth, under 
water. The Ganges was filled by the flood so as to 
be spread far on every side. Serampore was under 
water. We had three feet water in our garden for 


seven or eight days. Almost all the houses of the 
natives in all that vast extent of country fell. Their 
cattle were swept away, and the people, men, women, 
and children, some gained elevated spots, where the 
water still rose so high as to threaten them with 
death ; others climbed trees, and some floated on the 
roofs of their ruined houses. One of the church 
missionaries, Mr. letter, who had accompanied Mr. 
Thomason and some other gentlemen to Burdwan, to 
examine the schools there, called on me on his return^ 
and gave me a most distressing account of the fall of 
houses, the loss of property, the violent rushing of 
water, so that none, not even the best swimmers, 
durst leave the places where they were. He fasted for 
three days. 

'This inundation was very destructive to the mis- 
sion house, or rather premises. A slip of the earth 
took place on the bank of the river near my house, 
and gradually approached it till only about ten feet 
were left, and that cracked. At last two fissures ap- 
peared in the foundation and wall of the house itself. 
This was a signal for me to remove; and a house built 
for a professor in the college being empty, I removed 
to it, and through mercy am now comfortably settled 
there. During this illness I received the constant 
news of the concern of all our religious friends for 
me. Our younger brethren visited me, as did some 
of the independent and church brethren, and many 
who make no profession of religion at all. 

' I have nearly filled my letter with this account; 


but I must give a little account of the state of my 
mind, when I could think, and that was generally 
when excited by an access of fever ; at other times I 
could scarcely speak or think. I concluded one or 
two days that my death was near. I had no joys, 
nor any fear of death, or reluctance to die; but never 
was I so sensibly convinced of the value of an atoning 
Saviour as then. I could only say, * Hangs my help- 
less soul on thee, ' and adopt the language of Psalm 
li. 1, 2, which I desired might be the text for my 
funeral sermon. A life of faith in Christ, the Lamb 
of God, who taketh away the sin of the world, ap- 
peared more than ordinarily important to my mind ; 
and I expressed these feelings to those about me with 
freedom and pleasure. 

* Now, through the gracious providence of God, I 
am i^ain restored to my work, and daily do a little, 
as my strength will admit. The printing of the 
translations is now going forward almost as usual; but 
I have not yet been able to attend to my duties in 
college, and only one day to those of translator of the 
laws and regulations of the governor-general in 

^ The affairs of the mission are more extended, and, 
I trust, in as prosperous a state, as at any former 
time. There are now many of other denominations 
employed in missions, and I rejoice to say that we 
are all workers together. There is now no ill-will 
towards each other, but on every hand a spirit of love 
and mutual co-operation prevails. The various re- 
ports published will give you a tolerably correct idea 


of the progress of the gospel. Female schools have 
been set up and much encouraged. 

^ I am, 

* Very affectionately yours, 

*W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

'January 30, 1824. 
* My dear brother, 

* Through the abundant mercy of God, I am still 
in the land of the living. I was laid on a bed o\ 
affliction the greatest part of December, and brought 
very low, though no immediate danger was supposed 
to attend the case. My recovery was rapid, and 
through the goodness, of God, I am now nearly as 
well as before. A few weeks before, I was called to 
mourn the death of my eldest son, Felix. He was 
afflicted for about half a year with a disorder of the 
liver, which baffled all medical skill. 

* I think I informed you in my last of my third 
marriage. I can add, that my present wife is a person 
who fears God, and that I have as great a share of 
domestic happiness, perhaps, as those who are most 
favoured in that respect. But this is enough about 
my own concerns. 

* Yours, &c., 
' W. Carey.' 


Dr, Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

* Serampore^ July 6, 1824. 

* My dear brother Ryland, 

* Through the mercy of God, I am hitherto pre- 
served, though still very lame, and much pained in 
my injured limb with rheumatism. I was six months 
from receiving the hurt before I could walk without 
crutches. I have engaged in almost all my labours 
as before, ever since the beginning of January, from 
which time I attended the college duties as usual. I, 
ever since that time, have preached once on the 
Lord's-day, at Serampore, and occasionally on the 
week-day, and twice have been at Calcutta on the 
Lord's-day. Yesterday evening I delivered the ad- 
dress at the monthly prayer-meeting, which was held 
at the independent chapel, and trust I shall now be 
able to preach as formerly. I have been brought up 
from the gates of death. I am laid under new obli- 
gations. May I be strengthened with all might in 
the inner man ! 

* My general health is perhaps as good as it ever 
was^ except indigestion occasionally, arising from the 
close manner in which I am obliged to confine myself 
to labour. I got through the preparing of copy for 
my Bengali dictionary last week; the gleanings of 
words to be inserted as the printing proceeds will be 
pretty plentiful. There are, however, only five letters 
of the printing remaining, and they are short ones, 


one excepted. lu the interval between this and 
beginning the Bhotanta or Boutan grammar and dic- 
tionary, I intend to write letters to all my friends.' 

The suspension of his engagements by his recent 
affliction, and the increased work that had devolved 
upon him as translator of the government papers, &;c., 
obliged him to task himself more severely than ever, 
working, as he informs us, extra hours for a great 
length of time. To which, he continues, 

' Must be added, that the whole weight of correct- 
ing and carrying all the versions of the scriptures 
through the press, lies on me ; so that you will per- 
ceive 1 have no time to spare. The editing of Rox- 
burgh's Flora Indica, the second volume of which is 
Just ^nished, though comparatively a light thing, 
takes up some time. While I was confined at home, 
I was, on the departure of the president of the Agri- 
cultural Society of India, unanimously elected to the 
presidentship ; and on a representation being officially 
made to government two years ago, that the scarcity 
of timber was such that it was feared there soon would 
be great difficulty in supplying the wants of the com- 
missariat, I was appointed a member of a committee 
to inquire into and take measures for remedying the 
evil. This is called the Plantation Committee, and 
it has lately added much to my load of labour. We 
have to lay down plans for planting new forests and 
preserving the old ones, and to correspond with 


government upon the subject, and, with its approba- 
tion, to carry those plans into effect. 

* * m * 

'W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Dr. Ryland. 

'February, 1825. 
' My dear brother Ryland, 

. * Next week we have a missionary association of the 
Baptist, Independent, and Lutheran ministers, em- 
ployed by the Church Missionary Society. I am to 
preach the English sermon on Tuesday evening, at 
the Circular Road chapel. I think of taking this 
text, Gral. vi. 9: *Let us not be weary in well doing, 
for in due season we shall reap if we faint not.' I, 
who have seen the work from the beginning, think 
that much fruit has been reaped already ; but some 
who came later to the work cannot compare two 
periods so distant from each other as I can, and there- 
fore need encouragement in their work. 

♦ « ♦ ♦ « 

* Yours, &c. 
*W. Carey.* 

Dr. Carey to Mr. Dyer. 

' Calcutta, July 27, 1825. 
* My dear brother Dyer, 

^ I have lately been so pressed with business, that I 
found it impossible to write. I hope I have so far 


gotten through it that it will not henceforth press with 
any great weight upon me. My dictionary of the 
Bengali language is now finished and published. 
This is a work of three quarto volumes of close print, 
and has occupied all, and rather more than all, my 
leisure time for several years. I hope it will contri- 
bute to the facilities for the study of the language, 
and thereby shorten that labour which missionaries 
find the most disagreeable of any. 

* Affectionately yours, 

*W. Carey.' 

Dr. Carey to Mr. Dyer. 

* Serampore, Dec. 9, 1825. 
*My dear brother, 

* Your last announced the death of my very highly 
esteemed friend and brother, Dr. Ryland. My feel- 
ings were much distressed at the intelligence, and it 
appears to me as if every thing dear to me in England 
was now removed. There are now in England very 
few ministers with whom I was acquainted. Fuller, 
Sutcliff*, Pearce, Fawcett, and Ryland, besides many 
others whom I knew, are gone to glory. My family 
connexions also, those excepted who were children 
when I left England, or have since that time been 
bom, are all gone, two sisters only excepted. Where- 
ever I look in England, I see a vast blank; and were I 
ever to revisit that dear country, I should have an en- 
tirely new set of friendships to form. I, however, 


never intended to return to England when I left it, and 
unless something very unexpected were to take place, 
I certainly shall not do it. I am fully convinced I 
should meet with many who would show me the ut- 
most kindness in their power ; but my heart is wedded 
to India ; and though I am of little use, I feel a plea- 
sure in doing the little I can, and a very high in- 
terest in the spiritual good of this vast country, by 
whose instrumentality soever it is promoted. 

* You some time ago requested my opinion of the 
plan now about to be adopted by the London Mis- 
sionary Society, of instructing missionaries in the lan- 
guages of the countries to which they are to be sent, 
before they leave England. I should not like to con- 
demn a plan which is sanctioned by so many men of 
experience and sound judgment, but I really am 
unable to see its advantages. The languages must 
be acquired. Are the facilities for acquiring them in 
England equal to those obtainable where they are 
spoken, or can they be made so? Is there any- 
thing in England which can be substituted for the 
advantages of daily familiar intercourse with the 
natives of a country ? And will not the highest acqui- 
sitions obtainable in Europe amount to a mechanical 
collocation of words, applicable to scarcely any practi- 
cal use where the languages are spoken ? I suppose 
that, all things else being equal, a longer time will be 
required in England to obtain an equal proficiency 
than in India; to which may be added that sometimes 
the^language of a country is mistaken, and another 

2 o 


substituted for it ; as was fonnerly the case in India, 
where the Hindusthani, a mere lingua franea^ was 
supposed to be the current language of Hindusthan, 
and was studied to the neglect of the languages 
spoken in the various provinces : a system now aban- 
doned in the college of Fort William. 

* Yours, &c., 

*W. Carey.' 



Fboh the severe illness, described by him in the 
preceding section, Dr. Carey's constitution received a 
shock from which it never perfectly recovered. He 
was at no time afterwards in sound health for any 
lengthened period; and seemed sensible, from the 
different attacks of fever and other ailments which 
came upon him in v^ry quick succession, that the end 
of his course was fast approaching. He recommenced 
his exertions in biblical translation with the least 
possible delay, and with the same assiduity which had 
ever distinguished him. The only difference was, 
that he somewhat contracted the circle of his labours, 
that he might render it finally the more effective ; 
concentrating his efforts upon a few of the more im- 
portant dialects, in order to bring them nearer per- 
fection. His special care was bestowed upon the 

2 o 2 


Bengali version. Upon the New Testament, in this 
language, his work as a translator commenced ; and 
with the final revision of it, which he completed a 
little before his death, it closed. As so much has 
met the attention of the reader upon the subject of 
oriental translations from Dr. Carey's own pen, and as 
an erudite review of them, together with his other 
literary productions, awaits his perusal from that of 
Professor Wilson, any further notice from the com- 
piler is unnecessary. 

I have not, either, thought it expedient to publish 
so largely upon this last period of Dr. Carey's life 
from his own correspondence, as upon those which 
have preceded. This I have abstained from, partly, 
because to have done otherwise would have swollen 
the work to an inconvenient size; and, partly, because 
the identity of his labours, for so great a number of 
years, rendered his successive references to them, un- 
avoidably, a repetition, or nearly so, of what he had 
previously written; and, partly, also, because the 
bulk of his correspondence is occupied with the con- 
troversy pending at the time between the Serampore 
missionaries and the parent institution. 

The reader has been made acquainted with the his- 
tory of this servant of God and eminent friend of man, 
from the commencement of his career to his meridian 
strength and usefulness, up to the first indication o ' 
his physical decline. To be able minutely to trace 
every step in his descent to the grave, would add, it 
is presumed, very little to the pleasure he has already 
experienced. As strength, and happiness, and life 


were the primary and essential attributes of our being, 
the leading features in the constitution of the uni- 
verse; so, to dwell upon them, is satisfactory, and 
congruous with the feelings of the human mind : but, 
as decay, and suffering, and death were introduced in 
contravention of the original order of things, and 
incurred as penalties to offended justice; so, to ob- 
serve them more circumstantially than is needful to 
our deriving from them such impressions as shall be 
salutary to our spirits, while undergoing their dis- 
cipline for eternity, and to teach us the just improve- 
ment of the vicissitudes through which, by sovereign 
appointment, we are destined to pass, would be un- 
natural, and therefore unwise. Enough is recorded 
to manifest the consistency of Dr. Carey's perse- 
verance and unwearied devotedness in the work of 
the Lord, his profound humility and self-renunciation, 
and thus, to seal, to the end, the perfection of his 
christian character. 

Instead, therefore, of lingering about the details 
and incidents connected with the closing scene of Dr. 
Carey's life, I shall enable the reader to gather his 
own impressions, by presenting him with a few and 
brief extracts from his correspondence ; and also with 
a valuable notice of him, obligingly furnished by my 
esteemed relative, Mr. Jonathan Carey. 

' Serampore, June 5, 1830. 
*My dear Sisters, 

^ For the last year and half I have had a succession 


of attacks of fever, which have greatly reduced me. 
For the last five weeks, however, I have been merci- 
fully preserved, and have had no attack. I frequently 
thought that [the time of my departure was at hand ; 
and I believe, so far as I am able to judge, that I 
did cast my eternal interests on the mercy of God, 
through our Lord Jesus. I felt that he had made a 
full atonement by the sacrifice which he ofiered up; 
and that, eternal life being promised to every one who 
believes in him, I might look forward with humble 
expectation to the time when all who are accepted 
in the beloved shall be declared pardoned, justified, 
and made meet for the inheritance of the saints in 

* Yesterday I finished revising the new edition of 
the sacred scriptures in Bengali. It is now printed in 
one volume, about the size of the Cambridge bible. 
There is scarcely anything for which I desired to live 
a little longer so much as for that. 

* Your affectionate brother, 
*W. Carey; 

To Mr. Jabez Carey, Dr. Carey's third Son. 

^My DEAR Jabez, 

* I am this day seventy years old— a monument of 
divine mercy and goodness ; though, on a review of 
my life, I find much, very much, for which I ought to 
be humbled in the dust. My direct and positive sins 


are innumerable; my negligence in the Lord's work 
has been great; I have not promoted his cause, nor 
sought his glory and honour, as I ought. Notwith- 
standing all this, I am spared till now, and am still 
retained in his work. I trust for acceptance with 
him to the blood of Christ alone; and I hope I am 
received into the divine favour through him. I wish 
to be more entirely devoted to his service, more com- 
pletely sanctified, and more habitually exercising all 
the christian graces, and bringing forth the fruits of 
righteousness to the praise and honour of that Saviour 
who gave his life a sacrifice for sin. 

* Through the goodness of Grod I am now quite well; 
but I have, within the last three months, had five or 
six severe attacks of fever, which have greatly 
weakened me; indeed, I consider the time of my 
departure to be near; but this I leave with God. I 
trust I am ready to die, through the grace of my Lord 
Jesus, and I look forward to the full enjoyment of the 
society of holy men and angels, and the fiiU vision of 
God for evermore. 

* I am, &c., 

*W. Carey.' 
^ Seramporej May 17, 1831.' 

* Serampore, Dec. 16<A, 1831. 
* Mt dear Sisters, 

* I am now, through mercy, getting better ; but the 
repeated attacks I have had, namely, eight or nine 


within the last twelve months, have much enfeebled 
me, and warn me to look forward to a change. This 
change, through the mercy of God, I do not fear. 
I know in whom I have believed, and that he is able 
to keep that which I have committed to him against 
that day. The atoning sacrifice made by our Lord on 
the cross is the ground [of my hope of acceptance, par- 
don, justification, sanctification, and endless glory. 

^ It is from the same source that I expect the fulfil^ 
ment of all the prophecies and promises respecting 
the universal establishment of the Redeemer's king- 
dom in the world, including the total abolition of 
idolatry, mohammedanism, infidelity, socinianism,and 
all the political establishments in the world ; the abo- 
lition also of wAr, slavery, and oppression, in all their 
ramifications. It is on this ground that I pray for, 
and expect, the peace of Jerusalem ; not merely the 
cessation of hostilities between christians of diflferent 
sects and connexions, but that genuine love which the 
gospel requires, and which the gospel is so well calcu^ 
lated to produce. 

* Your affectionate brother, 

^W. Carey.' 

Serampore, Sept. 3rdy 1832. 
* My dear JaBez, 

' Through divine goodness, I am now well, having 
had no return of fever for the last three months ; but 
I shall scarcely ever recover the strength I had before. 


My mind is tranquil. I think I never had a greater 
sense of my sinfulness, and of the evil nature of 
all my sins, than I have had for some time past ; but 
I see the atoning sacrifice of Christ to be full and 
complete, to have been accepted of God, and to be a 
ground for the bestowment of all spiritual blessings ; 
and I trust that I do daily and continually trust in 
Christ for acceptance into the divine favour, for par- 
don and justification, and the entire renovation of my 

* Our Lord has said, that * if we confess our sins, God 
is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse 
us from all unrighteousness.' My conscience testifies 
that I do confess my sins ; I therefore hope in time 
for pardon and sanctification. Christ hath said, ^ He 
that Cometh unto me, I will in no wise cast out.* My 
conscience bears witness that I do come to Christ, and 
I feel the enjoyment arising from confidence in his 
gracious declarations. 

^ I am, &c., 
' W. Carey.' 

' Serampore, July 21 thy 1833. 

My dear Sisters, 

'This is intended to inform you that I believe 
this is the last letter you are at all likely to receive 
from me. 

' About a week ago, so great a change took place in 
me, that I concluded it was the immediate stroke of 


death, and all my children were informed of it, and 
have been here to see me. I have since that revived 
in an almost miraculous manner, or I could not have 
written this. But I cannot expect it to continue. 
The will of the Lord be done. Adieu, till I meet you 
in a better world. 

* Your affectionate brother, 

*W. Carey.' 

' Serampore, Sept. 25th, 1833. 
My dear Sisters, 

* My being able to write to you now is quite unex- 
pected by me, and, I believe, by every one else ; but 
it appears to be the will of God that I should continue 
a little time longer. How long that may be, I leave 
entirely with him, and can only say, ^ all the days of 
my appointed time will I wait, till my change come*' 
I was two months or more ago reduced to such a 
state of weakness, that it appeared as if my mind was 
extinguished ; and my weakness of body and sense of 
extreme fiitigue and exhaustion were such that I could 
scarcely speak, and it appeared that death would be no 

more felt than the removing from one chair to another. 

# ** « # « « # 

^ I am now able to sit and to lie on my couch, and 
now and then to read a proof sheet of the scriptures. 
I am too weak to walk more than just across the house, 
nor can I stand even a few minutes without support. 
I have every comfort that kind friends can yield, and 
feel, generally, a tranquil mind. I trust the great 


point is settled, and I am ready to depart ; but the 
time when, I leave with Grod. 

' Oct. 3rd. I am not worse than when I began this 

* I am your very affectionate brother, 

*Wm. Carey.' 

He continued with but little variation, until the 9th 
of June, 1834, when he slept in Jesus. 
The following is a copy of his last will. 

* I, William Carey, Doctor of Divinity, residing at 
Serampore, in the province of Bengal, being in good 
health, and of sound mind, do make this my last will 
and testament in manner and form following :— 

* First — I utterly disclaim all or any right or title 
to the premises at Serampore, called the Mission Pre- 
mises, and every part and parcel thereof; and do 
hereby declare that I never had, or supposed myself to 
have, any such right or title. 

^ Secondly — I disclaim all right and title to the 
property belonging to my present wife, Grace Carey, 
amounting to 25,000 rupees, more or less, which was 
settled upon her by a particular deed, executed pre* 
viously to my marriage with her. 

* Thirdly — I give and bequeath to the College of 
Serampore, the whole of my museum, consisting of 
minerals, shells, corals, insects, and other natural cu- 
riosities, and a Hortus Siccus. Also the folio edition 
of Hortus Wobumensis, which was presented to me by 


Lord Hastings; Taylor's Hebrew Concordance, my 
collection of bibles in foreign languages, and all my 
books in the Italian and German languages. 

* Fourthly — I desire that my wife, Grace Carey, will 
collect from my library whatever books in the English 
language she wishes for, and keep them for her own 

* Fifthly — From the failure of funds to carry my 
former intentions into effect, I direct that my library, 
with the exceptions above made, be sold by public 
auction, unless it, or any part of it, can be advantage- 
ously disposed of by private sale ; and that from the 
proceeds 1,500 rupees be paid as a legacy to my son, 
Jabez Carey, a like sum having heretofore been paid 
to my sons Felix and William. 

* Sixthly — It was my intention to have bequeathed 
a similar sum to my son Jonathan Carey ; but God has 
so prospered him that he is in no immediate want of 
it. I direct that if anything remains, it be given to 
my wife, Grace Carey, to whom I also bequeath all 
my household furniture, wearing apparel, and what- 
ever other effects I may possess, for her proper use and 

* Seventhly — I direct that, before every other thing, 
all my lawfiil debts may be paid ; that my funeral be 
as plain as possible ; that I may be buried by the side of 
my second wife, Charlotte Emilia Carey ; and that the 
following inscription, and nothing more, may be cut 
on the stone which commemorates her, either above or 
below, as there may be room ; viz. 

* William Carey, born August 17th, 1761 ; died 


'A wretched, poor, and helpless worm, 
On thy kind arms I fall.' 

* Eighthly — I hereby constitute and appoint my dear 
friends, the Rev. William Robinson, of Calcutta, and 
the Rev. John Mack, of Serampore, executors to this 
my last will and testament, and request them to per- 
form all therein desired and ordered by me, to the ut- 
most of their power. 

* Ninthly — I hereby declare this to be my last will 
and testament, and revoke all other wills and testa- 
ments of a date prior to this. 

(Signed) * William Carev.* 

(Signed) *W. H. Jones, S. Mcintosh.' 

* The following minute, in reference to this removal 
of Dr. Carey, has been entered on the records of the 
Baptist Missionary Society. 

*The Secretary having reported that intelligence had 
arrived of the death of Dr. Carey, at Serampore, on 
Monday, the 9th of June last, it was 
* Resolved, 

* That this Committee cordially sympathize, on this 

mournful occasion, with the immediate connexions of 
Dr. Carey, by whose death, not merely the missionary 
circle with which he was most intimately associated, 
but the christian world at large, has sustained no com- 
mon loss. The committee gratefully record, that this 
venerable and highly-esteemed servant of God had a 
principal share in the forma^tion of the Baptist Mis- 
sionary Society ; and devoted himself, at its very com- 


mencement, to the service of the heathen, amidst 
complicated difficulties and discouragements, with an 
ardour and perseverance which nothing but Christian 
benevolence could inspire, and which only a strong 
and lively faith in God could sustain. Endowed with 
extraordinary talents for the acquisition of foreign 
langus^es, he delighted to consecrate them to the 
noble purpose of unfolding to the nations of the East 
the holy scriptures in their own tongue : a department 
of sacred labour in which it pleased Grod to honour 
him far beyond any predecessor or contemporary in 
the missionary field. Nor was Dr. Carey less eminent 
for the holiness of his personal character. Throughout 
life he adorned the gospel of God his Saviour by the 
spirituality of his mind and the uprightness of his 
conduct ; and especially, by the deep and unaffected 
humility which proved how largely he had imbibed 
the spirit of his blessed Master. 

* In paying this brief and imperfect tribute to the 
memory of this great and good man, who was long 
their associate in missionary exertion, and whom they 
have never ceased to regard with feelings of the ut- 
most veneration and respect, it is the anxious desire of 
the committee to glorify God in him. May a review 
of what divine grace accomplished in and by this 
&ithful servant of the Redeemer awaken lively grati- 
tude, and strengthen the devout expectation that He, 
with whom is the residue of the Spirit, will favour his 
church with renewed proofs of his love and care by 
thrusting forth many such labourers into the harvest !' 

memoir of dr. carey. 575 

Notice of Dr. Carey, by his son, Mr. Jonathan 

'Camberwell Grove, lith April, 1836. 
* My dear Cousin, 

^ In giving you some particulars of the labours, ill- 
ness, and death of my late father, I must necessarily 
be brief, as I am not in possession of the requisite 
materials, and can merely trust to memory. I quitted 
Serampore many years ago, and only occasionally had 
opportunities of seeing him. 

^As connected with the Serampore mission, my 
father was principally occupied in translating, and in 
preaching there and in Calcutta. 

^The numerous translations he completed are known 
to the public. The chief part of his time was devoted 
to this great work; and to render his translations 
correct, he spared no labour, and was assiduous in 
obtaming and improving all the information he could. 

*He was also frequently employed in revising 
and correcting the translations of others; and numer- 
ous were the applications he received for his opinion 
on the construction and meaning of terms and pas- 
sages in works passing through the press; all which 
friendly aid he cheerfully rendered, though his time 
was much occupied. 

^ Besides the translations connected with the Seram- 
pore mission, my father had also those to attend to 
connected with his duties m the college of Fort 
William, and the translation^ likewise, of the govern- 


ment regulations, all which went through his hands, 
without hindering his work in the mission; and such 
were the system and steady perseverance he ob- 
served, that he never allowed one duty to interfere 
with another, and yet all received a full attention. 

'In addition to the translations,; he was also en- 
gaged in compiling dictionaries, grammars, and 
other works ; some of them tasks of a most arduous 

' In discharging his work as translator, my &ther 
acquired habits of close and steady application, which 
enabled him to accomplish much. So scrupulous was 
he of his time, that, if overcome by sleep, he would 
double his vigilance to regain what he had lost. In 
Calcutta he formerly attended three days in the week 
in the discharge of his duties as professor; and such 
was his incessant attention to his studies, that three 
pundits were obliged alternately to attend him 
through the day ; one in the morning before break- 
fest, who was relieved by another after breakfieist, 
occupying his time till his college duties required his 
attendance. Upon his return from college, another 
attended him for the afternoon. It was his practice, 
during the hot months, to rest half an hour in the 
afternoon ; and on one of these occasions, on a sultry 
day, some pressing business being on his hands, he 
requested his pundit to wake him in a quarter of an 
hour, and, leaving his watch on the table to direct the 
pundit, he retired into his room. It is well known 
that Hindus have a particular aversion to disturb a 
person in sleep; but my father being strict in his 


direction, the pundit, when the appointed time was 
nearly expired, approached softly to the room to 
awake him; but, the door being a little open, he could 
see him in bed, and hearing him breathe hard, as if 
in a sound sleep, he could not take the resolution of 
disturbing him, and came back to the table. Five 
minutes after the appointed time the pundit again 
approached, making a noise with his feet as he passed, 
in order to arouse him ; but this did not succeed, and 
the pundit's resolution again failed. In about ten 
minutes after the appointed time my &ther woke; 
and finding he had overslept the time, he upbraided 
the pundit for his neglect ; when he informed him of 
what he had done; and pleaded, as his excuse, the 
custom of the natives, not to disturb a person in sound 

* In the work of preaching, my father was actively 
employed, both at Serampore and in Calcutta. At 
the former place he preached in the chapel on the 
mission premises, in English and in the Bengali lan- 
guage; and in English at the Danish church, and at 
Calcutta ; he preached, also, at the Loll bazaar chapel 
in both languages; and devoted one evening exclu- 
sively to hearing, and giving counsel to inquirers. 

*With reference to the internal management of the 
affairs of the Serampore mission. Dr. Carey could not, 
from his varied occupations, bestow much time, and, 
with some exceptions, he depended on what was 
brought before him by his colleagues, and implicitly 
confided in them. 

*In objects of nature my father was exceedingly 

2 p 


curious. His collection of mineral ores, and other 
subjects of natural history, was extensive, and obtained 
his particular attention in seasons of leisure and re- 
creation. The science of botany was his constant 
delight and study; and his fondness for his garden 
remained to the last. No one was allowed to interfere 
in the arrangements of this his favourite retreat; and 
it is here he enjoyed his most pleasant moments of 
secret devotion and meditation. The arrangements 
made by him were on the Linnaean system ; and to 
disturb the bed or border of the garden was to touch 
the apple of his eye. The garden formed the best 
and rarest botanical collection of plants in the east ; 
to the extension of which, by his correspondence with 
persons of eminence in Europe and other parts of the 
world, his attention was constantly directed ; and, in 
return, he supplied his correspondents with rare col- 
lections from the east. It was painful to observe with 
what distress my father quitted this scene of his en- 
joyments, when extreme weakness, during his last ill- 
ness, prevented his going to his favourite retreat. 
Often, when he was unable to walk, he was drawn 
into the garden in a chair placed on a board with four 

* In order to prevent irregularity in the attendance 
of the gardeners, he was latterly particular in paying 
their wages with his own hands ; and on the last occa- 
sion of doing so, he was much affected that his weak- 
ness had increased and confined him to the house. 
But, notwithstanding he had closed this part of his 
earthly scene, he could not refrain from sending for 


his gardeners into the room where he lay, and would 
converse with them about the plants; and near his 
couch, against the wall, he placed the picture of a 
beautiful shrub, upon which he gazed with delight. 

* On this science he frequently gave lectures, which 
were well attended, and never failed to prove interest- 
ing. His publication of * Roxburgh's Flora Indica,' 
is a standard work with botanists. Of his botanical 
friends he spoke with great esteem ; and never failed 
to defend them when erroneously assailed. He en- 
couraged the study of the science wherever a desire 
to acquire it was manifested. In this particular he 
would sometimes gently reprove those who had no 
taste for it; but he would not spare those who at- 
tempted to undervalue it. His remark of one of his 
colleagues was keen and striking. When the latter 
somewhat reprehended Dr. Carey, to the medical 
gentleman attending him, for exposing himself so 
much in the garden, he immediately replied, that his 
colleague was conversant with the pleasures of a 
garden, just as an animal was with the grass in the 

^ In all objects connected with the general good of 
the country. Dr. Carey took an active part. He pre- 
pared, under the direction of a noble lady then re- 
sident in India, the. prospectus of an agricultural 
society in the east; to which was united an horticul- 
tural society, of which he was a member, and in the 
affairs of which he took a lively interest, till his last 
illness; and he had the gratification to see that the 
society became at length the most flourishing and 

2 p 2 


interesting society in the east ; in which gentlemen of 
the first respectability, from all parts of the country, 
united ; and which still continues an eminently usefiil 
and flourishing institution. 

*In the Asiatic society he also took an active part; 
and for many years, up to his death, was one of the 
members of the committee of papers, and afforded 
considerable information, and in various ways pro- 
moted the general interests of the institution. At his 
death the bishop of Calcutta, in a speech, passed the 
highest encomiums on the character and talents of Dr. 
Carey; and a minute was recorded, expressive of the 
loss sustained by the society, and their regret at the 
removal of one of its most excellent members. 

*In objects of benevolence my father took a promir 
nentpart. He, in conjunction with other gentlemen of 
the civil service, memorialized government for the 
abolition of infanticide; which object he saw realized, 
by government prohibiting the offering of children to 
the Ganges at Sanger, where a guard to the present 
day is sent to prevent a recurrence of the horrid rite. 

^ He was also among the number of those who first 
urged government to abolish mttee^ or the burning of 
widows with the corpses of their husbands; and his 
assistance was afforded, under different administra- 
tions, in throwing light on the Hindu writings on the 
subject, in order to induce government to abolish the 
rite; and he lived to see his hopes realized, in the 
step which government ultimately took in putting a 
stop to the suttee throughout all the East India Com- 
pany's dominions. 


*In like manner, he also in various ways repre* 
sented the evil tendency of the pilgrim-tax, and 
the aid afforded by the Bengal government towards 
the repairs and other expenses of the idolatrous tem- 
ples at Juggemauth and other places of resort for pil- 
grims; and these exertions, though limited, he was 
gratified to find were more extensively taken up by 
others, and that they were likely eventually to prove 

*In the discharge of all obligations my father was 
particularly punctual; and in the payment of the 
trifling wages of his domestics, which latterly he 
himself took in hand, he was careful that no one was 
overlooked, or unjustly dealt with. His pundits and 
domestic servants were much attached to him; and 
by the former he was particularly held in great 
esteem, for the uprightness of his conduct, and his 
extensive acquirements in the oriental languages. On 
the occasion of government new-modelling the college 
of Fort William, he was pensioned, and his depart- 
ment, with others, abolished ; whereupon the natives, 
who were for many years under his eye and direction, 
came in a body to condole with Dr. Carey. On see- 
ing them, he was greatly affected: recollections of 
past scenes revived; all he could do was to weep, 
which brought tears from their eyes; and, recom- 
mending them to submit to the dispensations of 
Providence, he separated from them. 

*To all classes of people he was mild and tender in 
his deportment; and with those who were of the 
* household of faith,' he particularly sympathized in all 


their sorrows and joys; and relieved the wants of the 
distressed, as far as he was able, out of the small sum 
he reserved to himself; and if this failed, he never 
let them go without his advice and condolence. 

*He was naturally of a lively turn of mind, fall of 
spirit; and in society was interesting in his remarks 
and communications, and conveyed much information 
on almost all subjects. He was moderate in his 
habits, rising early, and going to bed early. 

*In principle, my father was resolute and firm; 
never shrinking from avowing and maintaining his 
sentiments. He had conscientious scruples against 
taking an oath ; and condemned severely the manner 
in which oaths were administered, and urged vehe- 
mently the propriety of altogether dispensing with 
them. I remember three instances in which he took 
a conspicuous part in regard to oaths, such as was 
characteristic of the man. On one occasion, when a 
respectable Hindu servant of the college of Fort 
William, attached to Dr. Carey's department, was 
early one morning proceeding to the Ganges to bathe, 
he perceived a dead body lying near the road; but it 
being dark, and no person being present, he passed 
on, taking no further notice of the circumstance. As 
he returned from the Granges after sun-rise, he saw a 
crowd near the body, and then happened to say to one 
of the watchmen present, that in the morning he saw 
the body on the other side of the road. The watch- 
man took him in custody, as a witness before the 
coroner; but, when brought before the coroner, he 
refused to take an oath, and was, consequently, com* 


mitted to prison for contempt. The Hindu, being a 
respectable person, and never having taken an oath, 
refused to take any nourishment in the prison. In 
this state he continued a day and a half, my father 
being then at Serampore; but upon his coming to 
Calcutta, the circumstances were mentioned to him. 
The fietct of the man having refused to take an oath 
was enough to make him interest himself in his be- 
half. He was delighted with the resolution the man 
took — ^rather to go to prison than take an oath ; and 
was determined to do all he could to procure his 
liberation. He first applied to the coroner ; but was 
directed by him to the sheriff. To that functionary he 
proceeded; but was informed by him, that he could 
make no order on the subject. He then had an in- 
terview with the then chief judge, by whose inter- 
ference the man was set at liberty. 

^Another instance relates to him personally. On 
the occasion of his last marriage, the day was fixed 
on which the ceremony was to take place — ^friends 
were invited — and all necessary arrangements made ; 
but, three or four days prior to the day fixed, he was 
informed that it would be necessary for him to obtain 
a license, in doing which, he must either take an oath, 
or have banns published. To taking an oath he at 
once objected, and applied to the then senior judge, 
who informed him that, as he was not a quaker, his 
oath was indispensable; but, rather than take an oath, 
he applied to have the banns published, and postponed 
the arrangements for his marriage for another three 


■* The* third instance was as follows: It Was 'nedes-' 
sary, in a certain case, to prove a will in court, in 
which the name of Dr. Carey was mentioned, in con- 
nexion with the Serampore missionaries, as executors. 
An application was made by one of his colleagues, 
which was. refused by the court, on account of the 
vagueness of the terms, * Serampore missionaries;' but 
as Dr. Carey's name was specifically mentioned, the 
court intimated they would grant the application if 
made by him. The communication was made; but 
when he was informed that an oath was necessary, he 
shrunk with abhorrence from the idea ; but after much 
persuasion, he consented to make the application, if 
taking an oath would be dispensed with. He did at- 
tend, and stated his objections to the then chief judge, 
which being allowed, his affirmation was received and 
recorded by the court. 

* In entering upon the last scene of my father's life, 
liis illness and death, I will just observe that during 
his residence in India he had several severe attacks of 
illness, but on the whole enjoyed better health than 
he did in England. The duties connected with the 
college of Fort William afforded him a change of 
scene, which relieved his mind, and gave him oppor- 
tunities of taking exercise, and conduced much to his 
health. During the several years he held the situa- 
tion of professor to the college, no consideration would 
allow him to neglect his attendance; and though he 
had to encounter boisterous weather in crossing the 
river at unseasonable hours, he was punctual in his 
attendance, and never applied for leave of absence. 


And when he was qualified, by the rules of the ser- 
vice, to retire on a handsome pension, he preferred 
being actively employed in promoting the interests of 
the college, and remained, assiduously discharging 
his duties, till his department was abolished by go* 
vemment. The business of the college requiring his 
attendance in Calcutta, he became so habituated to his 
joumies to and fro, that at his age he painfully felt the 
retirement he was subjected to when his office ceased. 
After this circumstance, his health rapidly declined; 
and though he occasionally visited Calcutta, he com- 
plained of extreme debility. This increased daily, 
and made him a constant sufferer; until at length he 
was not able to leave his house. 

' He had just finished a new edition of his transla- 
tion, in the Bengal language, of the New Testament, 
and then remarked that his work was done, that he 
had nothing more to do but to wait the will of his 
Lord. Often would he recur to missionary work in 
India, and say, *What hath the Lord wrought!' But 
of his own labours he spoke with much modesty ; and 
viewed himself as an unprofitable servant, needing 
continually the grace of his Saviour. Notwithstand- 
ing Ills weakness, he would still sit up at his desk, 
where he was accustomed to labour; and though he 
could not do much, he corrected a few proofs for the 
press, and spent much time in reading. Often, dur- 
ing his illness, he lamented his unprofitableness, and 
was fearful he should prove a burden to others. 
While in this helpless situation, he was visited by many 
of his friends, who knew and esteemed his character. 


and came to condole with him. On one occasion, a 
minister of his acquaintance called to see him; and, 
asking him how he felt as to his hopes regarding a 
future world, his reply was, ^ I cannot say I have any 
very rapturous feelings; but I am confident in the 
promises of the Lord, and wish to leave my eternal 
interests in his hands — to place my hands in his, as a 
child would in his father's, to be led where and how 
he please.' In this frame of mind he continued dur- 
ing the whole of his illness. He sufiered from ex- 
treme debility, but was free from pain, more or less, 
for six months; but such was his complaint, that it 
was necessary to keep him very quiet. On more than 
one occasion, his approaching end was immediately 
expected; but he revived. So much was he at length 
reduced, that he could not turn himself on his bed. 
For several weeks all that he could articulate was, yes 
or no, to questions put to him. On the night before 
his death he breathed hard and was restless ; but there 
were no particular symptoms of dissolution. In the 
morning, very early, he continued the same ; but as 
the day dawned, it was evident he was sinking. He re- 
mained in this state till about seven o'clock, when his 
spirit took its flight to the regions of eternal bliss, 
where sin, sorrow, and sufi*ering can no more affect 
him. The next morning his remains were followed 
to the Serampore mission burial-ground by a lai^ 
train of mourners. Notwithstanding it was a wet 
morning, several gentlemen from Calcutta attended ; 
as did also two officers, and the chaplain of the go«- 
vemor-general, sent from Barrackpore by the lady of 


the governor, to pay the last tribute of respect t^ his 
memory ; and about seven o'clock the body was com* 
mitted to the earthy in the certain hope of a resurrec- 
tion on the last day. 

*The foregoing are some of the particulars I can 
call to my recollection. I was not much with my 
father during his illness, and am convinced that 
more interesting particulars might be communicated 
by those who were in the habit of daily seeing him. 

* J. Carey/ 

Remarks on the Character and Labours of Dr. 
Carey, as an Oriental Scholar and Translator, 
BY H. H. Wilson, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Boden Pro- 
fessor OF Sanscrit in the University of Oxford, 
Member of the Royal Asiatic Society, and of 
THE Asiatic Societies of Bengal, Paris, &c. 

The labours of Dr. Carey in oriental literature 
were subordinate to the great object of his sojourn in 
India, and were devoted especially to the purpose of 
facilitating the acquirement of various Indian lan- 
guages, with a view to their employment in the 
translation of the holy scriptures, and in maintaining 
with the natives that colloquial intercourse which is 
the readiest and surest mode of influencing their 
feelings and opinions. 

At the time when Dr. Carey commenced his career 
of oriental study, the iacilities that have since accu- 
mulated were wholly wanting, and the student was 
destitute of all elementary aid. With the exception 


of those languages which are regarded by the natives 
of India as sacred and classical, such as the Arabic 
and Sanscrit, few of the Indian dialects have ever 
been reduced to their elements by original writers. 
The principles of their construction are preserved by 
practice alone, and a grammar or a vocabulary forms 
no part of such scanty literature as they may happen 
to possess : accustomed from infancy to the familiar 
use of their vernacular inflexions and idioms, 
the natives of India never thought it necessary 
to lay down rules for their application; and even 
in the present day they cannot, without diffi- 
culty, be prevailed upon to study systematically 
the dialects which they daily and hourly speak. 
Europeans, however, are difierently circumstanced. 
With them the precepts must precede the prac- 
tice, if they wish to attain a critical knowledge of 
a foreign tongue. But when the oriental languages 
first became the subjects of investigation, those pre- 
cepts were yet to be developed, and the early students 
had therefore, as they gathered words and phrases, to 
investigate the principles upon which they were con- 
i^ructed, and to frame, as they proceeded, a grammar 
for themselves. The talents of Dr. Carey were emi- 
nently adapted to such an undertaking, and com- 
bining with the necessities of himself and of others, 
engaged him at various periods in the compilation of 
original and valuable elementary works. His Sanscrit 
grammar M^as the first complete grammar that was 
published; his Telinga grammar was the first printed 
in English ; his Kamata and Mahratta grammars 


were tlie first published works developing the struc- 
ture of those languages ; his Mahratta dictionary w^ 
also one of the first attempts in the lexicography of 
that dialect ; his Punjabi grammar is still the only 
authority that exists for the language of the Sikh 
nation ; and although he must concede to Halhed the 
credit of first reducing to rule the construction of the 
Bengali tongue, yet by his own grammar and dic- 
tionary, and other useful rudimental publications, Dr. 
Carey may claim the merit of having raised it from 
the condition of a rude and unsettled dialect to the 
character of a regular and permanent form of speech, 
possessing something of a literature, and capable, 
through its intimate relation to the Sanscrit, of be- 
coming a refined and comprehensive vehicle for the 
difiusion of sound knowledge and religious truth. 

The first of the Indian tongues to which the atten- 
tion of Dr. Carey was directed was naturally that of 
the province which was the scene of his missionary 
duties, Bengal. He soon found, however, that a 
thorough knowledge of Bengali was unattainable, 
without a conversancy with Sanscrit, which he always 
regarded as ^the parent of nearly all the colloquial 
dialects of India,'* and 'the current medium of con- 
versation amongst the Hindus, until gradually cor- 
rupted by a number of local causes, so as to form the 
languages at present spoken in the various parts of 
Hindusthan, and perhaps those of some of the neigh- 
bouring countries.'t He commenced the study of 

* Preface to the Sanscrit Grammar, 1806. 
i Preface to Bengali Dictionary, 1818. 


Sanscrit, therefore, at an early period of his residence, 
and his labours in it have placed him high amongst 
the most distinguished of our Sanscrit scholars. It 
appears also that he was early induced to acquire a 
knowledge of Mahratta. 

Upon the first establishment of the college of Fort 
William, by Marquis Wellesley, in 1800, the known at- 
tainments of Dr. Carey pointed him out to the Govern- 
ment of India as a fit person to be attached to the new 
institution, and he was accordingly engaged to give 
tuition in the Sanscrit, Bengali, and Mahratta lan- 
guages, with the title of teacher ; his own humility 
disclaiming the more ambitious designation of pro- 
fessor, at least until the year 1807, when he sub- 
mitted to be so entitled. He continued to occupy this 
situation until the virtual abolition of the college by 
the discontinuance of European professors in 1830-1. 
He then retired upon a pension, far from adequate 
to the length and value of his services, and the 
character for ability, industry, regularity, and judg- 
ment which he had uniformly maintained. 

One of the first works published by Dr. Carey was 
his grammar of the Sanscrit language. In his dedi- 
cation to Lord Wellesley, dated in 1806, he terms it 
* the first elementary work in the Sunscrit langus^ 
yet published.' * The first and only volume of Mr. 
Colebrooke's grammar was printed in 1806, and 

* ' A Grammar of the Sanscrit Language, composed from the works of the 
most esteemed Grammarians ; to which are added, Examples for the Exercise of 
the Student, and a complete list of the Dhatoos or Roots. Bj W. Cakby, 
Teacher of the Sunscrit, Bengali, and Marhatta Languages, in the College of 
Fort William, Serampore. Mission Press, 1806.' 



would therefore be entitled to the merit of priority; 
but in point of feet it was preceded by a more than 
equal portion of Dr. Carey's work, a part of which, 
containing the first three books, was published in 
1804, although the whole did not appear until a 
later date. The contemporaneous appearance of the 
two works is evidence that they were compiled 
separately and independently, and that the later 
could not in any way have been indebted to the 
earlier of the two. This is also manifest from the 
difference that prevails in the plan of them, and their 
resting upon the authorities of various schools. Dr. 
Carey may be considered, therefore, correct in calling 
his the first complete grammar of the Sanscrit lan- 
guage; and it was undoubtedly an original work, 
which made its appearance in the very infancy of 
Sanscrit study. 

The Sanscrit grammar of Dr. Carey is a work of 
immense extent and labour. It forms a quarto 
volume of more than a thousand pages. It is divided 
into five books ; the first treats of the letters and of 
their euphonic combinations ; the second^ of declen- 
sion ; the third, of conjugation ; the fourth, of the 
formation of derivative nouns; and the fifth, of 
syntax. Attached to the syntax, is a translation of 
the first three chapters of the gospel of St. Matthew, 
and the text of one of the Upanishads or theological 
sections of the Yajur Veda, with an English ver- 
sion. There is also a very useful appendix, con- 
sisting of a list of all the radicals of the Sanscrit 
language, alphabetically arranged, with the indi- 



catoiy letters of their respective conjugalioiidy aud 
their meanings both in Sanscrit and English. A 
copious index concludes the grammar. The general 
plan of the work is to collect the principal rules of 
each subject into separate sections, and then to sub- 
join the examples, connected with the foregoing pre- 
cepts by appropriate numbers. This is particularly 
the case in the books on declension and conJQgation: 
in the others, the rules and exemplifications 'are 
more nearly approximated. The rules are given in 
the technical language of the authorities followed, 
which are especially the works current in the 
lower Gangetic provinces, or those of Vopadeva, 
Kramadeswara, Durgadasa, &c. To a mere En- 
glish student the rules are of a somewhat unusual, 
and therefore unintelligible, character; and to make 
a satisfactory use of this grammar, a native gram- 
mar, particularly the Mugdhabodha, of Vopadeva, 
should be read at the same time with it. All that is 
strange and perplexing will then disappear, and the 
work of the English grammarian will be found a most 
serviceable illustration and interpreter of the brief 
and technical compilation of the Indian philologist. It 
is some disadvantage, however, to Dr, Carey's work, 
that the system which he followed, and which the 
circumstances of his situation recommended, is that 
which is peculiar to Bengal, and is of comparatively 
local and limited currency. The unvrieldy size of 
the volume, arising, not only from the abundance of 
materials, but from the unnecessary size given to the 
Sanscrit types in the early stages of Hindu typo- 


graphy, is another venial imperfection-: but, notwith- 
standing these drawbacks, Carey's Sanscrit granamar 
is a work of very great merit; and in the immense ac- 
cumulation of useful examples and illustrations which 
it affords, especially in the paradigmas of the verbs, 
and in the development of derivative nouns, it is of 
invaluable assistance both to the begiQuer and to the 
more advanced student. 

Dr. Carey never engaged to any considerable ex- 
tent in the prosecution of Hindu literature uncon- 
nected with philological research. The only pub- 
lished work in which he is known to have been con- 
cerned is the text of the epic poem, the Ramayana, 
which he edited, and to which he subjoined a transla-< 
tion, in concert with Mr. Marshman.* This publica- 
tion originated with the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
and the Council of the College of Fort William, and 
was the first of an intended series of translations from 
Sanscrit, designed ^ to disseminate a just idea of the 
religion and literature, the manners and customs, of 
the Hindus.' f The Ramayana was the work first se- 
lected by a committee of the Asiatic Society and the 
College Council, and the translators were employed 
under their patronage and instructions. The work, 
whicl^ was begun in 1806, had advanced in 1810 as 
far as three volumes, comprising only two out of the 

* 'Th« RAai&jana of Vdmeoki, in the original Sunscrit. with a Prose Tnni* 
Ution and Ezplanatoxy Notes. By Dr. Carey and Josbua Marshman, Seram- 
pore/ Vol. i., 1806 ; toI. ii., 1808 ; rol. iii., 1810. The latest lisU of Seraa* 
pore translations annoanee four Toliimes of the lUmijana, but it is not known 
when the fourth waa published. 

t Prefiice to the 1st rol. 
2 Q 

seven books of the original. It was either then or 
shortly afterwards discontinued ; the patronage, it is 
believed, being withdrawn, and the meases of its 
prosecution having therefore ceased. The task, in 
truth, was not very congenial to the talents or the 
pursuits of the translators, A mytho-epic poem W8|s 
scarcely within the scope of missionary study, exjcept 
as subsidiary to the acquirement of the language, ^or 
to an acquaintance with the belief of the Hindus. 
The text is printed with considerable care ; but the 
translation, in which the translators avow that 
* elegance of expression, and even perspicuity, has 
been sacrificed to a strict conformity to the original' 
does not adequately or truly represent the original, 
although it is written in a style of exceeding sim- 
plicity. The book was also printed in an injudicious 
form, and would, if the work had been completed, 
have extended to a very inconvenient and expensive 
multiplication of volumes. 

The remaining contributions of Dr. Carey to San- 
scrit literature are less easy to be defined. Mr« 
Colebrooke has acknowledged his assistance in con- 
ducting the Amara Kosha through the press at Seram- 
pore; and the same gentleman, in his introductory 
remarks to the edition of the Hitopadesa, ascribes to 
Dr. Carey the office of editor.* In this publication, 
the text of the Hitopadesa, the original of Pilpay's 
Fables, was first printed upon a careful collation of 
six manuscript copies ; and although many errors re- 

* ' The editor, Mr. Carey, undertook the publication on a luggeetion'from the 
council of the college of Fort WiHsam, aad aider the petionege of gorenmait.' 


quire correction, yet they are not more than might 
have been expected from the variations and defects of 
the manuscripts, and the novelty of the task, it being 
the first Sanscrit book ever printed in the Devanagari 
character. The same volume comprehends an epi- 
tome of a collection of Tales, called the Dasa Kum&ra, 
and the three Satakas, or Poetical Centos of Bhartri 
'Hari. Besides this acknowledged aid to the cultiva- 
tion of Sanscrit, it seems probable that Dr. Carey 
assisted Mr. Ward in his Account of the Hindus, 
especially in the abstracts and translations of the 
philosophical works there given. It was understood, 
also, that he had prepared for press some translations 
of treatises on the metaphysical system called Sankhya ; 
but these were never published. It was not in Dr. 
Carey's nature to volunteer a display of his erudition, 
and the literary labours already adverted to arose in 
a great measure out of his connexion with the college 
of Calcutta, or were suggested to him by those whose 
authority he respected, and to whose wishes he 
thought it incumbent upon him to attend. It may be 
added, that Dr. Carey spoke Sanscrit with fluency 
and correctness. 

The department of oriental literature which may 
be considered in an especial manner as that over 
which Dr. Carey presided, was, however, the language 
and literature of Bengal. The situation of the capital 
of British India; the extent and importance of the 
province, comprehending a population, it Has been 
computed, of 25,000,000; and the multiplied and inti- 
mate relations which have grown out of its long-con^ 



tumed connexion with British rule, have always ren- 
dered it advisable to rear a body of public function- 
aries, competent to discharge in Bengal the duties of 
their appointments for themselves, and without the 
intermediation of native agents. Hence a considerable 
proportion of the junior members of the Bengal civil 
service were enjoined or induced to acquire a know- 
ledge of Bengali, during their early career as students 
in the college of Fort William ; and the tuition of a per- 
manently numerous class devolved therefore upon the 
Bengali professor. When Mr. Carey commenced his 
lectures, there were scarcely any but viva voce means 
of communicating instruction. There were no printed 
books. Manuscripts were rare ; and the style or ten- 
dency of the few that were procurable, precluded their 
employment as class-books. It was necessary, there- 
fore, to prepare works that should be available for this 
purpose; and so assiduously and zealously did Dr. 
Carey apply himself to this object, that either by his 
own exertions, or those of others, which he instigated 
and superintended, he left not only the students of the 
language well provided with elementary books, but 
supplied standard compositions to the natives of Ben- 
gal, and laid the foundation of a cultivated tongue 
and flourishing literature throughout the country. 

According to a highly competent authority, Babpo 
Ram Comol Shen, the compiler of a valuable dip" 
tionary, English and Bengali, which has recently 
arrived in England, it appears, that no book was even 
written in the language of Bengal prior to . tlie 
sixteenth century; From that date, to the camtHMce^ 


ment of the nineteenth, a few legendary tales were 
composed, and some Sanscrit compositions were 
translated, but no elementary books were written ; and 
the cultivation of the language, insignificant as it had 
been, was on the decline when the college of Fort 
William was founded. *From this time forward,' 
says our author, * writing Bengali correctly may be 
said to have begun in Calcutta, and a number of 
books were supplied by the Serampore press, which 
set the example of printing works in this and other 
eastern languages. The college pundits, following up 
the plan, produced many excellent works ; amongst 
them the late Mrityunjaya Vidyalankara, the head 
pundit of the college, was the most eminent. * I 
must acknowledge, here, that whatever has been done 
towards the revival of the Bengali language, its im- 
provement, and, in fact, the establishment of it as a 
language, must be attributed to that excellent man. 
Dr. Carey, and his colleagues, by whose liberality 
and great exertions many works have been carried 
through the press, and the general tone of the lan- 
guage of this province has been so greatly raised.' 
No individual is better qualified than the talented 
native whose words are here cited, to appreciate 
accurately the share taken by Dr. Carey in the im- 
provement of the language and literature of his 

* Mritfunjaya pimdit was. espeeiBlly attached to the aemce of Dr. Cfcfdy 
08 professor in the college, and wss held bv him in high and deserved esti- 
tnation. He is the individual whose portrait is ipcluded in the picture taken 
hj Mr« i^QBie of Dr. Carpj, and which has been engraired. He coDtiaaed until 
his death associated with his master and friend in useful literary occupations. 

The first grammar of the language of Bengal was 
compiled by Mr. Halhed, of the East Indk Company's 
civil service, and printed at Hoogly in 1783. It is a 
work of merit; but in the interval that had elapsed 
between its appearance and the institution of pnUtc 
lectures in Bengali, it had probably become scarce^ 
and was no longer available for the -wantB of die 
students of the college. Dr. Carey printed the &nt 
edition of his grammar in 1801 ; and whilst ai^ow* 
ledging the aid he had derived from Halhed, observes, 
' I have made some distinctions and observations not 
noticed by him, particularly on the declension of 
nouns and verbs, and the use of particles.' In the 
prelace to his second edition, printed in 1606, he 
remarks, ' Since the lirst edition of this work was 
published, the writer has had an opportunity of 
obtaining a more accurate knowledge of this lan- 
guage. The result of his application to it he has en- 
deavoured to give in the following pages, which, on 
account of the variations from the former edition, 
may be esteemed a new work. ' The variatiraw 
alluded to were chiefly of the nature of additions, 
particularly in the declension and derivation of 
nouns, and in the conjugations of the verbs, extending 
the grammar to nearly double its original size. Se- 
veral editions have been subsequently printed, but 
they have not differed in any material respect from 
the second and more perfect form. 

The Bengali grammar of Dr. Carey ex{riaiiis the 
peculiarities of the Bengali alphabet, and the cooibfc* 
nation of its letters; the declension of substantiTfls, 


and fimnadon of derivative nouns ; the inflexions of 
adjectives Bsod pronouns; and the conjugations of the 
verbs : it gives copious lists and descriptions of the 
indeclinaUe verbs, adverbs, prepositions, &c., and 
closes with the syntax, and an appendix of numerals, 
and tables of weights and measures. The rules are 
comj^rehensive, though expressed with brevity and 
simplicity; and the examples are sufficiently nu- 
merous and well chosen. The syntax is the least 
satisfiietorily illustrated; but this defect was fully 
remedied by a separate publication, printed also in 
1801, of Dialogues in Bengali, with a translation into 
English, comprising a great variety of idioms and 
phrases. This work, also, has passed through several 
editions; and, independently of its merit as a help to 
the acquisition of the language, it presents in many 
respects a curious and lively picture of the manners, 
feelings, and notions of the natives of Bengal. 

A more laborious and important publication was 
effected at a later period by Dr. Carey, in his Bengali 
and English dictionary. The first volume was printed 
in 1815; but the typographical form adopted being 
found likely to extend the work to an inconvenient 
size, it was subsequently reprinted in 1818: a second 
and third volume appeared in 1825. These three 
volumes comprehend above two thousand quarto 
pages, and about eighty thousand words ; a nimiber 
that equally demonstrates the copiousness of the lan- 
guage, mod the industry oi the compiler. Besides the 
m^mings. . of the words, their derivation is given 
whenner-^iscertainaUe. This is almost always the 

^OKBta, Bs-ttie great mass of the words are Sonscriti-Mr. 
'Ualhed idng sioce maintained 'the nnpoesUiilitj of 
-l^tning the Bengal dialect without a gexlnral cnid 
comprehensive idea of the Sanscrit, from 'the cikise 
and intimate connexion between the two ;' and Dr. 
Carey observes, with regard to the materials of iris 
dictionary, 'considerably more than three-fonrtiui'of 
the words are pure Sunscrit, and those oom^ioBiiig-the 
greatest part of the remainder are so little ottfrtqrted 
that their origin may be traced without difficulty.' 
Dr. Carey also states, that he endeavoured to- intro- 
duce into the dictionary every simple word used in 
the language, and all the compound terms which are 
commonly current, or which are to be found in Ben- 
gali works, whether published or unpublished. It may 
be thought, indeed, that in the latter respect he has 
;been more scrupulous than was absolutely necessary, 
and has inserted compounds which might have been 
- dispensed with, their analysis being obvious, and their 
' eleonents being explained in their appropriate places. 
■, The dictionary also includes many derivative terms, 
and privative, attributive, and abstract nouns, which, 
-though of legitimate construction, may rarely occur 
in cbmposition, and are of palpable signifieatton. 
. /The insertion of such words, however, is no otherwbe 
.[lOl^e^tionable, than that it tends to swell the dtc- 
v!t)ona^ to an inconvenient and cosUy bulk,- and: miist 
, h^v^added materially to the trouble of the odmpslejr ; .the. same time it evinces his careful resGarchv>his 
I couecieiitious exactitude;, aiiU \m utiwcai'ieit iududUy. 
.,(T)i<-' EoglisJi etjuivalente of the Bengiili wordftiant Wtcll 


chosen^ and of unquestionable accuracy. Local tesms 
are rendered with that correctness which Dr. Careyf s 
knowledge of the manners of the natives, and his 
lofig domesttcation amongst them, enabled him to 
attain; and his scientific acquirements and conversancy 
with the subjects of natural history qualified him to 
. employ, and not unfrequently to devise, characteristic 
denonunations for the products of the animal or 
vegetable world peculiar to the East. The objection 
taken to this dictionary, on account of its bulk, was 
subsequently obviated by the publicaticm of an 
abridgment, prepared under Dr. Carey's own super- 
intendence, by Mr. J. Marshman, printed in 1827. 
.Most of the compound and derivative terms were 
omitted, and the publication was reduced to a thick 
octavo volume. Although, however, this has the 
advantage of being more readily consulted, it by no 
means obviates the necessity of the original, to all 
who seek to acquire anything beyond the rudiments 
of the Bengali language, in which the dictionary of 
Dr. Carey must ever be regarded as a standard 

In addition to these elementary works, which were 
^pedally his own. Dr. Carey took an early and 
aetive part in the promotion and preparation of works 
intended to facilitate the acquisition of the Bengali 
language. This duty was most urgent in the early 
-period of his career, when Bengali works, as we have 
deed, had ' scarcely any existence even in manuscript, 
'and sprinting was utterly unknown to the natives of 
BcngaL A press was speedily established by Dr. 

Carey and his oollei^oes at Soimpoie, and m subor* 
dination to its especial parpose of multiplyiiig copies 
of translations of the Bcriptores, it was derratol-to the 
printing of the first efforts of native litafaiy taleiit. 
Various translations from Sanscrit into Bengali, as die 
Hitopadesa, the Buttees Sinhasan, and others, itere 
prepared and printed in 1801. In 1809 the early 
translations of the Ramdyana and Mahdbhamtf were 
pnblished; and from that time to the present daj 
many useful works in Bengali, as well as in other 
languages, have issued from the Sersmpore press, ta 
most of which Dr. Carey contributed encouragement 
or aid. The indirect promotion of Bengsdi literatare, 
effected by the example and impulse of the preas of 
Serampore, has been atill more important, and of late 
years has rendered it less neeesaaty for the direrton 
of that establishment to originate compositions in 
the language of Bengal. Calcutta now aboonds with 
printing-presses, belonging either to Europeans w to 
natives, which are kept actively at work npon the 
p'roductionfl of indigenous talent and attainment: a 
striking contrast with the state of things thirty yeais 
ago, wh^i the means of promulgating knowledge 
were as defective as the disposition to seek or the 
ability to impart it, and an alteration for which 
Bengal is mainly indebted to Dr. Carey «nd the' 
missionaries of Serampore. • ' - r^ 

Of a less prominent, but equally useful chataotepii 
Wcfre the'letbours of Dr. Carey in other Indian dibitotk/ 
"Rk {i^illticid relations that afose between th^ firitisk^ 
gQ^)smhlent and the Mahiratta ^tates^ « abmt .^hkiidaH^ 

MfiMoia aF D1L cAaBT. 608 

of* tho iostitatiQn of the college of Fort WiUkmivTe^ 
Gommc^nded the mtroduction of the study of the 
Mafaratta tongae» and to Dr. Carey was assigned the 
office of teaching it In this, as in the other dialects, 
elementary books were wanting, and Dr. Carey, to 
use his own expressions, * thought it his duty to do the 
utmost in his power towards facilitating its acquisi^ 
tion by attempting a grammar.' A Mahratta gram* 
mar, he states, had been writt^i many years before in 
the Portuguese tongue, but he was^not able to procure 
a copy, and was therefore obliged to reduce the Ian* 
guflge to its rudiments for himself. This work was 
puUkhed in 1806, and five years afterwards he 
printed a Mahratta diotionary, containing about ten 
thousand words. Of late years considerable attention 
has been paid to the cultivatioxi of Mahratta in the 
presidency of Bombay, and more perfect and elabo- 
rate grammars and dictionaries have been given to 
the public. To Dr. Carey, however, belongs the 
merit of having set the example, and of having, under 
the most unpropitious circumstances, first rendered 
the language attainable by European students. 

The same merit applies to his grammars of the Telin- 
ga, Karnata, and Punjabi dialects. The Telinga was 
the first published grammar of that tongue in English. 
Foir the Karnata grammar, also, no model existed, nor 
was there any for the Punjabi. The two former have 
been succeeded by works prepared in the countries 
^ere these languages are spoken, and with the benci^t/ 
of^more protracted and regular cultivatioit ; but. tji^ei 
Baitjabii giaosmar of Dr. Cafey is still Uie opJjf-Fmef^. 

diiitn thrAugh which a conversancy "with the dialect 
4()0ken between the Indus and the Setlej, is to be ob- 
■tkined. These works are all characterized by the same 
ffeatures, succinctness and perspicuity ; ' and are ex- 
cellently adapted to the wants of young stadents. The 
intentions of their author, and the modest estimate be 
formed of the value of his productions, are thus stated 
-in the prefece to his Telinga grammar : * A wish to 
contribute to the more extensive cultivation of' the 
Indian languages has induced the writer to under- 
take this work. Should this object be in any measure 
accomplished hereby, he will feel gratified ; and still 
more so, should it induce any one who has opportu- 
nity and leisure to execute any of these elementary 
works which are necessary to render us familiar witK 
the languages of India, so highly deserving of culti- 
vation.' The wish here expressed has been of late years 
satisfactorily complied with ; and its fiiifilment is 
in a great degree owing to the example set by the 
Venerable scholar by whom it was entertained. 

In addition to the works which were intended to 
facilitate the acquirement of the vernacular languages. 
Dr. Carey took an active interest in every attempt tg 
make India familiarly known, both to its rulers and 
its pieople. He was an early associate of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, and furnished one or two instructive 
papers. to the Researches ; and he was a diligent con- 
tributor to the Agricultural Society of Calcutta, of 
wliicli lie was om.' of the t'oundurs aud for some tiil»a 
president. Besides fi valuable catalogue of the plants 
of the Company's Botanical Garden at Calcutta, whicli 

he printed in. 1814, Dr. Carey was engaged for aey^^l' 
years in the publication of a Flora Indica^^in. conp^rt 
with Dr. WaUicl^: two volumes only of this w[ork hav^ 
appeared < He had contemplated other works on tba 
natural history of India, and particularly on its oimi"' 
thology, with which view he had at one time formed, a 
ifoljiection of birds, that he might observe theiy 
living habits. But his public duties, his literary pur- 
suits, and the task to which his best energies were 
dedicated, prevented him from accomplishing this 
desirable object. There can be no doubt that he also 
bore a part in the periodical publications of the Seram- 
pore press, particularly in the journal denominated 
The Friend of India, which was published monthly or 
quarterly for several years at Serampore, and in 
which, questions of high importance to the moral and 
political improvement of British India were discussed 
with ability, experience, and judgment. 

These various pursuits were, however, all secondary- 
to the main end of multiplying and disseminating 
translations of the Holy Scriptures, which has been 
steadily pursued by the Society of which he was the 
chief ornament for about forty years. It appears that 
Dr. Carey commenced his labours in this department 
before 1794,* and that he had completed a version into 
Beng&li of the whole of the New Testament, and of 
, part of the Old, by 1796. The former was printed 
and circulated in 1801, and a translation of the Psalms 
and of the prophecies of Isaiah was printed in 160^. 
Ills next undertaking was a Sanscrit translation, m 

. . ^ ' Tenth Menoir of TEanBlatipos by the SorAmpore brethren,' . ^ -. 

which the New Teatament was printed in 1808, the Pen- 
tateuch in 1811, the historical books in 1815, and the 
hagiography in 1816. Subsequently, improved edi- 
tions of both versions were taken in hand by the ori- 
ginal translator, and a revised version of the Bengali 
was prepared and published in 1832.* Ocnmuderable 
advance had been also made in the revisal of the 
Sanscrit translation, and the Pentateuch and historical 
books had been printed. It is to be hoped, tihetefore, 
that Dr. Carey may have been spared to put the finish- 
ing hand to the work, at least in manuscript, and thus 
wound up his pious labours and his well^spent life 

The revised editidn of Dr. Carey's Sanscrit trans- 
lation will no doubt be exempt from many of those 
imperfections which its preparaticm at so early a period 
of Sanscrit study rendered unavoidable. These de- 
fects were neither incorrectness nor obscurity ; but in- 
elegance of expression, and harshness of construction. 
The latter was in a great measure inseparable from 
the principle which appears to have influenced all the 
Soampore versions ; that of translating as closely to 
the letter of the text as practicable ; a rigour of fidel- 
ity that cannot fail to cramp and distort the style of 
the translation. The novelty of the subject, also, and 
the necessity of employing words to designate mean- 
ings which, although admissible, were unusual and 
unknown, contributed to disfigure the compositioa ; 

* Hito f}i«ui th^ ttaxA edition of p«rt of tbo Old TettMDMBtt «ad tli»l^ai^ of 
the rest, the sixth edition of the New Testament, and thes^enth of thof^pols- 
—Tenth Memoir, p. 7. 


and the Sanscrit vemou Jbas acoordidgly neirer been 
popular with the learned natives of India, for whose 
use more particularly it was designed. 

The intimate and long*continued intercourse main- 
tained by Dr. Carey with all classes of the natives of 
Bengal^ and the repeated opportunities of revision 
afibrded by the multiplied editions of his Bengali 
translations, have very naturally improved their cha-* 
racter, and rendered them generally intelligible and 
acceiitable to the population of the province. The 
latest editions, however, still retain something of the 
newness of the first; and the style is less easy and 
idiomatic than might have been expected. They are, 
however, performances of real merit ; and have been 
very extensively serviceable in diffusing accurate 
notions of gospel truth amcmgst the millions of Ben* 

. Shortly aflber the establishment 4if Dr. Carey and his 
brethren at Serampore, they devised and carried into 
execution a comprehensive scheme for the translation 
of the scriptures into all the lang^uages of India. Accor- 
dingly they published, in the course of about five-and- 
twenty years, translations of portions of the Old and 
New Testament, more or less considerable, in forty 
different dialects. It was not to be supposed, nor did 
they^retend, that they were conversant with all these 
forms of speech. The mode they adopted has been ex- 
plained by the missionaries in several of their ireports. 
Each version was made by a competent native, to whom 
the language of the translation to be prepared was ver- 
nacular, and who was also conversant with one or more 

of the languages into whick the original had been pre- 
viously translated. The individuals employed on the 
task usually sat and wrote in the same room; and, 
when any difficulty arose, had thus an opportunity of 
referring to some one or other of their associates, who 
was qualified to give them information and assistance. 
Their performances were also superintended and 
finally revised by their European employers. The 
language of the version might not, it is true, be 
familiar to the reviser; but a knowledge of Sanscrit, 
and of one or two vernacular dialects, was usually 
sufficient to enable him to appreciate the general 
character of the translation. * Above three-fourths,' 
say the missionaries, ^of the words in most of the 
secondary cognate languages were understood in all 
their bearings, through the Sanscrit, the Bengali, 
and Hindee, before those secondary languages were 
begun; and in some of them, even seven-eighths of 
the words, to say nothing of the construction, the 
idiom, and the usual figures of speech, in which there 
is little variation throughout the whole of the Indian 
family.'* There can be no question of the general 
accuracy of this statement; and a conversancy with 
Sanscrit affords a higMy useful key to all the dialects 
spoken in India: a knowledge of it, and of one or two 
of its principal derivatives, would, no doubt, eaable 
the possessor to follow a pundit in his explanation of 
a version in a form of Indian speech not regularly 
studied, and to ascertain its general conformity M'ith 
a given original. It may be doubted, however, if 

* Eighth Memoir of Transiations, &e., p. 4. 


such preparation is sufficient to estimate the pre- 
cise force even of simple terms in all cases; and 
still less can it appreciate idiomatic phraseology. 
It is to be apprehended, therefore, that many of 
these versions are written in too scholastic a style, 
and partake too much of the nature of Sanscrit com- 
positions, to be universally understood by the un- 
lettered population of the districts in which they were 
designed to circulate. At the same time, it must be 
acknowledged, that this difficulty is insuperable in 
the actual state of most of the dialects of India. 
They are inadequate to the expression of new ideas : 
terms for these must, therefore, be borrowed from the 
kindred or parent tongues, with a certainty, that these 
equivalents are as unfamiliar to the people at large as 
the notions which they are employed to convey. It 
was scarcely possible, therefore, to have published 
versions essentially dissimilar from those which have 
been printed ; and the only question is, Whether time 
was ripe for such translations at all? Admitting their 
expedience, it cannot be denied, that the plan devised 
for their preparation was judicious; and it is equally 
indisputable, that surprising industry and uncom- 
mon attainments were displaced in its execution. 
In this department Dr. Carey took a leading part; 
and 'it was in connexion especially with his duty 
of revising the different translations, that he added, 
to his great proficiency in Sanscrit and Bengali, a 
knowledge of those dialects whose elements he 
first investigated. Possessed in this way of at least 
six different dialects, and of Sanscrit, the parent of 

2 R 



the whole family, and endowed with a genius for 
philological investigation, Dr. Carey was peculiarly 
qualified to superintend the translation of the scrip- 
tures into a number of cognate languages; and it 
may be granted that, in combination with his col- 
leagues, he carried the project to as successful an 
issue as could have been expected from the bounded 
faculties of man. 

The review which has been thus attempted of Dr. 
Carey's labours in oriental literature, whether for 
purposes of general utility, or the special objects of 
his mission, is necessarily brief and imperfect. The 
books referred to are not all in the writer's posses- 
sion, and are not procurable perhaps in this country. 
Had they been at hand, however, a more detailed ex- 
amination of them would have been of interest (Hily 
to the few orientalists who have already formed their 
opinion of the merit of the works in question. 
Enough has, perhaps, been said to show that Dr. 
Carey was a man of no ordinary powers of mind; 
that he was endowed with prompt and acute appre- 
hension; that he must have been capable of vigorous 
and enduring application ; that his tastes were varied, 
and his attainments vast; and that he perseveringly 
and zealously devoted all his faculties and acquire- 
ments to the intellectual and spiritual improvement of 
his fellow-creatures in the East. 


Summary View op Dr. Carey's Character, with 


The reader who has consecutively perused the fore- 
going narrative, will have perceived that, by the native 
force of his own mind, and the providential circum- 
stances through which he passed, the main features of 
Dr. Carey's character have been made to stand out 
with so much prominence, as almost to supersede the 
necessity of any final review from the hand of the 
biographer. Yet a brief reflection or two may not be 
deemed impertinent to the design of such a volume ; 
it being composed, not ^ much for the purpose of ex- 
hibiting the man of science or of literature, though in 
each character it will be allowed he greatly excelled, 
as to portray a sound, and vigorous, and simple chris- 
tian mind, yielding itself to the light of truth, and 
obeying without reserve the force of great principles ; 
to show to what religious eminence a man of no ori- 
ginal pretension, and with many adverse influences to 
resist, under the guidance of such light, and the im- 
pulse of such principles, may attain ; and the great 
good he may possibly accomplish. 

We may certainly perceive of how great importance 
it is to investigate the word of God for ourselves, and 

2 R 2 

to come to our own conclusions, and to follow up our 
own convictions of duty, with but a measured defer- 
ence to the sentiments and practices of the world 
around us, even of the christian part of it. A plain 
and discreet man, under the legitimate influence of 
right views of divine truth, and correct impressions of 
duty, will often form designs beyond the range of 
other men's thoughts, and cheerfully pledge himself to 
a line of conduct from which they will shrink with 
dismay. If he discern his object clearly, as within the 
compass of divine prescription and promise, and if his 
conviction of its importance be such as that he can 
consecrate to its achievement all his capabilities of 
doing and of suffering, the opinions of his fellow-men 
neither will nor ought to excite in him much solicitude. 
He cannot expect, indeed, of a sudden to infiise his 
light into other minds, so as to carry their decisions 
with him ; nor can he at once force their feelings into 
sympathy with his own. He must be content for a 
while to follow his convictions, without the strength 
and without the solace he might wish to derive from 
the concurrent judgment of others. He must rest, 
and may well do so, in the award of his own consci- 
ence. If he be patient in the prosecution of his plans, 
and judicious in the methods he adopts, he will in due 
time conciliate to himself the wise and the good, and 
secure their patronage to his cause ; and even the timid 
and the calculating may at length commend his wis- 
dom as well as his zeal. But should such encourage- 
ment continue to be denied him, this will not arrest 


his virtuous progress. He will hold on his way, look- 
ing only to Grod for approval and for succour. * It is 
a light thing for me to be judged of man's judgment/ 
* When it pleased God, who separated me from my 
mother's womb, and called me by his grace, to reveal 
his Son in me, that I might preach him among the hea- 
then ; immediately I conferred not with flesh and 
blood, neither went I up to Jerusalem to those who 
were apostles before me ; but I went into Arabia, and 
returned again unto Damascus/ It is^ doubtless, gra- 
tifying to think and to act consentiently with the feel- 
ings and the received maxims of others, especially of 
those whom we highly respect, and to whom we are 
accustomed willingly to defer. But no christian should 
conceal a sentiment because it may yet be novel to 
other men ; nor cease to urge home its consequences, 
because others may be reluctant to follow them. The 
man who fears to announce his judgment upon prac- 
tical subjects, and hesitates to make the needful sacri- 
fice in demonstrating their importance, until the opin- 
ions of others are coincident with his own, may be in- 
duced to wait too long for it to prove practically avail- 
ing, or he may never realize it at all. The nobler vir- 
tues, such as perfect a man's own soul, and exert any 
decisive influence upon the minds of other men, and 
the blessed results of which will stretch into eternity, 
require a daring and spirited devotion, and are often 
matured by a stem and somewhat rugged discipline. 
But as every man must stand alone in the final judg- 
ment, so in the principal designs of life, and in every 
great plan of action, he should anticipate as much as 


is possible the solemnities of that last event, by rea- 
lizing his exclusive accountability to God, and exe> 
cising a naked dependance upon him. When the 
subject of this memcnr mentioned to his own father 
his purpose of becoming a missionary to the heathen, 
' William, are you mad V was the reply to him ; and, 
when he sought to impress the importance and prac- 
ticability of missionary efforts upon some of the more 
enlightened of his brethren, and of his own age and 
standing, the answer was, ^ If the Lord open windows 
in heaven, then may this thing be.' His life, indeed, 
was so long protracted, and so successful were his la- 
bours, that he won the good opinion and the sufirages 
of all whose principles and moral worth entitled them 
to any regard. But, had he died at an early period of 
his career, and had circumstances continued unpropi- 
tious to his object, and little apparent success attended 
his efforts, he might then have been lightly esteemed ; 
and yet without one fraction less of real excellence 
attaching to him, and without the slightest diminu- 
tion, it may be, of his final reward. ' Let every man, 
therefore, prove his own work, and then shall he have 
jrejoicing in himself alone, and not in another.' 

In Dr. Carey's mind, and in the habits of his life, 
there is nothing of the marvellous to describe. There 
was no great and original transcendency of intellect; 
no enthusiasm and impetuosity of feeling ; there was 
nothing in his mental character to dazzle or even to 
surprise. Whatever of usefulness and of consequent 
reputation he attained to, it was the result of an unre- 
served and patient devotion of a plain intelligence 


and a single heart to some great, yet well defined, 
and withal practicable objects. Objects, to achieve 
which, indeed, demanded great labour ; but were of 
such intrinsic and immeasurable worth, that, being 
once seriously resolved upon, appeared of augmented 
importance the more intimately they were contem- 
plated, and the more resolutely they were grappled 
with ; and which threw out attractions the more irre- 
sistible and absorbing, in proportion to the vigour and 
the intensity with which they were pursued. No one 
who knew him, will contend that his talents were of 
the brilliant and attractive cast. He had no genius, no 
imagination. He had nothing of the sentimental, the 
tasteful, the speculative, or the curious, in his consti- 
tution. He had no endowments and inclinations such 
as vividly and pleasurably excite the soul to put forth 
its energies in what may gratify the less thinking, and 
secure the admiration of the less devout, while it 
leaves the things which are truly great and useful un- 
attempted. He had no help, therefore, from that 
warmth of feeling, that sensible glow of the spirits, 
partly animal and partly mental, that fervour and fire, 
to which painters and poets are so deeply indebted, and 
without which a thousand theorists and zealots in 
philosophy, and morals, and religion, would scarcely 
have been known to have had an intellectual existence, 
beyond what was needful to keep them out of * fire 
and water.' To this want of excitation from the pas- 
sions may be justly referred those very frequent and 
bitter upbraidings of himself, for his conceived inac- 
tivity, and his want of zeal and fervour. He has often 

been heard to say, * I think no man living ever' feit 
inertia to so great a degree as I do/ He was every 
way a man of principle, not of impulse. 

I need scarcely observe, as the intelligent reader will 
have anticipated the remark, that the leading charac* 
teristics of Dr. Carey were his decision, his patient, 
persevering constancy, and his simplicity. A more 
decisive character, as to the main objects to which his 
life was consecrated, the page of history has seldom 
recorded. There was in the constitution of Dr. Carey's 
mind nothing dubitating, no painful vacillation : not a 
fraction of his strength, therefore, ever seemed to be ap- 
plied to objects notdistinctly relevant to some selected, 
specific, and soverei gn purpose. He could clearly dis- 
cern and firmly grasp, and well define to others, what- 
ever fixed his attention and invited his pursuit; and 
could then follow it up with inexhaustible patience 
and untiring diligence. The force of his character in 
these respects was seen in the earliest developments of 
his mental powers. It was the case when at schoc^, 
under the tuition of his father, that he never failed to 
master whatever came before him, and would have 
time always to spare to help the younger and unsuccess- 
ful boys. My grandfather, who was singularly averse 
to the practice of eulogizing the members of his own 
family, never hesitated to bear testimony to the assi- 
duity, good conduct, and proficiency of his son Wil- 
liam. In his voluntary juvenile engagements, he was 
always in earnest, was persevering, and adventurous. 
His strong desire to collect subjects in